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Newsletter of the International Geothermal Association

Quarterly No. 96 1 July-September 2014
Message from the President
Juliet Newson
Greeting IGA members!
We give you the latest issue of the IGA News. On the
technology front, we have reports on improved high
temperature down-hole tools, drilling technology, and a
summary of innovation in changing utilization
technologies and increasing efficiency in using
geothermal fluid and earths heat for electricity
Because using the geothermal resource consists of
extraction of energy and (usually) water, and is a
renewable energy resource, it often occupies an
ambiguous legislative and regulatory position. Hence it
is of interest that legislation specifically recognizing
geothermal exploration and production is before the
Mexican Senate. Renewable energy policy in Italy and
Indonesia may also impact geothermal energy use in
those countries.
National geothermal reviews include geothermal drilling
programs in Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Turkey; power
station construction in Kenya, Bolivia, the US; power
station commissioning in New Zealand; and the release
of new exploration areas in Indonesia. This news all
supports the Geothermal Energy Association Report
that geothermal power market has a growth rate of 4%
to 5%.
We also see over 1300 papers submitted for the next
World Geothermal Congress in Melbourne! This is
approximately 25% more than for the 2010 Congress,
and is likely to be the largest Congress to date. Currently
the process of paper review is under way, organized by
Professor Roland Horne and an army of volunteer
reviewers, editors, and helpers from the geothermal
community. Organizers and workers for the 2015 WGC,
we salute you. All others, its time to start making travel
I want to draw to your attention to the Women in
Geothermal (WING) network. The focus of WING for
the next year is bringing us together and building a
network to support women working in geothermal.
WING is not anti-man! There are wonderful men
working in geothermal. But we know that worldwide, in
Message from the President... 1
2014 Annual General Meeting 2
REN Alliance side-event in Bonn 2
REN21 2014 Global Status Report 2
Ethiopia 4
Kenya 5
Bolivia 6
Mexico 6
United States 8
China 9
Indonesia 9
In Memoriam Oskar Kappelmeyer 10
Geothermal District Heating in Europe 11
Germany 11
Italy 12
Spain 13
Switzerland 13
Turkey 13
New Zealand 14
Australia 14
Global: The geothermal power market grows at 4-5%
says the new GEA report 14
International: GE takes part of Alstom 15
Technology: High-power fiber lasers for the
geothermal, oil, and gas industries 16
Technology: Arrangement of deep borehole
exchanger 17
Technology: New tools for measurements at high
temperatures 18
Analysis: Geothermal Energy - An Emerging Option
for Heat and Power 18
Geochemistry: Solute Geothermometry 20
Science: Water trapped in the mantle can be the source
of our oceans 22
The purpose of WING 22
IGA News No. 96 2 July-September 2014
all major industries, women are still under-represented
in senior roles. At the World Geothermal Congress in
Melbourne and NZ next year we will be having a global
WING networking event, and a WING Country
Ambassadors meeting to develop the WING direction
for the next five years. Here we will decide where we
will put our energy. So start thinking about who should
represent your country as a WING Ambassador, what
would you to see, and what initiatives would be useful
for you.
I recently visited China, for the first time, to attend the
Symposium on Science and Technology Innovation
Leading the Development of the Geothermal Industry
in China. There is intense interest in renewable energy in
China, which is one of the fastest growing economies of
recent decades. Amongst the Chinese geothermal
community there is great interest in international
contact, and an acknowledgement that there is a
perceived, and sometimes real, language barrier. All of
us need to explore ways to overcome this obstacle to
communication, and look for creative solutions to
encourage an international interchange of ideas.
Warm regards,

2014 Annual General Meeting
The 2014 Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the IGA
will be held jointly to the 60
Board of Directors
meeting, in Strasbourg, France, on 24 October 2014, at
3 pm. Electricit de Strasbourg (ES) will kindly host
both the BoD meeting and the AGM in its headquarter
located in 26 Boulevard du Prsident Wilson 67000,
Strasbourg. According to Article 12 of Bylaws, the
general agenda of the AGM will be as follows:
1. Minutes of the preceding AGM.
2. Annual report of the Board of Directors.
3. Audited financial statement.
4. General business.
The AGM is open to all IGA members. If you plan to
attend the meeting, please send a message to Marietta
Sander, the IGA Executive Director, to

REN Alliance side-event in
The Renewable Energy Alliance (REN Alliance) is
composed by the International Hydropower Association
(IHA), the International Solar Energy Society (ISES),
the International Geothermal Association (IGA), the
World Bioenergy Association (WBA) and the World
Wind Energy Association (WWEA). Currently, the IGA
Secretariat is coordinating the REN Alliance activities.
One of those recent activities was a side-event at the
Bonn Climate Change Conference / Meeting of the
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
(SBSTA), held in Bonn, Germany in early June. The
event, called Sustainable Technology Integration
Towards 100% Renewable Energy - Case Studies was
developed 11 June 2014 from 18.3020.00 hours.
Speakers included Dave Renn (ISES) as moderator,
Stefan Gsnger (WWEA), Karin Haara (WBA) and
Marietta Sander (IGA). In addition Michael Taylor from
the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
contributed with results of their costing studies to the
session. The IHA input on El Hierro was presented by
Stefan Gsnger. The side-event explored the reality of a
100% renewable energy supply by illustrating how
renewable energy technologies are working together,
what the real costs of renewable energy are, and how
achieving a 100% renewable energy supply before the
end of this century is possible. Building on this event,
the REN Alliance partnered with IRENA to hold a
webinar on this topic in July 1

REN21 2014 Global Status
As part of the REN Alliance, the IGA has been
participating in the Renewable Energy Policy Network
for the 21
Century (REN21). (Continue in page 4.)
The IGA President with leading members of the Chinese
Geothermal Community, at the Geothermal Symposium, Xinyu,
May 2014. From left to right: Pang Zhonghe, Zhu Jialing, Wang
Bingchen, Juliet Newson, Wang Jiyang, Zheng Keyan, Hu Da.
IGA News No. 96 3 July-September 2014
IGA News No. 96 4 July-September 2014
The REN21 produces an annual report on the current
status of renewable energy, and the IGAs Information
Committee contributed to the preparation of the 2014
report, mainly reviewing and providing some data on
geothermal energy. The final version of the report, called
Renewables 2014 Global Status Report (GSR), was
made public in June 4th 2014 in New York at the UN
Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) Forum. The
launch, held at the German House, saw over 130 people
attending a high-level luncheon, where they listened to a
presentation of the key findings and a panel
commentary. A second afternoon event, held within the
SE4ALL Forum, followed a similar presentation and
panel discussion format. A preview of the GSR 2014
was delivered to IRENA Members in June 1
in Abu
Dhabi as well as at the Opening of Intersolar on 2 June
in Munich. Parallel to the New York launch, GSR
presentations were given in Jnkping/Sweden at the
World Bioenergy 2014 and in Dakar/Senegal at the
Renewable Energy for Poverty Reduction (REPoR)
Conference. This was the first time the report was
launched publicly (as opposed to virtually). The event
was a great success with GSR statistics quoted in
mainstream media. The report can be downloaded at The Renewable Interactive
Map can be consulted and contributed at

