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EXPT NO: 01 CONSTRUCTORS & DESTRUCTORS, COPY CONSTRUCTOR.

Aim:
To implement the concept of Constructor, destructor and copy constructor using C++
language

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program
Step 2: Create class with two constructors.
Step 3: Create the objects for the class with arguments.
Step 4: Invoke the member function using objects.
Step 5: Display the result.
Step 6: Stop the program

PROGRAM:

// 1. Constructor, Destructor, copy constructor
#include<iostream.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<conio.h>
class string
{
char*name;
int length;
public:
string()
{
length=0;
name=new char[length+1];
}
string(char*s)
{
length=strlen(s);
strcpy(name,s);
}
void display(void)
{
cout<<name<<"\n";
}
void join(string & a,string & b);
~string(){}
};
void string::join(string&a,string&b)
{
length=a.length+b.length;
delete name;
name=new char[length+1];
strcpy(name,a.name);
strcat(name,b.name);
}
int main()
{
clrscr();
char*first="joseph";
string name1(first),name2("louis"),name3("lagrange"),s1,s2;
s1.join(name1,name2);
s2.join(s1,name3);
cout<<"\n\t Dynamic memory Allocation, Constructor & Destructor\n";
name1.display();
name2.display();
name3.display();
s1.display();
s2.display();
getch();
return 0;
}


OUTPUT

Dynamic memory Allocation, Constructor & Destructor
joseph
louis
lagrange
josephlouis
josephlouislagrange
Null pointer assignment






Result:
Thus the C++ program for Constructor, destructor, and copy constructor was verified and
executed successfully.


EXPT NO: 02 FRIEND FUNCTION & FRIEND CLASS


Aim:
To implement the concept of Friend Function & Friend Class using C++ language

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program
Step 2: Create friend function and friend class.
Step 3: Create the objects for the class
Step 4: Invoke the Friend function using objects.
Step 5: Display the result.
Step 6: Stop the program

#include<iostream.h>
#include<string.h>
//class
class friends
{
//access specifies
private:
// initialization of member variables
int mVar1, mVar2;
//access specifier
public:
// member function
void test()
{
// assigning value to member variables
cout<<"Enter the first value :";
cin>>mVar1;
cout<<"Enter the second value :";
cin>>mVar2;
}
// Declare the two functions friends.
friend int addition(friends input);
friend int subtraction(friends input);
};
// Function one
int addition(friends input)
{
// addition operation performed
return int(input.mVar1 + input.mVar2);
}
// Function two
int subtraction(friends input)
{
// subtraction operation performed
return int(input.mVar2- input.mVar1);
}
// main function
int main( )
{
// object created
friends ofriend;
//accessing member function using the object
ofriend.test();
//print the output of addition
cout << "The addition value is:"<<addition(ofriend) << endl;
// print the output of subtraction
cout << "The subtraction value is:"<<subtraction(ofriend) << endl;
}

Output:

b) Program for friend class
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class Square;
class Rectangle
{
int width, height;

public:
int area ()
{
return ( width * height );
}

void convert ( Square a );
};

class Square
{

friend class Rectangle;
private:
int side;
public:
Square ( int a ) : side ( a ) {}
};

void Rectangle::convert ( Square a )
{
width = a.side;
height = a.side;
}

int main ()
{
Rectangle rect;
Square sqr ( 4 );
rect.convert ( sqr );
cout << rect.area();
return 0;
}

Output


Result
Thus the C++ program for Friend function and friend class was verified and executed
successfully.










EX. NO: 03 INHERITANCE

Aim:
To implement the concept of inheritance using C+ + language.

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program.
Step 2: Create a class student with two function get_number( )and put_number( ).
Step 3: Define the member functions.
Step 4: Create a class test inherited from class student which contain two member function
get_mark( )and put_mark( ).
Step 5: Create a class result inherited from class test which contain a member function display( ).
Step 6: Create a object with result class and invoke the function.
Step 7: Display the results.
Step 8: Stop the program.

