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7/10/2014 1 Hareesha N G, Asst.

Prof, DSCE, Bengaluru


Special molding Processes
A. Sand moulds
1. Green sand mould
2. Dry sand mould
3. Core sand mould
4. Carbon dioxide mould (CO2 mould)
5. Shell mould
6. Investment mould
7. Sweep mould
8. Full mould
B. Metal moulds
9. Gravity die casting or Permanent mould casting
10. Pressure die casting
11. Continuous casting
12. Centrifugal casting
13. Squeeze casting
14. Thixocasting process
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1. GREEN SAND MOULDS
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1. GREEN SAND MOULDS
Procedure involved in making green sand moulds
Suitable proportions of silica sand (85 - 92 %), bentonite binder (6-12 %), water
(3-5 %) and additives are mixed together to prepare the green sand mixture.
The pattern is placed on a flat surface with the drag box enclosing it as shown in
figure (a). Parting sand is sprinkled on the pattern surface to avoid green sand
mixture sticking to the pattern.
The drag box is filled with green sand mixture and rammed manually till its top
surface. Refer figure (b). The drag box is now inverted so that the pattern faces
the top as shown in figure (c). Parting sand is sprinkled over the mould surface
of the drag box.
The cope box is placed on top of the drag box and the sprue and riser pin are
placed in suitable locations. The green sand mixture is rammed to the level of
cope box as shown in figure (d).
The sprue and the riser are removed from the mould. The cope box is lifted and
placed aside, and the pattern in the drag box is withdrawn by knocking it
carefully so as to avoid damage to the mould. Gates are cut using hand tools to
provide passage for the flow of molten metal. Refer figure (e) and (f).
The mould cavity is cleaned and finished. Cores, if any, are placed in the mould
to obtain a hollow cavity in the casting. Refer figure (g).
The cope is now placed on the drag box and both are aligned with the help of
pins. Vent holes are made to allow the free escape of gases from the mould
during pouring. The mould is made ready for pouring. Refer figure (h).
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Advantages
Green sand molding is adaptable to machine molding.
No mold baking or drying is required.
There is less mold distortion than in dry sand molding.
Time and cost associated with mold baking or drying is eliminated.
Green sand molds having smaller depths permit the escape of mold gases without
any difficulty.
In green sand molding, flasks are ready for reuse in minimum amount of time.
Being soft, green sand molds do not restrict the free contraction of the solidifying
molten metal.
Green sand molding provides good dimensional accuracy across the parting line.
Disadvantages
Green sand molds possess lower strengths.
They are less permeable.
There are more chances of defects (like blow holes etc.) occurring in castings made by
green sand molding.
In green sand molding, sand control is more critical than in dry sand molding.
Mold erosion is very common especially in the production of large sized castings.
Surface finish deteriorates as the weight of the casting increases.
Dimensional accuracy of the castings decreases as their weight increases.
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2. DRY MOLDING SAND
Dry molding sand differs from the green molding sand in the sense
that it contains binders (like clay, bentonite,. molasses etc.) which
harden when the mold is heated and dried.
A typical dry sand mixture (for making non-ferrous castings) consists
of floor sand 40%, new silica sand 30%, coal dust 20% and bentonite
10%.
A dry sand mold is prepared in the same manner as a green sand
mold; however, it is baked at 300 to 700F for 8 to 48 hours
depending upon binders used and the amount of sand surface to be
dried.
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Advantages
Dry sand molds possess high strength.
They are more permeable as compared to green sand molds.
Castings produced from dry sand molds possess clean and smooth surfaces.
As compared to green sand molding, dry sand molding turns out castings with less
defects.
Dry sand molding imparts better overall dimensional accuracy to the molds and
castings as compared to green sand molding.
Disadvantages
Dry sand molding involves more labour and consumes more time in completing
the mold. Mold baking is an extra work as compared to that required in green
sand molding.
Dry sand molding is more expensive as compared to green sand molding.
Dry sand molding involves chances of hot tears occurring in the castings.
Because of baking, a mold may distort.
Dry sand molding involves a longer processing cycle as compared to green sand
molding.
Dry sand molding gives a slower rate of production as compared to green sand
molding.
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4. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO
2
)

MOLDING
Carbon dioxide moulding also known as
sodium silicate process is one of the widely
used process for preparing moulds and
cores.
In this process, sodium silicate is used as the
binder. But sodium silicate activates or tend
to bind the sand particles only in the
presence of carbon dioxide gas. For this
reason, the process is commonly known as
C0
2
process.