Djibouti: International tender
to drill the first geothermal
In late April the World Bank unveiled an Invitation for
Prequalification for drilling four full-sized production
wells, as the first step of its Djibouti Geothermal Power
Generation Project, jointly financed by the African
Development Bank (AfDB), the OPEC Fund for
International Development (OFID), the Agence
Franaise de Dveloppement (AFD) and the Energy
Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The
goal of the project for Djibouti is to assist the recipient
in assessing the commercial viability of the geothermal
resource in Fiale Caldera within the Lake Assal region.
The project has three components. The first component
is the drilling program. It includes the works, goods and
consultant services for: (i) preparatory civil engineering
necessary for the drilling program portion financed by
the AfDB; (ii) execution of the drilling program as
designed by the geothermal consulting company, jointly
co-financed by Global Environment Facility (GEF),
International Development Association (IDA) and
OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID);
(iii) steel materials for the drilling program financed by
AFD; and (iv) inspection and testing for reservoir flow
rates, financed by ESMAP.
The second project component is technical assistance
for the drilling program. Goods and consultant services
are provided to: (i) design the drilling program and well
test protocol; (ii) execute the well test protocol and
ensure a third party certification of the results of the
drilling program; and (iii) prepare a technical feasibility
study for the geothermal power plant if the geothermal
resource is suitable for power generation.
The third project component is project management and
evaluation, providing goods, consultant services, audits,
training, and operational costs, including monitoring and
evaluation. It will be jointly co-financed by the
Government of Djibouti and AfDB.
The total budget for the project is US$25.19 million.

Ethiopia: Developing Corbetti
Caldera and two other
geothermal fields
In early June 2014, a grant contract was signed to
support drilling two wells in the first phase of a major
geothermal power project in Ethiopia. The contract,
worth up to US$8 million, was signed by the African
Union (AU) and the Icelandic-US private developer
Reykjavik Geothermal Limited (RG) for the wells at the
Corbetti geothermal power project. The grant was
awarded under the AU-led geothermal risk mitigation
facility, designed to encourage public-private
investment and financial support for geothermal
exploration in East Africa.
Assal Lake
IGA News No. 96 5 July-September 2014
GeoPower Africa
14-16 July 2014, Nairobi, Kenya
(IGA members have a discount of 20%)
16-17 July 2014, San Jos, Costa Rica
(IGA members have a discount of 20%. Type
IGAGEOLAC in the discount code box)
African Rift Geothermal Conference (ARGeo-
C5): Geothermal: Solution to Africas Energy
27 October - 2 November 2014, Arusha, Tanzania
Contacts: Jacob Mayalla:,
German Geothermal Congress (DGK 2014)
11-13 November 2014, Essen, Germany
GeoPower Global Congress 2014
2-4 December 2014, Istanbul, Turkey
(IGA Members have a discount of 20%. Type IGA20
in the discount code box)
World Geothermal Congress 2015
19-25 April 2015, Melbourne, Australia, and New
Zealand (see annoucement in page 3)
Note: please check the IGA website for more
Under an agreement with Ethiopias government, RG is
building southern Ethiopias Corbetti facility in two
phases (see IGA News 94, pp. 13-14). The first phase, at
a cost of US$2 billion, will bring an initial 500 MW of
power on line within five years, followed by a further
500 MW from the second phase in eight years.
According to RG, the total cost of the project is US$4
billion, assuming 25% equity financing and debt
financing of 75%.
When completed, RG said the project will represent the
largest foreign direct investment in Ethiopia. The
company has acquired geothermal exploration licenses
covering an area of more than 6,500 km2 in the so-called
Southern Lakes District of the Central Main Ethiopian
Rift. Within that area, RG said its scientists have
pinpointed an area of 200 km2 in which high
temperatures up to 350 C have been identified,
indicating a potential of 500-1,000 MW. The project
plans to use geothermal energy from three different
reservoirs at Corbetti, Tulu Moyer and Abaya.
Exploratory drilling was scheduled to start in the first
quarter of 2014 and to last for up to eight months.
Production drilling and construction of the first phase is
scheduled to start after financial closing in the first
quarter of 2015, RG said, adding that negotiations are
underway with the state-owned Ethiopian Electric
Power Corporation (EEPC) for a 25-year-plus power
purchase agreement. Initial studies and field work for the
project were completed by the end of October 2013.
In late May 2014, the World Banks Board of Directors
approved a US$200 million loan to Ethiopia to develop
Ethiopias potential geothermal sites at Aluto and
Alaloband in the rift valley of the Afar State. Two World
Bank trust funds, the International Developmental
Association (IDA) and the Scaling Up Renewal Energy
Program (SREP), are expected to finance the loan.
The project to develop the two geothermal sites, Aluto
and Alaloban, will be undertaken in two phases. An
institutional framework for geothermal development will
be established in the first phase. In the second phase,
electricity will be generated from the steam resources
developed in the first phase.
One World Bank trust fund, SREP, was established to
scale up the deployment of renewable energy solutions
and expand renewable energy markets in the worlds
poorest countries. A targeted program of the Strategic
Climate Fund, it aims to demonstrate the economic,
social and environmental viability of low-carbon
development pathways. Ethiopia is among the eight pilot
Sources: http://www.out-