PROGRAM:

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
class student
{
protected:
int roll_number;
public:
void get_number(int a)
{
roll_number=a;
}
void put_number(void)
{
cout<<"roll_number:"<<roll_number<<"\n";
}
};
class test:public student
{
protected:
float part1,part2;
public:
void get_marks(float x,float y)
{
part1=x;part2=y;
}
void put_marks(void)
{
cout<<"marks obtained:"<<"\n";
cout<<"part1="<<part1<<"\n";
cout<<"part2="<<part2<<"\n";
}
};
class sports
{
protected:
float score;
public:
void get_score(float s)
{
score=s;
}
void put_score(void)
{
cout<<"sports wt:"<<score<<"\n\n";
}
};
class result:public test,public sports
{
float total;
public:
void display(void);
};
void result::display(void)
{
total=part1+part2+score;
put_number();
put_marks();
put_score();
cout<<"total score:"<<total<<"\n";
}
int main()
{
clrscr();
result student_1;
cout<<"\n\t Multiple and Multilevel Inheritance \n";
student_1.get_number(1234);
student_1.get_marks(27.5,33.0);
student_1.get_score(6.0);
student_1.display();
getch();
return 0;
}

OUTPUT

Multiple and Multilevel Inheritance
roll_number:1234
marks obtained:
part1=27.5
part2=33
sports wt:6

total score:66.5



Result:
Thus the C++ program for multiple and multilevel inheritance was verified and executed
successfully.













EX. NO.: 04 POLYMORPHISM & FUNCTION OVERLOADING.

Aim:
To implement the concept of polymorphism, function overloading using C++
programming.

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program
Step 2: Declare three methods with different parameters with same name.
Step 3: Define three methods separately.
Step 4: Call the methods by giving values at run time.
Step 5: Return the result.
Step 6: Stop the program

PROGRAM:

// 1. Function Overloading
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
int volume(int);
double volume(double,int);
long volume(long,int,int);
int main()
{
clrscr();
cout<<"\n\t Function Overloading";
cout<<"\n Volume of a square ="<<volume(10);
cout<<"\n Volume of a circle ="<<volume(2.5,8);
cout<<"\n Volume of a rectangle ="<<volume(100l,75,15);
getch();
return 0;
}
int volume(int s)
{
return (s*s*s);
}
double volume(double r,int h)
{
return(3.14519*r*r*h);
}
long volume(long l,int b,int h)
{
return (l*b*h);
}





OUTPUT

Function Overloading
Volume of a square =1000
Volume of a circle =157.2595
Volume of a rectangle =112500


























Result:
Thus the C++ program for function overloading was verified and executed successfully.

EXPT NO: 05 VIRTUAL FUNCTIONS

Aim:
To implement the concept Virtual function using C++ programming.

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program
Step 2: Declare two methods.
Step 3: Define one method as Virtual
Step 4: Call the methods by giving values at run time.
Step 5: Return the result.
Step 6: Stop the program



PROGRAM:


#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
// abstract base class
class Shape
{
protected: // attribute section
int mWidth;
int mHeight;
int mResult;
public: // behavior section
void setVar(int Width,int Height)
{
mWidth = Width;
mHeight= Height;
}
virtual void area()
{
// virtual function
cout<< "shape drawn";
}

int getresult()
{
return mResult;
}
};
// add class inherits from base class
class rectangle: public Shape
{

public:
void area()
{
mResult = mWidth*mHeight;
}
};

//sub class inherit base class
class triangle: public Shape
{

public:
void area()
{
mResult= ( mWidth*mHeight)/2;
}
};

int main()
{
int Length,Breath;
//pointer variable declaration of type base class
Shape* oShape;
//create object1 for addition process
rectangle oRectangle;
//create object2 for subtraction process
triangle oTriangle;
cout << "\nEnter the width and height: ";

while (cin >> Length >> Breath)
{
oShape = &oRectangle;
oShape->setVar( Length , Breath );
//area of rectangle process, even though call is on pointer to base(shape)!
oShape->area();
cout << "\nArea of rectangle = " << oShape->getresult();
oShape = &oTriangle;
oShape->setVar( Length , Breath );
//triangle process, even though call is on pointer to base!
oShape->area();
cout << "\nArea of triangle = " << oShape->getresult() << endl;

}
return 0;
}


Output












Result:
Thus the C++ program for operator overloading was verified and executed successfully.














EXPT NO: 06 OVERLOADING UNARY AND BINARY OPERATOR USING MEMBER
FUNCTION AND NON-MEMBER FUNCTION

Aim:

To implement Operator Overloading using member function and non member function in
C++

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program.
Step 2: Create a class with operator function, other function and variable.
Step 3: Define the member functions.
Step 4: Create the objects for the class.
Step 5: Invoke the member function using object.
Step 6: Display the output.
Step 7: Stop the program.

