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CHAPTER IV

MODELLING
4.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the procedures for modelling of guyed monorail steel
bridge through the frame analysis. Generally, the modelling processes are as follow:
1) Geometry
2) Material properties
3) Member specifications
) !upports
") #oadings
$) %nalysis
&) 'esults
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4.2 Geometry
There are two methods of creating the structure data to model the guyed
bridge in !T%%( )ro 2**3 software, which are:
1) +sing the command file
2) +sing the graphical model generation mode or graphical user interface ,G+-)
as it is usually referred to.
The command file is a te.t file, which contains the data for the structure
being modelled. This file consists of simple /nglish language of commands. This
commands file may be created directly using the editor built into the program, or
using 0otepad or 1ord)ad as in Microsoft 1indows. This command file is also
automatically created behind the scenes when the structure is generated using the
Graphical +ser -nterface. The graphical model generation mode and the command
file are seamlessly integrated. Therefore, the graphical model generation mode and
the command file can be access at the same time. -n this study, the graphical user
interface ,G+-) method is choosing to model the guyed bridge.
The first step in model the bridge structure is generating the model geometry.
There are one 32( model are generate in this study. The structure type is to be
defined by choosing the space type structure. % space type structure is one where the
structure, the loading or both, causing the structure to deform in all 3 global a.is ,3,
4 and 5). !- units in meter as the length unit and 6ilo 0ewton as the force unit are
choose to start to generate the bridge model. 7owe8er, the units can be changed later
if necessary, at any stage of the model creation. -t can be shown in the 9igure .1.
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9igure .1: :reate new structure.
Generally, the structure geometry consists of ;oint numbers, their coordinates,
and member numbers, the member connecti8ity information, plate element members
and others. The <%dd =eam> option is selected earlier to facilitate adding beams to
create the structure. The directions of global a.is ,3, 4, 5) are presented in the icon
in the lower left hand corner of the drawing area, which shown in 9igure .2.
9igure .2: %dding beam to create the structure.
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% snap 0ode? =eam dialog bo. appears in the data area on the right side of
the screen. -n the study, the segment consisting a lot of nodes and members,
therefore, this dialog is not necessary to use. There are total of 3$$ nodes in this
guyed bridge model. The coordinates of the structure can be insert through the nodes
table on the right corner side of the screen. The 9igure .3 shows the of data in the
tables in 3, 4 and 5 a.is. %fter insert the nodes of the bridge structure, the nodes are
shown in the screen, which shown in 9igure ..
9igure .3: :oordinates can be insert through the nodes table.
9igure .: :reating the nodes of the bridge structure.
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Then, the beams are created by using the <Add Beam> button in the tools bar
to connect the nodes, which shown in 9igure .". -n the study, there are $11 beams
are created to generate the guyed bridge model. The complete models of the guyed
monorail steel bridge are shown in 9igure .$ in isometric 8iew, 9igure .& in front
8iew, 9igure .@ in side 8iew and 9igure .A in plan 8iew.
9igure .": <Add Beam> button in the tools bar.
9igure .$: -sometric 8iew of the guyed bridge model.
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<Add Beam>
9igure .&: 9ront 8iew of the guyed bridge model.
9igure .@: !ide 8iew of the guyed bridge model.
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9igure .A: )lan 8iew of the guyed bridge model.
4. M!teri!" #ro#ertie$
To assign cross section properties for the whole element in the guyed bridge
structure, clic6 on the )roperty page icon located on the !tructure Tools toolbar,
which shown in 9igure .1*. %lternati8e, one may go to the General? )roperty page
from the left side of the screen as shown in the 9igure .1*.
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9igure .1*: <Member Property> icon in the tool bar.
-n either case, the )roperties dialog bo. comes up, which is shown in 9igure
.11. To apply the material properties to the member, select the members and the
selected members will be highlighted. -t can be shown in 9igure .12.
9igure .11: Material properties dialog bo..
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Member Page
9igure .12: The selected beams are highlighted.
-n the dialog bo. that comes up, select the 'ectangular tab. 0otice that the
field called Material is presently on the chec6ed mode. The material properties of
concrete for elasticity, )oissonBs ratio, density will be assigned along with the cross
section name. The material property 8alues so assigned will be the program defaults.
Then, enter the cross section of the pylon and clic6 the assign button as shown in the
9igure .13 below. The 9igure .1 shows the material properties and cross section
that defined to the whole structure of the model.
9igure .13: %ssign the material properties and cross section for the pylons.
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9igure .1: The material properties that assigned to the whole bridge structure.