Kenya: Three power firms
selected to construct 100 MW
in Menengai
Kenyas Geothermal Development Company (GDC)
selected three companies to construct 100 megawatt
IGA News No. 96 6 July-September 2014
geothermal plants in Menengai, Rift Valley in the East
African country to further its mission to produce 5,000
megawatts of electricity by 2030. The companies are
Quantum Power, Ormat Technologies Inc., and a local
firm, Sosian Energy. According to the GDC, the three
independent power producers were selected from the 12
bids submitted in September 2013 at the close of the
tendering process. Ormat, chosen through its subsidiary
OrPower 4, and the other power companies will each
build a 35 MW steam power plant under a build-own-
operate model starting this December. Following its
decision, the GDC signed a deal with the IPPs who will
construct the power plants estimated to cost about Sh4
billion each (US$45.7 million). The IPPs will receive
steam from the state-owned company at Sh3.05
(US$0.04) per kilowatt hour, forming part of the
earnings expected to help reduce GDCs dependence on
government and boost drilling activities in other South
Rift geothermal fields and Suswa and Baringo in the
North Rift. Drilling should be completed by end of the
year. Investors will deliver power at Sh7.40 (US$0.085)
per kilowatt hour, excluding value added tax. The 100
megawatts of electricity expected from the IPPs will be
added to the national grid by the end of 2015.
Bolivia: Agreement for
construction of the Laguna
Colorada geothermal project
In early May, the Bolivian minister of foreign relations
and the Japanese vice-minister of foreign relations
signed an agreement to construct the Laguna Colorada
geothermal project in the Sol de Maana field,
Department of Potos, southern Bolivia. The project will
be composed of 100 MW divided into two successive
steps of 50 MW, and includes an electric substation and
a transmission line connecting to the countrys silver
largest mine, San Cristbal. The first stage is slated to be
completed and brought online in 2019. JICA has
designated US$25 million to begin the operations,
including drilling four production wells. The agreement
was signed in La Paz under the framework of the
centenary of bilateral relations Bolivia-Japan. The
Japanese official said it was the first project in the new
cooperation agenda, demonstrating its high importance
to the Japanese Government. Current electrical demand
in Bolivia is 1,350 MW.