PROGRAM:

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
class ComplexOperations
{
// Access specifies
private:
// Declaration of member variables
float mRealnumber;
float mImaginarynumber;
public:
ComplexOperations()
{
mRealnumber = mImaginarynumber = 0.0;
}
ComplexOperations ( int real, int imaginary )
{
mRealnumber = real;
mImaginarynumber = imaginary;
}
ComplexOperations ( double real, double imaginary )
{
mRealnumber = real;
mImaginarynumber = imaginary;
}
friend istream & operator >> ( istream& , ComplexOperations& );
friend ostream & operator << ( ostream& , ComplexOperations& );
ComplexOperations operator+ ( ComplexOperations );
ComplexOperations operator- ( ComplexOperations );
ComplexOperations operator* ( ComplexOperations );
ComplexOperations operator/ ( ComplexOperations );
};
istream& operator >> ( istream& input , ComplexOperations& oComplex )
{
cout << "Real Part:";
input >> oComplex.mRealnumber;
cout << "Imaginary Part:";
input >> oComplex.mImaginarynumber;
return input;
}

ostream& operator << ( ostream& output , ComplexOperations& oComplex )// Defining non-
member function
{
if ( oComplex.mImaginarynumber < 0 )
output << oComplex.mRealnumber << oComplex.mImaginarynumber << "i";
else
output << oComplex.mRealnumber << "+" << oComplex.mImaginarynumber << "i";
return output;
}
// Defining member function
ComplexOperations ComplexOperations::operator+ ( ComplexOperations oComplex)
{
ComplexOperations oAddition;
oAddition.mRealnumber = mRealnumber + oComplex.mRealnumber;
oAddition.mImaginarynumber = mImaginarynumber + oComplex.mImaginarynumber;
return oAddition;
}
ComplexOperations ComplexOperations::operator-(ComplexOperations oComplex
{
ComplexOperations oSubtraction;
oSubtraction.mRealnumber = mRealnumber - oComplex.mRealnumber;
oSubtraction.mImaginarynumber =mImaginarynumber- oComplex.mImaginarynumber;
return oSubtraction;
}
ComplexOperations ComplexOperations::operator*(ComplexOperations oComplex
{
ComplexOperations oMulti;
oMulti.mRealnumber = mRealnumber * oComplex.mRealnumber - mImaginarynumber *
oComplex.mImaginarynumber;
oMulti.mImaginarynumber = mRealnumber * oComplex.mImaginarynumber +
mImaginarynumber * oComplex.mRealnumber;
return oMulti;
}
ComplexOperations ComplexOperations::operator/ ( ComplexOperations oComplex )
{
ComplexOperations oDivision;
float result_of_complexoperations;
result_of_complexoperations = oComplex.mRealnumber * oComplex.mRealnumber +
oComplex.mImaginarynumber * oComplex.mImaginarynumber;
oDivision.mRealnumber = ( mRealnumber * oComplex.mRealnumber + mImaginarynumber
* oComplex.mImaginarynumber )/result_of_complexoperations;
oDivision.mImaginarynumber = ( mImaginarynumber * oComplex.mRealnumber -
mRealnumber * oComplex.mImaginarynumber )/result_of_complexoperations;
return oDivision;
}
int main()
{
ComplexOperations oNumberOne, oNumberTwo, oNumberThree;
cout << "complex number 1: ";
cin >> oNumberOne;
cout << "complex number 2: ";
cin >> oNumberTwo;
cout << "complex numbers are:";
cout << "1st:" << oNumberOne;
cout << "\n2nd:" << oNumberTwo;
oNumberThree = oNumberOne + oNumberTwo;
cout << "\nAddition is:" << oNumberThree;
oNumberThree = oNumberOne - oNumberTwo
cout << "\nSubtraction is:" << oNumberThree;
oNumberThree = oNumberOne * oNumberTwo;
cout << "\n Multiplication is:" << oNumberThree;
oNumberThree = oNumberOne / oNumberTwo
cout << "\n Division is:" << oNumberThree;
return 0;
}
Output



Result:
Thus the C++ program for operator overloading was verified and executed successfully.