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Steps involved in making carbon dioxide mould
Suitable proportions of silica sand and sodium silicate binder (3-5% based on
sand weight) are mixed together to prepare the sand mixture.
Additives like aluminum oxide, molasses etc., are added to impart favorable
properties and to improve collapsibility of the sand.
The pattern is placed on a flat surface with the drag box enclosing it. Parting sand
is sprinkled on the pattern surface to avoid sand mixture sticking to the pattern.
The drag box is filled with the sand mixture and rammed manually till its top
surface. Rest of the operations like placing sprue and riser pin and ramming the
cope box are similar to that of green sand moulding process.
Figure (a) shows the assembled cope and drag box with vent holes. At this stage,
the carbon dioxide gas is passed through the vent holes for a few seconds. Refer
figure (b).
Sodium silicate reacts with carbon dioxide gas to form silica gel that binds the
sand particles together. The chemical reaction is given by:
Na
2
Si03 + C0
2
-> Na
2
C0
3
+ Si0
2
(Sodium Silicate) (silica gel)
The sprue, riser and the pattern are withdrawn from the mould, and gates are
cut in the usual manner. The mould cavity is finished and made ready for
pouring. Refer figure (c).
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Advantages
Instantaneous strength development. The development of strength takes place
immediately after carbon dioxide gassing is completed.
Since the process uses relatively safe carbon dioxide gas, it does not present
sand disposal problems or any odour while mixing and pouring. Hence, the
process is safe to human operators.
Very little gas evolution during pouring of molten metal.
Disadvantages
Poor collapsibility of moulds is a major disadvantage of this process. Although
some additives are used to improve this property for ferrous metal castings,
these additives cannot be used for non-ferrous applications.
The sand mixture has the tendency to stick to the pattern and has relatively
poor flowability.
There is a significant loss in the strength and hardness of moulds which have
been stored for extended periods of time.
Over gassing and under gassing adversely affects the properties of cured sand.
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Fig: 5. SHELL MOULDING steps involved
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5. SHELL MOULDING
Shell moulding is an efficient and
economical method for producing steel
castings.
The process was developed by Herr
Croning in Germany during World war-II
and is sometimes referred to as the
Croning shell process.

Procedure involved in making shell mould
a. A metallic pattern having the shape of
the desired casting is made in one half
from carbon steel material. Pouring
element is provided in the pattern itself.
Refer figure (a).
b. The metallic pattern is heated in an oven to a suitable temperature between
180 - 250C. The pattern is taken out from the oven and sprayed with a
solution of a lubricating agent viz., silicone oil or spirit to prevent the shell
(formed in later stages) from sticking to the pattern.
c. The pattern is inverted and is placed over a box as shown in figure 3.3(b). The
box contains a mixture of dry silica sand or zircon sand and a resin binder (5%
based on sand weight).
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d. The box is now inverted so that the
resin-sand mixture falls on the heated
face of the metallic pattern. The resin-
sand mixture gets heated up, softens
and sticks to the surface of the pattern.
Refer figure (c).
e. After a few seconds, the box is again
inverted to its initial position so that the
lose resin-sand mixture falls down
leaving behind a thin layer of shell on
the pattern face. Refer figure (d).
f. The pattern along with the shell is
removed from the box and placed in an
oven for a few minutes which further
hardens the shell and makes it rigid. The
shell is then stripped from the pattern
with the help of ejector pins that are
provided on the pattern. Refer figure (e).
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g. Another shell half is prepared in the
similar manner and both the shells are
assembled, together with the help of
bolts, clips or glues to form a mould.
The assembled part is then placed in a
box with suitable backing sand to
receive the molten metal. Refer figure
(f).
h. After the casting solidifies, it is
removed from the mould, cleaned and
finished to obtain the desired shape.

Advantages
Better surface finish and dimensional tolerances.
Reduced machining.
Requires less foundry space.
Semi-skilled operators can handle the process easily.
Shells can be stored for extended periods of time.
Disadvantages
Initially the metallic pattern has to be cast to the desired shape, size and finish.
Size and weight range of castings is limited.
Process generates noxious fumes.
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6. INVESTMENT MOULD
Investment mould also called as 'Precision casting' or 'Lost
wax process' is an ancient method of casting complex
shapes like impellers, turbine blades and other airplane
parts that are difficult to produce by other manufacturing
techniques.
The various steps involved in this process are:
Step 1 Die and Pattern making
A wax pattern is prepared by injecting liquid wax into a pre-
fabricated die having the same geometry of the cavity of
the desired cast part. Refer figure.1.
Several such patterns are produced in the similar manner
and then attached to a wax gate and sprue by means of
heated tools or melted wax to form a 'tree' as shown in
figure 2.