Mexico: New geothermal act is
discussed in Congress
Luis C.A. Gutirrez-Negrn, Mexican
Geothermal Association
Following the energy reform, in late April 2014 a
package of nine initiatives issuing or amending 21 laws
was sent to the Mexican Senate by the federal
government. One initiative relates to geothermal and
includes a new geothermal law (LEG: Ley de Energa
Geotrmica) and an amendment of the current Law of
National Water (LAN: Ley de Aguas Nacionales). The
following highlights describe the more important aspects
of the proposed LGE composed of 67 permanent
articles and 13 transitory articles.
The initiative divides the process of geothermal
development into three successive stages:
reconnaissance, exploration and exploitation. All require
registration, permit or concession, respectively, issued by
the Ministry of Energy (SENER). To undertake
geothermal exploratory activities in a specific area,
interested parties must register with SENER. The
registration will be valid for eight months. After six
months, technical and financial reports must be
submitted to SENER before applying for an exploration
permit in the same area. The exploration permit shall be
issued for three years and may be extended only once in
the three upcoming years. In the case of exploring for
conventional hydrothermal systems, the licensee shall
drill and complete one to five exploration wells the
final number will be decided by SENER depending on
the extent of the area. In other fields, e.g. hot dry rock,
SENER will determine whether or not and how many
exploratory wells must be drilled (Art. 14). The licensee
IGA News No. 96 7 July-September 2014
will have exclusive rights to explore the permit area (Art.
16), which will be a maximum of 150 km
No later than three months before the end of the permit
(or extension), if the results are successful, the licensee
must certify the fulfillment of its obligations and provide
technical information to SENER and apply for an
exploitation concession in the area. Only exploration
permit holders who have fulfilled their commitments
may apply for an exploitation concession in the same
area, although the concession area can be smaller than
the explored area. To apply for the grant, the applicant
must have made requests for power generation, grid
connection feasibility, royalty payments and
corresponding applications on environmental matters. If
a concession is granted, the concessionaire will have a
maximum of three years to get any other authorizations,
especially an environmental license and a grant to use
geothermal waters. Exploitation concessions will be valid
for 30 years, and may be extended.
Neither an exploration permit nor an exploitation
concession can be solda cause for revocation (Art. 39,
IV). But both can be assigned under permission by
SENER or under a simple notification if the permit or
concession is transferred to a company of the same
group (Art. 29). SENER may launch a public tender for
an exploitation concession when the concessionaire
notifies SENER the company cannot meet the terms
and conditions of the grant. Areas subject to early
termination, revocation or forfeiture of title can be
subject to public bid (Art. 47). The CFE (Comisin
Federal de Electricidad) may participate as an associate
of the winner of exploitation concessions.
All geothermal water that comes from exercising a
permit or concession must be reinjected into the
geothermal area (Art. 37). Where geothermal resources
are extended to other geothermal areas with different
concession holders, a joint operation may be agreed with
prior authorization from SENER.
SENER will rule on the admissibility of applications to
occupy lands with probable geothermal resources in the
subsurface on hearing testimony from the affected party
and outside expert opinion. The amount of
compensation will be determined by an appraisal made
by the federal agency in charge of these activities.
CFE will have 120 business days after the law is passed
to deliver to SENER a list of all the geothermal areas it
wishes to continue working in for either exploration or
exploitation. These areas, of course, will include the four
geothermal fields in operation (Cerro Prieto, Los
Azufres, Los Humeros and Las Tres Vrgenes) and
probably the Cerritos Colorados field where CFE
drilled several exploration wells in the past. Over
another similar period, SENER will review CFEs
request and award the proper concessions and permits.
Then the CFE will be subject to all terms and conditions
of the LEG including the obligation to drill exploratory
wells over a maximum of six years in the areas for which
the exploration permit was granted by SENER.
CFE may be associated with individuals who will
develop some of the geothermal projects. The rest of the
projects will be tendered under the terms likely to be
defined in the further regulation of the LEG. In such
cases, the CFE may sell the technical information
generated as result of its reconnaissance and exploration
activities through public tenders.
In the case of private projects already started when the
act was passed, the interested parties must formally
notify SENER of the location of the exploration and
exploitation projects within a maximum of 30 working
days from the enactment of the LEG. Doing this time,
they will gain a preferential right to request the permit or
concession, for which they must follow the standard
procedures of the LEG. This is the case for the private
geothermal projects under development by Grupo
Dragn and Mexxus-RG in the state of Nayarit, and
Prados Camelinas in the state of Michoacn.
Furthermore, the proposed changes to the LAN are
minimal in the case of Article 3, which includes the
formal definition of a hydrothermal geothermal
reservoir, and Article 18, to which the term of
hydrothermal geothermal reservoir is added. Changes to
Article 81 are greater, but are simply adjustments to the
provisions of the LEG, particularly in relation to the
possible interactions among the geothermal reservoir
and adjacent or overlying aquifers. It seems clear
geothermal power projects will have no major problems
with the provisions in the draft of the amended LAN. In
the case of direct uses of geothermal, most of the low-
temperature, shallow geothermal reservoirs are
hydraulically connected to aquifers regulated by LAN.
The initiative is under discussion and should be passed
in early July 2014.
View of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field.
IGA News No. 96 8 July-September 2014
US: The Geysers, Stillwater
and the new NGDS
Geysers project and development rights acquired by
US Geothermal: US Geothermal, Inc. agreed to buy
Ram Power Corp.s proposed Geysers California
geothermal project for US$6.4 million in cash. Ram
Power announced that it has signed a Stock Purchase
Agreement with US Geothermal Inc. for the purchase of
the project that includes the Rams subsidiaries of
Western Geopower, Inc., Skyline Geothermal Holdings,
Inc., and Etoile Holdings, Inc., which, in turn, includes
all membership interests in Mayacamas Energy LLC and
Skyline Geothermal LLC. The acquired Ram subsidiaries
possess full development interest in the project. The
interests include all geothermal leases (covering 3,809
acres or ~1,540 hectares), development design plans,
and permits for a proposed 26-MW, net, power plant.
Also included are the land and ownership of the
geothermal mineral rights for the Mayacamas property
purchased by Ram in 2010. The property contains 4 of
the 5 existing geothermal wells immediately available for
production or injection. Finally, the acquisition includes
a 50% undivided interest in the geothermal mineral
rights relating to the property and the 5th existing well
purchased by Ram in 2010. The other 50% interest in
this property is contained within an acquired leasehold
The power plant and well pads for the Geysers Project
were planned by Ram Power to be constructed on the
site of the former Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) Unit
15, a 55-MW geothermal power plant that operated from
1979 to 1989 and has since been decommissioned and
largely dismantled. PG&E Unit 15 site is currently level
and fill soil covers the abandoned foundations of the
turbine generator and cooling tower. In addition, five
abandoned PG&E Unit 15 well pads are planned to be
used for steam production wells for the Geysers Project.
Ram expected to use an existing well for injection. An
assessment report in 2011 indicates that the estimated
sustainable steam capacity in the area is 209-218 tons per
hour equivalent to about 26-27 MW.
U.S. Geothermal, Inc. announced it has acquired
geothermal property to evaluate a new project at Vale,
Oregon, about 19 km east of the Neal Hot Springs
geothermal power plant. The new leases encompass 368
acres (149 hectares) of geothermal energy and surface
rights acquired from private landowners in Malheur
County and the City of Vale. The property is within the
Vale Butte geothermal resource area and provides the
opportunity to evaluate the development of a known
geothermal resource. An extensive database of
geophysical and geological information from previous
geothermal exploration in the Vale Butte area was used
to evaluate the prospect. Geochemical analyses of
samples taken from the shallow, hot wells indicate a
potential reservoir temperature of 311-320 F (155-160
C). Past exploratory drilling near the site by Trans
Pacific Geothermal and Sandia National Laboratory
encountered temperatures over 300 F (150 C) in the
basement rocks. The company is developing a staged
geophysical and exploration drilling program to evaluate
the potential for commercial power production. Fault
structures and hydrologic characteristics have been
identified that are similar to the Neal Hot Springs site,
and are wholly contained within the newly acquired lease
New CSP facility to be added to the Stillwater
hybrid plant: Enel Green Power North America
(EGPNA) announced work has started at the Stillwater
geothermal plant, in Nevada, U.S. to add a Concentrated
Solar Power (CSP) facility to operate alongside the
geothermal plant. It is composed of binary cycle power
plants using mid-enthalpy fluids. The Stillwater facility,
which is already paired with a 26-MW photovoltaic
facility, will be the first geothermal plant to be coupled
with a CSP facility, turning it into a hybrid plant able to
combine the continuous generating capacity of binary-
cycle, medium-enthalpy geothermal power with solar
thermodynamics. The CSP plant will add 17 MW to the
already installed capacity of 33 MW of geothermal origin
and 26 MW of photovoltaic technology, for a combined
total of 76 MW. EGPNA will use parabolic trough
technology and demineralized water under pressure as
the working fluid. It is expected the CSP portion will
generate about 3 GWh per year. The produced energy
will be sold to NV Energy through the existing 20-year
The Stillwater plant (photo by EGP North America).
IGA News No. 96 9 July-September 2014
Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). EGPNA
underscored that thanks to the innovative technology
that will enable the use of the suns heat to raise the
temperature of the geothermal fluid extracted from the
wellsit be possible to improve the cycles yield and
increase its electricity output.
Source: http://www.csp-
Launching the National Geothermal Data System:
The U.S. industry has named as one of the largest
barriers to widespread adoption of geothermal
technologies the lack of quantifiable, geothermal-
relevant, subsurface data. The Department of Energy
(DOE) has answered the call with a mammoth collection
of geoscience information with enough raw data points
to pinpoint the elusive sweet spots of geothermal energy.
The data are called the National Geothermal Data
System (NGDS).
The NGDS is a huge catalog of geoscience documents
and datasets with information about geothermal
resources located primarily within the United States. The
Geothermal Technologies Office at the U.S. DOE
funded the design and testing process to compile an
active, nationwide network of interoperable nodes,
storing new and legacy data that developers, industry,
and academia can use to help adopt geothermal energy.
Today, millions of records of research and site
demonstration data have been compiled for free access
by the geothermal community.
The NGDS applications will aid developers to:
Determine geothermal potential
Guide exploration and development
Make data-driven policy decisions
Minimize development risks
Understand how geothermal activities affect the
community and the environment
Guide investments
The NGDS can be used in many ways, depending on the
users needs and interests. Generally, the NGDS is used
Agencies, businesses, and researchers who wish to use
the documents and datasets for research, resource
characterization, and prospecting.
Stakeholders who want to contribute additional data.
Web developers who want to create custom
applications that interact with NGDS data.
NGDS data records are contributed by academic
researchers, private industry, and state and federal
agencies, including all fifty State Geological Surveys. In
addition, all DOE-funded projects are required to
register their data in the NGDS, leveraging more than
US$500 million in total geothermal investment.
China: Establishing a national
geothermal association
China will establish a national association to promote
geothermal resources, according to a forum held in east
Chinas Jiangxi Province on May 13, 2014. To ease
pressure on energy and resources, and to improve the
environment, the Ministry of Land and Resources is
taking the lead in the association, said Wang Bingchen
from the Counselors Office of the State Council at the
forum in Xinyu City. With technological breakthroughs
in geothermal exploration, power pumps and electricity
generation, Chinas geothermal power industry will be
booming again, said Mao Rubai, former chairman of the
Environmental Protection and Resources Conservation
Committee of the National Peoples Congress. Rubai
added that geothermal energy will supply heating for 500
million square meters nationwide and raise geothermal
generating capacity by 100 MW as of 2015. Juliet
Newson, president of the International Geothermal
Association (IGA), said at the forum that they hope to
expand cooperation with China in the future. A
national geothermal association in China will help
promote international academic exchanges and
technological innovation, Newson said.