EXPT NO: 07 CLASS AND FUNCTION TEMPLATES

a) Class Template

Aim:
To write a C++ program for creating class template.

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program
Step 2: Create a template vector using template <class T>.
Step 3: Define the template.
Step 4: Create the object using template vector.
Step 5: Do the operations.
Step 6: Display the result.
Step 7: Stop the program

PROGRAM:

// Class Template
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
const size=3;
template<class T>
class vector
{
T*V;
public:
vector()
{
V=new T[size];
for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
V[i]=0;
}
vector(T*a)
{
for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
V[i]=a[i];
}
T operator*(vector&y)
{
T sum=0;
for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
sum+=this->V[i]*y.V[i];
return sum;
}
};
int main()
{
clrscr();
float X[3]={1.1,2.2,3.3};
float Y[3]={4.4,5.5,6.6};
vector<float>V1;
vector<float>V2;
V1=X;
V2=Y;
float R = V1*V2;
cout<<"\n\n\n\t Class template \n";
cout<<"R="<<R<<"\n";
getch();
return 0;
}


OUTPUT

Class template
R=38.720001







Result:
Thus the C++ program for creating class template was verified and executed successfully.

b) Function Template

Aim:
To write a C++ program for creating function template.

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program
Step 2: Define the function template.
Step 3: Do the operations.
Step 4: Display the result.
Step 5: Stop the program

/ Function Template
Displaying greatest value using function template

#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
// Function template declaration
template <typename T>
inline T const& Max (T const& number_one, T const& number_two)
{
// Returns greatest number
return number_one < number_two ? number_two : number_one;
}
int main ()
{
// Integer variables declaration
int int_number_one, int_number_two;
// Double variables declaration
double double_number_one, double_number_two;
// String variables declaration
string string_word_one, string_word_two;
cout << "Enter integer values";
cin >> int_number_one >> int_number_two;
// Function call to template
cout << "Integer Result:" << Max(int_number_one, int_number_two);
cout << "Enter double values";
cin >> double_number_one >> double_number_two;
cout << "Double Result:" << Max(double_number_one, double_number_two);
cout << "Enter string values";
cin >> string_word_one >> string_word_two;
cout << "String Result:" << Max(string_word_one, string_word_two);
return 0;
}


Output:












EXPT NO: 08 EXCEPTION HANDLING


Aim:
To write a C++ program for Exception handling with multiple catch statements.

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program
Step 2: Cerate a function test with conditions in the try block.
Step 3: Catch the values which is troughed from the try block.
Step 4: Display the messages from the block which is catched.
Step 5: Stop the program.


PROGRAM:

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int a,b,c;
float d;
clrscr();
cout<<"Enter the value of a:";
cin>>a;
cout<<"Enter the value of b:";
cin>>b;
cout<<"Enter the value of c:";
cin>>c;

try
{
if((a-b)!=0)
{
d=c/(a-b);
cout<<"Result is:"<<d;
}
else
{
throw(a-b);
}
}

catch(int i)
{
cout<<"Answer is infinite because a-b is:"<<i;
}

getch();
}





OUTPUT:

Enter the value of a: 5
Enter the value of b: 4
Enter the value of a: 2
Result is: 2

Enter the value of a: 5
Enter the value of b: 5
Enter the value of a: 2
Answer is infinite because a-b is: 0


Result:
Thus the C++ program for exception handling with multiple catch statements was
verified and executed successfully.










EXPT NO: 09 STL CONCEPTS

Aim:
To implement concept STL using C++ program.

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program.
Step 2: Include the standard template library of list in the header file.
Step 3: Using the list STL display the list values, add the element in the list, remove the element
from the list, merge two lists, sort and reverse the list
Step 4: Display values after each operation.
Step 5: Stop the program.