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Step 2 Pre-coating wax patterns
The tree is coated by dipping into refractory slurry which is a
mixture of finely ground silica flour suspended in ethyl silicate
solution (binder).
The coated tree is sprinkled with silica sand and allowed to
dry. Refer figure 3 and 4.
Step 3 Investment
The pre-coated tree is coated again (referred as 'investment')
by dipping in a more viscous slurry made of refractory flour
(fused silica, alumina etc.) and liquid binders (colloidal silica,
sodium silicate etc.) and dusted with refractory sand.
The process of dipping and dusting is repeated until a solid
shell of desired thickness (about 6 - 10 mm) is achieved.

Note: The first coating is composed of very fine particles
that produce a good surface finish, whereas the second
coating which is referred as 'Investment' is coarser so as
to build up the shell of desired thickness.

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Step 4 De-waxing '
The tree is placed in an inverted position and heated in a oven to about 300F. The wax
melts and drops down leaving a mould cavity that will be filled later by the molten metal.
Refer figure 5.
Step 5 Reheating the mould
The mould is heated to about 1000 - 2000F (550-1100C) to remove any residues of wax
and at the same time to harden the binder.
Step 6 Melting and Pouring
The mould is placed in a flask supported with a backing material and the liquid metal of
the desired composition is poured under gravity or by using air pressure depending on
the requirement. Refer figure.6.
After the metal cools and solidifies, the investment is broken by using chisels or hammer
and then the casting is cut from the gating
systems, cleaned and finished. Refer figure.7.
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Advantages
Gives good surface finish and dimensional tolerances to castings
Eliminates machining of cast parts.
Wax can be reused.
Disadvantages
Process is expensive.
Size and weight range of castings is limited
In some cases, it is difficult to separate the refractory (investment) from
the casting.
Requires more processing steps.
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7. SWEEP MOULD
In sweep moulding, the cavity is formed as the pattern sweeps the sand all
around the circumference.
A thin wooden piece is attached to a spindle at one edge while the other
edge has a contour depending on the desired shape of the casting.
The spindle is placed at the center of the mould and rotated so that the
wooden piece sweeps in the mould box generating the shape of the
required casting.
Green sand, loam sand or sodium silicate sand can be used symmetrical
shapes.
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8. FULL-MOULD PROCESS
Full-mould casting or 'cavity less' casting is a technique
similar to investment casting, but, instead of wax,
polystyrene foam is used as pattern.
The pattern can be hand cut or machined from pieces of
foamed polystyrene.
Gating and risering systems are made from the foamed
material in single or multiple pieces and then assembled to
the pattern with the help of paste or glue. Refer figure (a).
The entire pattern assembly is dipped into a water based
ceramic material, dried and positioned in a one piece sand
mould.
Green sand or no-bake sand is preferred for moulding. Refer
figure (b).
When the molten metal comes in contact with the foamed
pattern, the foam vaporizes (melts and burns) allowing the
molten metal to occupy and fill the cavity.
The amount of gas produced by the foam is so small that it
can easily escape through the sand.
Pump housing, manifolds and auto-brake components are a
few among the various products that can be made from this
process.
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Advantages
Withdrawal of pattern requires some form of design modifications
like providing draft allowance, loose pieces etc. Such complex
processes are eliminated in full-mould process through the use of
patterns that can be removed by melting and vaporization.
No limit to size and shape of castings.
Good surface finish.
Disadvantages
High cost of patterns.
More care should be taken during moulding.
Patterns being light and low in strength can be easily distorted or
damaged.