Indonesia: New areas and
feed-in tariffs for geothermal
IGA News No. 96 10 July-September 2014
The Indonesian Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry
is offering nine new work areas to public bidders for
geothermal projects nationwide, in a bid to generate
more electricity from renewable resources. Of the total
1,030 potential megawatts announced, the ministry
estimates that the total geothermal capacity to be
developed will amount to 550 megawatts with total
investment of around US$2.1 billion. Developing
geothermal resources in the country remains problematic
for investors, due to their hard-to-locate locations
primarily in forests or conservation areas. At one time,
the issue was the governments ceiling price for
electricity generated from geothermal power plants,
considered fairly low by investors to make geothermal
The Energy and Mineral Resources Minister said
relevant parties were revising the 2003 Geothermal Law
to make work on forest conservation areas legal under
the 1999 Forestry Law, and then geothermal will no
longer be considered a mining activity so that it can be
carried out in forest areas, the Minister said. He added
that a ministerial decree had been recently signed on the
ceiling price for electricity produced from geothermal
resources. According to the decree, the floor for
geothermal power tariff was fixed at US$11.8 cents per
kilowatt hour (kWh) and the ceiling at US$29.6 cents per
kWh for projects with Commercial Operation Date
(COD) planned for 2015-2025. The current tariff for
geothermal power is below US$9 cents per kWh.
In memoriam Oskar
(Excerpts from notes by F. Rummel, Bayreuth,
Germany, 10.12.2013, and the EGEC Newsletter)
Dr. Oskar Kappelmeyer passed away on 7 December
2013 in Passau, Germany, at the age of 86. He was born
on 5 December 1927 in Regensburg, Germany, where he
attended high school. He studied geophysics at the
Institute of Geophysics of the University of Munich and
got his Ph.D. in 1955 with a dissertation on
Temperature measurements in shallow soil layers to
detect deep-seated anomalies.
In 1953-1954, he joined the Office of Waste
Management (AfB) and was subsequently named Head
of the Geophysical Exploration Unit of the current
Federal Office for Soil Research (BfB) and the Federal
Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR)
in Hannover. He carried out geophysical exploration
studies in Thailand and Bangladesh and was involved in
the development of geothermal in El Salvador,
Nicaragua and Italy (Campi Flegrei and Ischia). His
pioneering book, co-authored with Ralph Haenel,
Geothermics with Special Reference to Application is
on the basics of geothermal energy and was published in
After visiting the Los Alamos National Laboratory
(LANL) in New Mexico, U.S., he became enthusiastic
about Hot Dry Rock (HDR) research and development.
He started German participation in the LANL project
and undertook with F. Rummel the HDR research
project Falkenberg in the Upper Palatinate, which he
headed as a BGR employee from 1977 to 1986. In 1987
and based on this work, he co-founded with other
researchers from several French, English and German
universities and institutes, the European Hot Dry Rock
project at Soultz-sous-Forts.
Oskar was for many years chairman of the European
HDR Association (EHDRA) that coordinated the Soultz
project. In 2007, he attended the commissioning of the
first HDR power plant in the world at Soultz.
In 1987, at the age of 60 years, he retired from BGR
Hannover to found the company Kappelmeyer
Geothermal Consult GmbH (GTC) in Passau, which
participated in HDR research at Soultz.
Since 1963 he was a member of the German
Geophysical Society (DGG). In 1991, he was one of the
ten founding members of the German Geothermal
Association (today the Federal Geothermal Association,
GtV). He was honored in 1994 with the first Patricius
Award, recognizing his extensive contributions to
geothermal energy.
Dr. Kappelmeyer was married to Sigrid Kappelmeyer
who died in July 2013. His children Thomas, Oskar and
IGA News No. 96 11 July-September 2014
Angela Kappelmeyer spoke at his funeral on 14
December 2013. Burkhard Sanner, President of the
European Geothermal Energy Council (EGEC), wrote:
For me, (Oskar) is the real father of geothermal energy
research in Germany, going back to the 1950s.
Internationally renowned through his leadership in the
German fracking experiments in the 1970s and later in
the Soultz project, he had a great influence on many of
todays geothermal experts We owe Oskar a lot, in
scientific knowledge, practical geophysics, and also
industrial policy. He will be remembered as one of the
greats in geothermal history.
grundungsmitglied-oskar-kappelmeyer.html, EGEC
Newsletter, December 2013, p. 1.

Europe: Geothermal District
Heating has the potential to
alleviate Europes energy
security crisis
(Excerpts from a press release by the European
Geothermal Energy Council, May 15
, 2014)
Over 25% of the EU population lives in areas directly
suitable for Geothermal District Heating (GeoDH). A
large potential remains in Central and Eastern Europe,
with Geothermal District Heating (GeoDH) systems in
operation in 22 European countries including Hungary,
Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and
Romania, where existing heat networks are well
Geothermal generation has its roots in Europe. In the
EU, 180 geothermal district heating systems have a total
installed capacity of 1.1 GWth, producing some 4,256
GWh of thermal power, (i.e. 366 kilotons of oil
equivalent in 2012). The geothermal potential is
recognized by some EU Member States in their National
Renewable Energy Action Plans. However, the actual
potential is significantly larger. To increase awareness,
GEODH (, an IEE (Intelligent Energy
Europe) project co-financed by the EU, has assessed and
presented for the first time the potential in Europe on an
interactive map.
From the map we can note that:
GeoDH can be developed in all 28 EU countries;
Geothermal can be installed with existing DH systems
during extension or renovation, replacing fossil fuels;
New GeoDH systems can be built in many regions of
Europe at competitive costs;
The Pannonian basin is of particular interest for
potential development in Central and Eastern Europe.
GeoDH technology is a valuable and immediate option
for alleviating Central and Eastern Europes dependency
on Russian natural gas imported for heating. To facilitate
this, the GeoDH consortium proposes to:
Simplify the administrative procedures to create market
conditions facilitating development;
Develop innovative financial models for GeoDH,
including a risk insurance scheme and the intensive use
of structural funds;
Establish a level playing field by liberalizing the gas
price and taxing GHG emissions in the heat sector
Give technicians and decision-makers from regional
and local authorities the technical background necessary
to approve and support projects.