PROGRAM:


#include <iostream.h>
#include <vector.h>
#include <string.h>

void main()
{
vector<string> SS;

SS.push_back("The number is 10");
SS.push_back("The number is 20");
SS.push_back("The number is 30");
cout << "Loop by index:" << endl;
int ii;
for(ii=0; ii < SS.size(); ii++)
{
cout << SS[ii] << endl;
}

cout << endl << "Constant Iterator:" << endl;

vector<string>::const_iterator cii;
for(cii=SS.begin(); cii!=SS.end(); cii++)
{
cout << *cii << endl;
}

cout << endl << "Reverse Iterator:" << endl;

vector<string>::reverse_iterator rii;
for(rii=SS.rbegin(); rii!=SS.rend(); ++rii)
{
cout << *rii << endl;
}
cout << endl << "Sample Output:" << endl;
cout << SS.size() << endl;
cout << SS[2] << endl;

swap(SS[0], SS[2]);
cout << SS[2] << endl;
}



OUTPUT:

Loop by index:
The number is 10
The number is 20
The number is 30

Constant Iterator:
The number is 10
The number is 20
The number is 30

Reverse Iterator:
The number is 30
The number is 20
The number is 10

Sample Output:
3
The number is 30
The number is 10



Result:
Thus the C++ program for using STL was verified and executed successfully.


EXPT NO: 10 FILESTREAM CONCEPTS


Aim:
To concept of file stream concept using C++

Algorithm:

Step 1: Start the program.
Step 2: Include the fstream in the header file.
Step 3: perform all function in file stream
Step 4: Display values after each operation.
Step 5: Stop the program.

PROGRAM:

a) Program to write a text in the file
#include<iostream>
#include<fstream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
// Create object to display output
ofstream oFileoutput;
// Open the text file in write mode
oFileoutput.open ( "out.txt" );
//String declaration
char char_string[300] = "Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its students.
Berlioz";
//Display the string
oFileoutput << char_string;
//Close the text file in write mode
oFileoutput.close();
return 0;
}
Output:





b) Program to read data from text file and display it
#include<iostream>
#include<fstream>
#include<conio.h>

using namespace std;
int main()
{
// Create object to get input values
ifstream oFileinput;
// Open the text file in read mode
oFileinput.open ( "out.txt" );
// Character declaration
char char_text;
/* Read the character until the file reach end of file*/
while ( !oFileinput.eof() )
{
oFileinput.get ( char_text );
//Display the text
cout << char_text;
}
//Close the text file opened in read mode
oFileinput.close();
return 0;
}
Output:



c) Program to count number of characters from out.txt.
#include<iostream>
#include<fstream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
// Create object to get input values
ifstream oFileinput;
// Open the text file in read mode
oFileinput.open ( "out.txt" );
// Character declaration
char char_text;
//Integer variable declaration
int int_count = 0;
/* Read the character until the file reach end of file*/
while ( !oFileinput.eof() )
{
// Read characters from the text file
oFileinput.get ( char_text );
// Increment the count values
int_count++;
}
// Display number of characters in text file
cout << "Number of characters in file is " << int_count;
//Close the text file opened in read mode
oFileinput.close();
return 0;
}
Output:


d) Program to count number of words from out.txt
#include<iostream>
#include<fstream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
// Create object to read input values
ifstream oFileinput;
// Open the text file in read mode
oFileinput.open ( "out.txt" );
// Character declaration
char char_word[30];
//Integer variable declaration
int int_count = 0;
/* Read the word until the file reach end of file*/

while ( !oFileinput.eof() )
{
//Read the word from the text file
oFileinput >> char_word;
// Increment the count values
int_count++;
}
// Display number of words in text file
cout << "Number of words in file is " << int_count;
//Close the text file opened in read mode
oFileinput.close();
return 0;
}
Output:


e) Program to count number of lines in the file
#include<iostream>
#include<fstream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
// Create object to read input values
ifstream oFileinput;
// Open the text file in read mode
oFileinput.open ( "out.txt" );
// Character declaration
char char_word[30];
// Integer variable declaration
int int_count = 0;
/* Read the word until the file reach end of file*/
while ( !oFileinput.eof() )
{
// Read the word from the text file
oFileinput >> char_word;
// Increment the count values
int_count++;
}
// Display number of words in text file
cout << "Number of words in file is " << int_count;
// Close the text file opened in read mode
oFileinput.close();
return 0;
}
Output


f) Program to copy contents of one file to another file.
#include<iostream>
#include<fstream>
#include<conio.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
// Create object to read input values
ifstream oFileinput;
// Open the text file in read mode
oFileinput.open ( "out.txt" );
// Create object to display output values
ofstream oFileoutput;
// Open the text file in write mode
oFileoutput.open ( "sample.txt" );
// Character declaration
char char_text;
/* Read the character until the file reach end of file*/

while ( !oFileinput.eof() )
{
// Read characters from the "out.txt"
oFileinput.get ( char_text );
// Write characters to "sample.txt"
oFileoutput << char_text;
}
//Close the text file opened in read mode
oFileinput.close();
return 0;
}
Output:




g) Binary file(Write mode)
#include<iostream>
#include<fstream>
using namespace std;
struct StudentDetails
{
int RollNo;
char Name[30];
char Address[40];