4.4 Mem%er $#eci&ic!tion
To assign the member specification for the selected element in the guyed
bridge structure, clic6 on the !pecification page icon located on the !tructure Tools
toolbar. 9or e.ample, the tendons of the bridge dec6 are selected and the 9igure .1"
shows the highlighted tendons element in the bridge structure. %lternati8e, one may
go to the General? !pecification page from the left side of the screen. These can be
shown in the 9igure .1$ below.
9igure .1": 7ighlighted tendons elements in the bridge model.
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9igure .1$: <Member Specification> icon in the toolbar.
-n either case, the Specifications dialog bo. comes up. The cable specification
is defined through the Beam button in the dialog bo.. -n the Beam Specs dialog bo.
that open, select the Cable tab. Then, enter a 8alue of 1*** 60 for the initial tension
force in the edit bo. to assign the tendonBs specification, as shown in 9igure .1$.
The same procedures are made to assign the member specification for the cables and
hanger.
9igure .1&: -nitial tension is assigned to the tendons.
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!pecification page
4.' (u##ort$
The suspension bridge structures are held rigid on the cable anchorages and
the foundations. To create the support, clic6 on the Support Page icon located in the
top toolbar as shown in 9igure .1& below. %lternati8ely, one may go to the General?
Support )age from the left side of the screen, as shown in 9igure .1&.
9igure .1@: <Support> icon in the toolbar.
!elect the nodes in the bottom of the pylons and nodes at the end of the cable
using the nodes cursor. Then, clic6 on the Create button in the Supports dialog bo..
-n the Create Support dialog bo. that opens, select the Fixed tab and clic6 on the
assign button as shown in 9igure .1@ below. This creates fi.ed type of support at the
foundation and anchorage, where all $ degrees of freedom are restrained. The figure
.1A shows the fi.ed support at the bridge model.
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Support Page
9igure .1A: :reate the fi.ed support to the model.
9igure .2*: 9i.ed support at the foundation and anchorage of the bridge model.
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9i.ed supports
4.) Lo!din*$
Three load cases are to be created for this structure. To create loads, clic6 on
the #oad )age icon located on the top toolbar. %lternati8ely, one may go to the
General? #oad page from the left side of the screen. -n the !et %cti8e )rimary #oad
:ase dialog bo. that comes up, enter (ead #oad as the title for load case 1, as shown
in 9igure .2*.
9igure .21: :reate #oad :ase 1 for the structure.
The #oads dialog bo. will appear. To generate and assign the self2weight load
type, clic6 on the self2weight button. -n the self2weight load dialog bo., specify the
direction of the dead load as y2direction, and enter the 9actor as C1.*, as shown in
9igure .21. The negati8e number signifies that the self2weight load acts opposite to
the positi8e direction of the global a.is along which it is applied. The self2weight
load is applicable to e8ery member of the structure, and cannot be applied on a
selected list of members. The same procedures are made to apply the li8e load and
wind load to the structure.
9igure .22: !elf2weight load is created to the bridge structure.
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%fter creating the load case 1, 2, and 3, the load combination is assigned to
apply the load combination to the structure. There are three load combinations for
each case of ultimate limit state and ser8iceability limit state. 9irst, clic6 on the
Combine button in the loads dialog bo. and create the combine load, as shown in
9igure .22. -n the (efine :ombination dialog bo., enter 1.*" in the 9actor edit bo.
and select the dead load cases from the left side list bo. and clic6 on the D button.
The load cases along with the combination factor appear in the right side list bo. as
shown in the 9igure .23. Then, select the li8e load with the 8alue of factor 1.. The
same procedures are made to assign the other load combination to the bridge model.
9igure .23: The new load combination is created.
9igure .2: The factor is applied to the load combination case.
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4.+ An!"y$i$
The analysis type that reEuired proceeding is a linear static type in the study.
To specify the analysis command, first go to Analysis? Print page from the left side
of the screen. Then, clic6 on the Analysis sub2page from the second row of pages. -n
the Analysis? Print commands dialog bo. that appears, ma6e sure that the Perform
Analysis tab is selected. Then, chec6 the !tatics :hec6 print option. 9inally, clic6 on
the Add button followed by the Close button, as shown in 9igure .2.
9igure .2": %ssign !tatics :hec6 analysis for the bridge model.
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4., Re$u"t$
(uring the analysis process, !T%%( )ro creates an output file. This file
pro8ides important information on whether the analysis was performed properly.
=esides, the program also offer e.tensi8e result 8erification and 8isualisation
facilities. These facilities are accessed from the )ost )rocessing Mode. The )ost
)rocessing mode is used to 8erify the analysis and design results and generate
reports. -n this study, the deflection profiles and the stress for the pylon structure are
obtained from the results of analysis. The results of the analysis will be discussed in
:hapter F.
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