Germany: A new Master of
Science programme in
Geothermal Engineering
Khatia Dzebisashvili, Institute of
Petroleum Engineering, Clausthal
University of Technology
Clausthal University of Technology is pleased to
announce the launch of a brand-new international
Master course in Geothermal Engineering (pending
accreditation) starting from the upcoming 2014 winter
semester. The course structure will provide students with
fundamental knowledge on geothermal reservoir

International Journal of Geothermal Research and its Applications
Published under the auspices of the International Geothermal
Content of the latest issues:

IGA News No. 96 12 July-September 2014
characterisation and exploitation, and how to manage
geothermal projects effectively, in order to maximise
commerciality within the operational constraints.
The main modules of the programme are: fundamentals,
geology and geophysics, reservoir engineering, drilling
and completion, geothermal production, and energy
Application deadline is July 15th for international
applicants and October 1st for German applicants. The
course is fully taught in English.
Please follow this link for further information about the

Italy: Geothermal incentives
Current incentives for renewable energy in Italy, apart
from solar PV, were established by a Decree issued by
the Minister for Economic Development on 6 July 2012.
They apply to all renewable power developments, except
for solar PV, with greater than 1 kW capacity built or
renovated after 31 December 2012 contributing power
to the national grid. Own-use power is not eligible for
incentives. Solar PV is subject to separate pre-existing
Significant features of the Decree include a cap on the
overall cost of renewable incentives of 5.8 billion
(US$7.9 billion) per year (excluding solar PV) and access
via registration with the energy services agency (GES:
Gestore Servizi Energetica S.p.A.). Annual capacity quotas
also apply. Geothermal up to 35 MW may be registered
for each year in 2013, 2014 and 2015. From early 2014
on, no new geothermal plants have been registered with
GSE but the unused quota can be carried forward.
Geothermal plants with greater than 20 MW capacity
may only be registered after participation in a
competitive Dutch auction conducted by GSE.
Registration takes place annually within a sixty day
period determined by GSE. GSE is required to publish a
notice of the registration procedures 30 days before the
start of the registration period, and before 31 March of
each year.
After registration, three types of incentives are available
for geothermal net power added to the grid:
1) All-inclusive tariff for plants of up to 1 MW capacity.
The applicable tariff varies according to plant technology
and capacity, and is the sum of the base tariff (Table 1)
plus an applicable premium tariff (Table 2). In this case,
the power generated is sold to GSE.
2) Differential tariffs for plants with greater than 1 MW
capacity (smaller plants may also opt for this tariff). The
applicable tariff is the sum of the base tariff and any
applicable premium tariffs less the hourly zonal
electricity price (assumed zero if negative). In this case
the power generated is sold by the plant owner directly
to the market, which is operated by the power market
agency (GME: Gestore Mercati Energetici). The incentive
provides a base level tariff with the plant operator able
to utilize any peaks in the market which may occur
above the incentive.

Net capacity
in kW
Period in
Base tariff
/MWh US$/kWh
1 up to 2,000 25 135 18.4
>2000 up to
20 99 13.5
>20,000 20 85 11.6
Table 1. Geothermal incentive base tariffs.

Case Premium tariff
/MWh US$/kWh
Total re-injection of spent
fluid into the source
aquifer with no emissions
30 4.1
First new plant (10 MW)
within a production license
area with no previous
30 4.1
High-enthalpy resources
from which at least 95% of
S and Hg are removed
from emissions
15 2.1
Table 2. Geothermal incentive premium tariffs

3) All-inclusive tariff for national interest resources
which contain more than 1.5% gas by weight. Two tariff
schemes are applicable:
- 200 /MWh (27.3 US$ cents per kilowatt-hour) where
the resource temperature is up to 151 C.
- Where the temperature is between 151 and 235 C the
tariff is reduced by 0.75 /MWh (10 US$ cents per
kWh) for each degree above 151.
On acceptance of a new geothermal project by GSE, a
period of 28 months is allowed for construction,
commissioning and the start of commercial operations.
The incentive tariff is reduced by 0.5% for each month
of delay, although allowance is made for delays outside
operator control such as environmental assessments.
Delays beyond 28 months attract a tariff penalty of 15%.
IGA News No. 96 13 July-September 2014
Spain: EGS technical potential
assessed at 700 GWe
Researchers at the University of Valladolid have
estimated the power technical potential from geothermal
heat under the 10 km of the Iberian Peninsula to be
about 700 gigawatts, electric. The research was published
in the Renewable Energy journal and Csar Chamorro,
one of the authors, said this potential, assessed between
3 and 10 km depth, is five times the entire installed
capacity existing today. Even if we limit the estimate up
to 7 km depth, the potential is 190 GWeand between
3 and 5 km depth it is 30 GW, he said. All the estimates
refer to the technical potential. The so-called renewable
or sustainable potential, based on the harnessing of the
heat flow that reaches the crust from the earths interior,
is significantly loweronly 3,200 MW for Spain.
According to the research, Galicia, western Castilla and
Len, the Sistema Central Andaluca and Catalonia are
the regions with the greatest potential for higher
temperatures at lower depths.

Switzerland: St Gallen geothermal
power project abandoned
A plan in eastern Switzerland to supply geothermal
electricity was stopped on May 16
2014. The city of St
Gallen said there was not enough hot water to continue
a project to build a power station using the renewable
energy resource. Officials said the risks of further, small-
scale earthquakes and financial issues had contributed to
the decision. Drilling work at the site outside St Gallen
was temporarily stopped in July 2013 when a tremor,
measuring 3.5 on the Richter scale, shook the earth. The
borehole was later drilled to a total depth of 4,400 m and
was sealed by late 2013. Voters in 2010 had given a
green light to the geothermal project, including
extending a grid for community heating to the tune of
CHF160 million (US$178 million). The federal
authorities also paid CHF19 million. The Federal Energy
Office said last year the potential for geothermal electric
production in Switzerland was very high, but it warned
of uncertainties due to costs and the feasibility of getting
such projects off the ground.
Source: and agencies

Turkey: First production well
started in the Kokaky project
Transmark Turkey announced in late May it has
successfully spudded its first geothermal production
well, KOC-1, in the project Kocaky, anakkale
province, in northwestern Turkey. The project is being
developed by Transmark Services, a subsidiary of
Transmark Holding. KOC-1 is being drilled by
Transmark Services 125 tons Semi-trailer Mounted Rig
The Kokaky project is one of the three geothermal
concessions of Transmark Turkey and it is located on
the southwestern rim of the Biga Peninsula, anakkale
province. This province is well-known for its geothermal
surface manifestations, exploration projects and the 7.5-
MW Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant, which is in the
vicinity of KOC-1 drill site. The other two concessions
are Glpinar and Babakale. Prior the drilling, the
exploration team applied advanced exploration methods
to generate a geothermal conceptual model and
proposed a production well target. Some of the studies
are remote sensing, structural geology, geochemistry and
geophysics with MT surveys. The well KOC-1 targets
two reservoir sections, one shallow and one deep within
the same reservoir. It is expected the well will produce
medium enthalpy fluids. According to Transmark
Turkey, the country is deemed as one of the hottest
markets in Europe for geothermal and is the seventh
most promising country in the world for geothermal
energy potential.
Source: http://www.transmark-
Map of surface heat flow in the Iberian Peninsula, by
Universidad de Valladolid. Available at:
IGA News No. 96 14 July-September 2014
New Zealand: Officially
finished the construction of
the Te Mihi power plant
The firm Contact Energy Limited confirmed in middle
May the Te Mihi power station had been handed over
from the construction contractor and was under the
operational and commercial control of Contact. The
power plant is expected to run baseload through the
higher-demand winter period until its first inspection in
late 2014. The hand-over of Te Mihi, stated Contact,
concludes a six year investment in over AU$2 billion
(US$1.87 billion) of renewable and flexible generation
assets. The Te Mihi power station includes two new
steam turbine generators of 83 MW each, constructed
near the 53-year-old Wairakei geothermal power station
northwest of Taupo. Thus Te Mihi will produce 166
MW and some of its generation will replace older parts
of the existing Wairakei geothermal station, which will
be taken out of commission. The initial result will be an
increase in output from the two power stations of about
114 MW.