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Permanent Mold Casting











Steps in permanent mold casting: (1) mold is preheated and coated
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Permanent Mold Casting











Steps in permanent mold casting: (2) cores (if used) are inserted
and mold is closed, (3) molten metal is poured into the mold,
where it solidifies.
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9. GRAVITY DIE CASTING
Gravity die casting or permanent mould casting is a casting process in which the
molten metal is poured into a metallic mould called die under the influence of
gravity. Hence the name 'gravity die casting'.
The mould or die is usually made from cast iron, tool steel, graphite, copper or
aluminum

alloys and the choice for a particular material depends on the type of
metal to be cast.
Gating and risering systems are machined either in one or both the mould
halves.
Figure shows a permanent mould made in two halves which resembles a book.
The mould halves are hinged and can be clamped together to close the mould.
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Steps involved in the process
The mould is cleaned using wire brush or compressed air to remove dust and other
particles from it.
It is preheated to a temperature of 200 - 280C by gas or oil flame and then the
surface is sprayed with a lubricant.
The lubricant helps to control the temperature of the die thereby increasing its life
and also assist in easy removal of solidified casting.
The mould is closed tightly and the liquid metal of the desired composition is poured
into the mould under gravity.
After the metal cools and solidifies, the mould is opened and the casting is removed.
Gating and risering systems are separated from the cast part.
The mould is sprayed with lubricant and closed for next casting. The mould need not
be preheated since the heat in the previous cast is sufficient to maintain the
temperature.
Advantages
Good surface finish and close dimensional tolerances can be achieved.
Suitable for mass production.
Occupies less floor space.
Thin sections can be easily cast.
Eliminates skilled operators.
Disadvantages
Initial cost for manufacturing moulds (dies) is high.
Not suitable for steel and high melting point metals/alloys.
Un-economical for small productions.
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10. PRESSURE DIE CASTING
Pressure die casting often called 'Die casting' is a casting process in which the
molten metal is injected into a 'die' under high pressures.
The metal being cast must have a low melting point than the die material which is
usually made from steel and other alloys.
Hence, this process is best suitable for casting non-ferrous materials, although a
few ferrous materials can be cast.
The two basic methods of die casting include:
a) Hot chamber die casting process
b) Cold chamber die casting process.
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10.a. Hot chamber die casting process
Figure shows a 'goose neck' type of hot chamber die casting machine.
In this process, the dies are made in two halves: one half called the fixed
die or 'stationary die while the other half called 'movable die.
The dies are aligned in positions by means of ejector pins which also help
to eject the solidified casting from the dies.
Figure: Hot chamber die casting (Submerged plunger type) 7/10/2014 Hareesha N G, Asst. Prof, DSCE, Bengaluru 27
Steps involved in the process
A pivoted cast iron goose neck is submerged in a reservoir of molten metal
where the metal enters and fills the goose neck by gravity.
The goose neck is raised with the help of a link and then the neck part is
positioned in the sprue of the fixed part of the die.
Compressed air is then blown from the top which forces the liquid metal into the
die cavity.
When the solidification is about to complete, the supply of compressed air is
stopped and the goose neck is lowered back to receive the molten metal for the
next cycle. In the meantime, the movable die half opens by means of ejector pins
forcing the casting from the die cavity.
The die halves close to receive the molten metal for the next casting.

Hot chamber process is used for casting metals
like zinc, tin, magnesium and lead based alloys.
Figure: Hot chamber die casting (Goose neck
or air injection type)
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10.b: Cold chamber Die Casting Process
In hot chamber process, the charging unit (goose neck) rests in the melting
chamber, whereas in cold chamber process, the melting chamber is separate and
the molten metal is charged into the machine by means of ladles.
Cold chamber process is employed for casting materials that are not possible by
the hot chamber process.
For example, aluminum alloys react with the steel structure of the hot chamber
machine and as a result there is a considerable iron pick-up by aluminum.
This does not happen in cold chamber process, as the molten metal has a
momentary contact with the structure of the machine.
Figure shows the cold chamber die casting machine
Fig: cold chamber die casting machine
The machine consists of a die, made
in two halves: one half called the
'fixed die' or 'stationary die while the
other half called 'movable die.
The dies are aligned in positions by
means of ejector pins which also
help to eject the solidified casting
from the dies.
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Steps involved in the process
A cylindrical shaped chamber called 'cold chamber' (so called because, it
is not a part of melting or charging unit unlike in hot chamber process) is
fitted with a freely moving piston and is operated by means of hydraulic
pressure.
A measured quantity of molten metal is poured into the cold chamber by
means of ladles.
The plunger of the piston is activated and progresses rapidly forcing the
molten metal into the die cavity. The pressure is maintained during the
solidification process.
After the metal cools and solidifies, the plunger moves backward and the
movable die half opens by means of ejector pins forcing the casting from
the die cavity.
The cold chamber process is slightly slower when compared to the hot
chamber process.

