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number of elements in an event and in a sample space.

2. Apply the combination formula to solve probability problems.

MOTIVATION:

Juan, Paul, Jane and Sarah have volunteered to work on a committee that will

require only two members. The two members are selected at random. Ask: “How

many ways may this be done? (4C2 = 6). What is the probability that Juan and

Sarah will be chosen?” ( 1 )

6

In response to the first question, students should be asked to write the sample

space corresponding to the event. It should be apparent that order does not matter

and hence this is a combination problem.

For the second question, students should be asked the definition of probability;

n( E )

the formula P(E) = should be recalled.

n( S )

DEVELOPMENT:

Ask: “ What is the probability that all are Aces?” As in the previous problem,

n(S) should be obtained. In this case, this is 52C3 as again the order of drawing

the cards is not important. The concept that there are 4C3 combinations of

ways of drawing the three Aces is not as apparent.

It should be stressed that in order to obtain n(E) we are concerned only with

the four Ace subset of the deck. The three Aces must be selected from this

group of 4. From the definition of probability, P(E) = 4C3 = 4

22100

52C3

2. Next consider an urn that has 5 black and 3 white marbles. Four marbles are

chosen at random. Ask: “What is the probability that two are white and two

are black?”

As in the card problem, order is unimportant and therefore n(S) = 8C4.

Ask: “How many ways may the two white marbles be drawn? (3C2 ).

The black marbles?” (5C2). Recall here the fundamental counting principle to

obtain n(E) = 3C2 . 5C2. Then P(E) = 3C2.5C2. The class should compute

8C4

the result.

APPLICATIONS:

1. For the above problem, compute the probability that at least three are black if

five marbles are chosen at random. Ask: “How many ways could this

happen?” (3 black, 2 white or 4 black, 1 white or 5 black, 0 white). Call these

events A, B, C. Ask: “What is the formula for P(A!B!C)?” The fact that

these are mutually exclusive should be stressed and therefore:

P(A!B!C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) = 5C3.3C2 + 5C4.3C1 + 5C5.3C0

8C5 8C5 8C5

(An alternative solution could be to add the probabilities of 0 black,

5 white + 1 black, 4 white + 2 black, 3 white and subtract this sum from 1.)

2. Three cards are drawn at random from a standard deck of playing cards

without replacement. What is the probability that:

a) all 3 cards are Aces?

b) at least one of the cards is a picture card?

c) there is at most one heart?

d) each card has a different face value?

Twenty girls quality for the girls’ Baseball team. How many teams of 9 girls each

may be formed? For each team of 9 girls, in how many different ways can the 9

starting positions be assigned?

SUMMARY:

n( E )

(To compute probabilities, we could use P(E) = . To find n(E) and n(S)

n( S )

we determine if order is important. If it is not, we use combinations to obtain

both expressions.

2. What Mathematics Standards did we address today?

HOMEWORK:

1. Find the probability that if two cards are drawn at random from an ordinary

deck

a) both are sixes ( 4C2 )

52C2

b) both are red ( 26C2 )

52C2

c) one is red, the other black ( 26C1!26C1 )

52C2

52C2

2. An urn contains 3 red, 1 blue and 2 green marbles. Two are selected at

random. Find the probability:

a) both are red ( 3C2 )

6C2

b) one is red, the other green ( 3C1.2C1 )

6C2

c) both are blue (0)

selected. What is the probability that the committee:

a) Includes 2 women and 2 men?

b) Includes at most one woman?

c) Includes at least one woman?

d) Includes at least one man?

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