Australia: Dismantling ARENA
and related problems
The Australian government plans to axe the funding
body for new technologies in renewable energy,
ARENA the Australian Renewable Energy Agency, to
save more than a billion Australian dollars. But ARENA
has said that money would help to build an AU$7.7
billion (US$7.19 billion) fleet of projects to develop
solar, wave and geothermal technologies, and the clean
energy industry was voicing dismay over this
governmental plan. ARENA was supporting the
Australian universities, researchers, and small-to-medium
enterprises, developing products and technologies they
could use to compete in a global marketplace. ARENAs
CEO said Australia could be the loser if the more than a
billion dollars of support for world-leading scientific
R&D ends.
Thus the future of geothermal in Australia seems to rest
on the willingness of investors to help Petratherm raise
AU$5 million by the middle of July. The money will
fund a second well for the AU$62 million Paralana
project in South Australias Flinders Ranges, which taps
naturally fractured shales just above the hot basement
rocks. The equity target will open up the potential of a
further grant of AU$27.5 million from the Australian
Renewables Agency (ARENA) which will see out
nearly 200 legacy projects totaling AU$1 billion
allowing the company to build a demonstration plant.
Petratherm is planning to cut costs to save cash in the
case of not reaching the target, with directors halving
their fees, deferring payment and paying in scrip, as well
as four in seven resigning, in order to fund a potential
case of care and maintenance for the project. Up to
late May, the project has cost AU$36 million.
Global: The geothermal power
market grows at 4-5% says
the new GEA report
A new report from the Geothermal Energy Association
(GEA), released on April 22 at the organizations
International Geothermal Showcase in Washington,
D.C., reveals the international power market is booming,
with a sustained growth rate of 4% to 5%. The 2014
Annual U.S. & Global Geothermal Power Production
Report finds almost 700 projects currently under
development in 76 countries. Threats caused by climate
Simplified geology of the Paralana project (map by
IGA News No. 96 15 July-September 2014
change and the need for a renewable energy source that
can satisfy both firm and flexible grid needs are among
the key factors driving the international community to
invest in geothermal power.
The new global geothermal capacity in 2013 was 530
MW, 85 MW of which were installed in the U.S.,
according to the report. U.S. growth was flat because of
policy barriers, gridlock at the federal level, low natural
gas prices and inadequate transmission infrastructure.
According to the report, the American geothermal
industry was working on 977 MW of new capacity
(Planned Capacity Additions or PCAs) at sites that hold
over 3,092 MW of power potential in eight western
In 2013, 25 pieces of legislation in 13 U.S. states were
enacted specifically to address geothermal power and
heating systems, creating a foundation for the
environment needed to foster geothermal growth in
these states. The Salton Sea Resource Area is a new
initiative in California that could be a significant source
of growth for the U.S. geothermal power industry if
several policy barriers are overcome in the near term.
The Imperial Irrigation District has pledged to build up
to 1,700 MW of geothermal power by the early 2030s at
the Salton Sea. If successful, this initiative could increase
the nameplate capacity of the U.S. by 50% over the next
20 years.
Globally, significant geothermal development growth is
expected over the next few years. East Africa, Kenya and
Ethiopia are building power plants greater than 100
MW. For comparison, the average size of a geothermal
power plant in the U.S. is about 25 MW. Latin American
nations such as Chile, Argentina, Colombia and
Honduras have significant potential, but are in the early
stages of identifying their resources. The GEA estimates
that Chile is actively developing 50 projects and
prospects, and that Indonesia has 4,400 MW of planned
capacity additions announced in the pipeline alone.
In terms of established nameplate capacity, the U.S.
(with a total in 2013 of 3,442 MW) still outpaces the
Philippines (1,904 MW in 2013) and Indonesia (1,333
MW), the worlds second and third ranked geothermal
energy producers.
Source: http://www.geo-

International: General Electric
takes part of Alstom
General Electric Co. (GE) is set to take over the gas and
steam turbine businesses of Alstom SA, the French
builder of trains and power plants. GE announced in
early May that it has made an offer to pay around
US$13.5 billion to buy Alstom, an amount representing
about 25 percent more than the current market value of
Alstom. Combined with the US$3.4 billion net cash held
by these businesses, the deal would give GE complete
control of the Alstoms power and grid businesses for a
total sum of US$16.9 billion. But the French
government who holds a veto over any Alstom deal,
disapproved the offer, citing concerns related to loss of
jobs in France and dissolution of an iconic French
brand. Over the next two months, Alstom received
competing joint bids from the German Siemens AG and
the Japanese Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Mitsubishi
would bid US$4.9 billion for Alstoms steam-turbine
business and Siemens would pay a similar amount for
Alstoms gas-turbine business. But finally Alstoms
board unanimously chose a GEs revised bid after GE
CEO, Jeff Immelt, met with the French president
Francois Hollande and also addressed the French
parliament to resolve their concerns.
GE has been shifting its focus toward units that make jet
engines, locomotives and industrial equipment and

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IGA News No. 96 16 July-September 2014
shrinking the finance division, called GE Capital, which
imperiled the company during the global financial crisis.
Alstom has been selling assets to cut costs and reduce
debt. Alstom is the world leader in turbines for dams,
while it lags behind GE and Siemens in gas turbines. It is
the third-largest maker of power transmission gear after
ABB Ltd. and Siemens, and competes with the German
company and Canadas Bombardier Inc. for trains and
other rail equipment. Alstom had to be bailed out by the
French government and banks in 2004 after a series of
technical flaws in a gas turbine business.