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Advantages of Die casting process
Process is economical for large production quantities.
Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish.
Thin sections can be easily cast.
Near net shape can be achieved.
Disadvantages
High cost of dies and equipment.
Not economical for small production quantities.
Process not preferable for ferrous metals.
Part geometry must allow easy removal from die cavity

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11. CONTINUOUS CASTING
Continuous casting is a casting process in which the operation of pouring,
solidification and withdrawal of casting from an open mould are carried out
continuously.
Figure shows a schematic of the process.
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Steps involved in the process
1. The molten metal is continuously supplied from the ladle to the intermediate
ladle called 'tundish' from where it is continuously poured into the mould at a
controllable rate, keeping the level at a constant position.
2. The mould usually made of copper or graphite is open at the bottom and is
water cooled so as to extract the heat of the metal causing its solidification. The
shape of the mould corresponds to the shape of the desired casting.
3. The process is started by placing a dummy bar at the bottom of the mould
upon which the first liquid metal falls.
4. The molten metal from the tundish enters the mould and takes the shape of
the mould. The water cooled mould controls the cooling rate of the metal, so
that it solidifies before it leaves the mould.
5. The metal after coming out of the mould is further cooled by direct water spray
(or water with air) to complete solidification.
6. The solidified metal is continuously extracted (along with the dummy bar) by
'pinch rolls', bent and fed horizontally and finally cut to the desired length.
7. The dummy bar is initially placed at the bottom of the mould to receive the first
liquid metal (since the bottom of the mould is open). It is later disconnected
from the casting.

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Advantages
Sprue, runner, riser etc., are not used. Hence, no waste metal. This
leads to 100 % casting yield*.
Capable of producing in single operation, rods, sections and tubes
with varying sizes and wall thickness.
Process is automatic.
Product has good consistent soundness.
Mechanical properties are high
Disadvantages
Not suitable for small quantity production.
Continuous and efficient cooling of moulds is required, else, center-
line shrinkage develops.
Requires large floor space.

* Yield - Comparison of casting weight to the
total weight of the metal poured into the
mould.
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12. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING
Centrifugal casting is a process in which the molten metal is poured and
allowed to solidify in a revolving mould.
The centrifugal force due to the revolving mould holds the molten metal
against the mould wall until it solidifies.
The material used for preparing moulds may be cast iron, steel, sand or
graphite (for non-ferrous castings).
The process is used for making castings of hollow cylindrical shapes.
The various centrifugal casting techniques include:
a) True centrifugal casting
b) Semi-centrifugal casting and
c) Centrifuge casting.
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12.a. True Centrifugal casting
True centrifugal casting is used to produce parts that are symmetrical
about the axis like that of pipes, tubes, bushings, liners and rings.
The outside shape of the casting can be round, octagonal, hexagonal etc.,
but the inside shape is perfectly (theoretically) round due to radially
symmetric forces.
This eliminates the need for cores for producing hollow castings.
Figure shows the true centrifugal process.

Figure: True centrifugal process
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Steps involved in the process
1. The mould of the desired shape is prepared with metal and the walls are coated
with a refractory ceramic coating.
2. The mould is rotated about its axis at high speeds in the range of 300 - 3000 rpm. A
measured quantity of molten metal is poured into the rotating mould.
3. The centrifugal force of the rotating mould throws the liquid metal towards the
mould wall and holds the molten metal until it solidifies.
4. The casting cools and solidifies from its outer surface towards the axis of rotation of
the mould thereby promoting directional solidification.
5. The thickness of the casting obtained can be controlled by the amount of liquid
metal being poured.
An inherent quality of true centrifugal castings is based on the fact that, the non-
metallic impurities in castings being less dense than the metal, are forced
towards the inner surface (towards the axis) of the casting due to the centrifugal
forces. These impurities can be machined later by a suitable machining process
(say boring operation).
The mould may be rotated horizontally or vertically.
When the mould is rotated about horizontal axis, a true cylindrical inside surface
is produced; if rotated on a vertical axis, parabolic inside surface is produced.
Cores and gating/risering systems are not required for this process.
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12.b. Semi-centrifugal casting
Semi-centrifugal casting process is used to produce solid castings and hence,
requires a core to produce hollow cavities.
The process is used only for symmetrically shaped objects and the axis of rotation
of the mould is always vertical.
Gear blanks, sheaves, wheels and pulley are the commonly produced parts by this
process.
Figure shows the process to produce a wheel shaped casting.
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Steps involved in the process
The mould is prepared in the usual manner using cope and drag box.
The mould cavity is prepared with its central axis being vertical and concentric
with the axis of rotation.
The core is placed in position and the mould is rotated at suitable speeds, usually
less than true centrifugal casting process.
The centrifugal force produced due to the rotation of the mould causes the
molten metal to fill the cavity to produce the desired shape.
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12.c. Centrifuging Process
In true and semi centrifugal process, the axis of the mould/cavity coincide
with the axis of rotation.
Where as in centrifuging process, the axis of the mould cavity does not
coincide with the axis of rotation.
The mould is designed with part cavities located away from the axis of
rotation.
Hence, this process is suitable for non-symmetrical castings.
Figure shows the centrifuging process.
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Steps involved in the process
1. Several mould cavities are arranged in a
circle and connected to a central down
sprue through gates.
2. The axis of the down sprue is common to
the axis of rotation of the mould.
3. As the mould is rotated, the liquid metal is
poured down the sprue which feeds the
metal into the mould cavity under
centrifugal force.
4. The rotational speed depends on a
number of factors such as, the moulding
medium (sand, metal or ceramic), size of
the casting, type of metal being poured
and the distance of the cavity from the
central axis (sprue axis).
5. Centrifuging is done only about a vertical
axis.