};

void ReadStudentDetails ( StudentDetails& TempStud )
{
cout << "\n Enter Roll No:";
cin >> TempStud.RollNo;
cout << "\n Enter Name:";
cin >> TempStud.Name;
cout << "\n Enter Address:";
cin >> TempStud.Address;
cout << "\n";
}
int main()
{
struct StudentDetails BE_Student_Output;
ofstream BE_StudFile_Output;
BE_StudFile_Output.open ( "BE.dat", ios::out | ios::binary | ios::trunc );
if ( !BE_StudFile_Output.is_open() )
{
cout << "File cannot be opened \n";
}
char Continue = 'Y';
do
{
ReadStudentDetails ( BE_Student_Output );
BE_StudFile_Output.write ( ( char* ) &BE_Student_Output, sizeof ( struct StudentDetails )
);
if ( BE_StudFile_Output.fail() )
{
cout << "file write failed";
}

else
{
cout << "Do you want to continue Y/N:";
cin >> Continue;
}
}
while ( Continue != 'N' );
BE_StudFile_Output.close();
return 0;
}

Output


h) Binary file(Read mode)
#include<iostream>
#include<fstream>
using namespace std;

// Declaring the structure variables
struct StudentDetails
{
int RollNo;
char Name[30];
char Address[40];

};
// function declaration
void WriteStudentDetails ( StudentDetails TempStud )
{
cout << "\n The Roll No:";
cout << TempStud.RollNo;
cout << "\n The Name:";
cout << TempStud.Name;
cout << "\n The Address:";
cout << TempStud.Address;
cout << "\n";

}

// Main function
int main()
{
struct StudentDetails BE_Student_Input;
ifstream BE_StudFile_Input ( "BE.dat", ios::out | ios::binary );
while ( !BE_StudFile_Input.eof() )
{
BE_StudFile_Input.read ( ( char* ) &BE_Student_Input, sizeof ( struct StudentDetails ) );
if ( BE_StudFile_Input.fail() )
{
break;
}

WriteStudentDetails ( BE_Student_Input );
}
BE_StudFile_Input.close();
return 0;
}
Output:



i) Reading from and writing the personal details into the file using getline function
#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main ()
{
char Personal_data[100];

// open a file in write mode.
ofstream oFileoutput;
oFileoutput.open ( "personalfile.dat" );
cout << "Writing to the file" << endl;
cout << "Enter your name: ";
cin.getline ( Personal_data, 100 );
// write input data into the file.
oFileoutput << Personal_data << endl;
cout << "Enter your age: ";
cin >> Personal_data;
cin.ignore();
// again write input data into the file.
oFileoutput << Personal_data << endl;
// close the opened file.
oFileoutput.close();
// open a file in read mode.
ifstream oFileinput;
oFileinput.open ( "personalfile.dat" );
cout << "Reading from the file" << endl;
oFileinput >> Personal_data;
// write the data at the screen.
cout << Personal_data << endl;

// again read the data from the file and display it.
oFileinput >> Personal_data;
cout << Personal_data << endl;
// close the opened file.
oFileinput.close();
return 0;
}
Output



j) Reading from and writing into the file
#include<fstream.>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<ctype.h>
#include<string>
#include<iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
char txt_file_data,file_ASCII_result;
char char_filename[10];
ofstream oFileoutput;
cout<<"Enter File Name:";
cin>>char_filename;
oFileoutput.open(char_filename);
//write contents to file
cout<<"Enter the text(Enter # at end)\n";
while ((txt_file_data=getchar())!='#')
{
file_ASCII_result=txt_file_data-32;
oFileoutput<<file_ASCII_result;
}
oFileoutput.close();
//read the contents of file
ifstream oFileintput(char_filename);
cout<<"\n\n\t\tThe File contains\n\n";
while (oFileintput.eof()==0)
{
oFileintput.get(txt_file_data);
cout<<txt_file_data;
}}
Output