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13. SQUEEZE CASTING
Squeeze casting or squeeze forming or liquid metal forging is a combination of
casting and forging process.
Figure shows the sequence of operations involved in the process.

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Steps involved in the process
1. The process makes use of two dies:
bottom die and top die, cast and
machined in such a way that upon mating
leaves a cavity similar to the shape of the
desired casting. Refer figure (a).


2. The bottom die is preheated to around
200 - 250C with the help of a torch and
sprayed by a water based graphite
lubricant to facilitate easy removal of
casting after solidification. Refer figure (b).
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3. Measured quantity of molten metal is poured into the bottom die as
shown in figure (c). As the metal starts solidifying, pressure is applied
to the top die causing it to move rapidly towards the bottom die.
4. This causes the molten metal to get squeezed and fill the mould
cavity. Refer figure (d). The squeezing pressure is applied until
solidification is completed.
5. The casting is ejected by operating the lift pin provided in the bottom
die, and the die is then made ready for the next cycle. Refer figure (e)
Squeeze casting is commonly used for casting aluminum and magnesium alloys.
Cores can be used in this process to produce holes and recesses.

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Advantages
Metals which have poor fluidity characteristics can be cast by this
process.
Shrinkage and gas porosity will be less due to the applied pressure
during solidification.
Enhanced mechanical properties because of the fine grain structure
caused by rapid solidification.
Good surface finish.
Disadvantages
Process is costlier. Manufacturing of dies to accurate dimensions
involves complex processes.
Accurate metering of molten metal is a slight difficult problem.
Un-economical for small quantity production.
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14. SLUSH CASTING
Slush casting is a process in which hollow castings are produced without the use
of cores.
The process is not preferred to produce objects for engineering use, instead, it is
used to make objects like statues, toys, lamp base, candle sticks and others,
where only the external features of the object are important. Refer figure (c).

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Steps involved in the process
In this process, the molten metal is poured in a metallic mould and permitted to
remain in the mould for a short interval of time. Refer figure (a).
Solidification begins at the mould walls, as they are relatively cool and then
progresses inward.
When a shell of desired thickness is formed, the mould is inverted and the metal
which is still in the liquid state is drained off. Refer figure (b).
The thickness of the shell obtained depends on the time for which the metal was
allowed to remain in the mould and also the thermal conductivity of the mould.
When the mould halves are separated, a hollow casting with good features on its
external surfaces, but variable wall thickness is, obtained as shown in figure (c).
Advantages
Process is inexpensive.
Hollow castings can be made without using cores.
Disadvantages
Process is used for art and decorative work only.
Only low melting point alloys with narrow freezing ranges can be used.

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15. THIXOCASTING PROCESS
Thixocasting, although similar to squeeze casting, is a
more refined process in which the casting material,
for example, aluminum alloy is subjected to a
heating treatment to prepare a semi-molten material
having solid and liquid phases co-existing therein.
The semi-molten material is injected into a cavity
whose shape resembles to the shape of the desired
product and rapidly compressed at very high
pressures.
This is a high potential technology bringing together
quality metallurgy, advanced mechanical properties
and excellent dimensional precision.
The yield strength of the part made by thixocasting is
around 220 MPa compared to a maximum of 140
MPa, that obtained by a pressure die casting process.
It is therefore used in the manufacture of light
weight parts especially in automobiles that are
subjected to severe stresses.
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