Technology: High-power fiber
lasers for the geothermal, oil,
and gas industries
Mark Zediker
(Condensed from the original note published on 11
April 2014, SPIE Newsroom. DOI:
The concept of using lasers to drill through rock has
been discussed in the oil and gas industries since the
development of the high-power laser in the 1960s. The
innovation that opened up the prospect of
commercializing laser drilling was the introduction of a
10 kW fiber laser by IPG Photonics in 2008. A year
later, with the assistance of the Colorado School of
Mines developing a laser drilling process capable of
creating a commercial grade borehole was started, along
with the supporting technology necessary to field a laser
drilling system.
The first major advance in the drilling industry was the
invention of a twin-roller-cutter drill bit by Howard
Hughes in 1908. (The drill bit was used in the early
1920s at The Geysers Geothermal Field in Northern
California.) The drill bit revolutionized the drilling
industry and allowed the Hughes Tool Company to
dominate the drill bit market. The original concept of a
twin roller was improved upon by a researcher at the
Hughes Tool Company and resulted in the introduction
of the tri-cone bit 24 years later, which has been the
workhorse of the drilling industry for the last 80 years.
The next advance in drilling technology was the
introduction of the polycrystalline diamond compact
(PDC) bit by General Electric in 1971, which has
overtaken the tri-cone bit as the market leader in recent
years. However, both bits still struggle with ultra-hard
crystalline rocks such as dolomite, basalt, and granite.
Now, a new type of drilling system that combines a
precision heat source with a PDC bit has been
developed, which is more effective at drilling rocks with
compressive strengths exceeding 30 ksi (kilograms per
square inch) than either a conventional tri-cone bit or a
PDC bit.
The drill bit features a rotating laser beam that fractures
and weakens the rock, combined with a set of PDC
cutters that scrape the weakened rock from the area that
is exposed to the laser beam. The laser energy that exits
the drill bit creates a unique pattern on the rock that is
rotatedmuch like a radar sweepto heat up the
bottom surface of the borehole. The laser effectively
spalls the surface of the rock, and in doing so introduces
micro-fractures that enable easy removal of the layer of
fractured rock. Since the strength of the rock is reduced
during this process, it takes very little mechanical energy
to ultimately remove the rock. For example, a
conventional tri-cone bit requires over 25,000 lbs of
weight on the bit to penetrate rock with > 30 ksi
compressive strength. The new drill bit is capable of
penetrating the same rock at 23 times the rate of
penetration, but with less than 1500 lbs of weight on bit
while being rotated with less than 100 ft-lbs of torque
and using less than 10 hp (horse-power) during the
drilling process. It has successfully drilled through all of
the rocks found in oil, gas, and geothermal applications
A test hole drilled 12 deep in dolomite rock with a
compressive strength exceeding 30 ksi. The
discoloration of the rock is oil discarded by the
drilling motor.
IGA News No. 96 17 July-September 2014
with 4, 6, and 8.5 diameter bits. It has also successfully
integrated the laser drill into a drilling rig and
demonstrated boring a 12 hole through dolomite with a
compressive strength of 30 ksi (see attached figure).
The goal of this project was to demonstrate improved
speeds for drilling through ultra-hard crystalline rock
compared to a conventional drilling system, which in
turn reduces the cost of drilling geothermal wells. With
partnership of the Department of Energys Advanced
Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) and CSM,
a laser-based drilling process with a faster rate of
penetration (23) and substantial decrease in the
weight on bit (>25) has been demonstrated, which
ultimately leads to a longer bit lifetime. The next step is
to perform drilling tests at higher power levels to
characterize the scalability of the drilling process.
Disclaimer note: This report was prepared as an
account of work sponsored by an agency of the United
States Government. Neither the United States
Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their
employees, makes any warranty, express or implied,
or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the
accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any
information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed,
or represents that its use would not infringe privately
owned rights. Reference herein to any specific
commercial product, process, or service by trade
name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does
not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,
recommendation, or favoring by the United States
Government or any agency thereof. The views and
opinions of authors expressed herein do not
necessarily state or reflect those of the United States
Government or any agency thereof.

Technology: Arrangement of
deep borehole exchanger
Dace Ozola and Ojars Ozols
(Note: This collaboration was received from Latvia. In
the opinion of some members of the Information
Committee there is no innovation in the proposed
borehole exchanger, since its description is the
standard today. It was also pointed out that the
description does not include any mention on the
isolation of the inner tube, which is a critical part.
Anyway, it was finally decided to publish an edited
version of the original communication, as follows.)
We have worked out a technical solution for a hot dry
rocks deep borehole heat exchanger (BHE) system of
coaxial pipes, combining directional drilling and
cementing material of improved thermal conductivity.
The technical purpose of this solution is to maximize
efficiency of heat exchange between the hot dry rocks
and the closed loop circulation system, at the same time
keeping its simplicity and safety. The advantages of this
technical solution are the following:
It can be applied anywhere - no search for subsurface
hot water is needed;
It is environmentally friendly - no chemical pollution;
There is no risk of induced seismic activity;
Only one borehole is needed - short drilling time, low
drilling costs;
Different heat exchange fluids can be used in a closed
system but water;
The borehole can be drilled near existing thermal or
electric power plants and connected to regional,
municipal or local networks - no new infrastructure or
wide areas are needed,
It is possible to calculate and control obtainable
amount of heat per unit of time.
The method works in the following way (see figure).
1) First, the vertical borehole (1) is drilled perpendicular
to the surface of the earth to reach the area of
geothermal heat. Approaching the hot layers
(approximately100 C) of the ground (17), the borehole
(1) is deviated in a 30-60 angle against vertical
direction for maximum use of upcoming geothermal
heat flow according to the depth of the borehole, and
the length and diameter of the casing.
IGA News No. 96 18 July-September 2014
2) After drilling the borehole, it is washed under
pressure, as are the void spaces and fractures around the
3) The external circulation pipe (2) is placed into
borehole (1). The external surface of the external pipe
(2), is bonded to the hot rock (17) by some material (6)
of enhanced high thermal conductivity (for example,
cement containing an admixture of aluminum shavings,
flint dust or carbon fibers) filling all natural fractures and
the borehole (1) around the external pipe (2), providing
maximum thermal contact between the surface of the
external pipe (2) and the hot rock (17).
4) Then the end of external pipe (2) is closed by
occluding block (18), forming a closed-loop system. The
internal pipe (4) is inserted into pipe (2), in a free or
coaxially fixed position, forming a loop of downgoing
and upgoing flow (7, 8). The mouth (9) of the internal
pipe (4) is located near the occluding block (18).
5) The heat is transferred from hot rocks (17) to
cementing material of high thermal conductivity (6), then
to external pipe (2), then to the liquid (7). There are no
more void spaces around the pipe decreasing the
effectiveness of heat exchange due to low thermal
conductivity of air. The cementing material (6) of
improved thermal conductivity spreads deep into the
rock, collects the heat from a wider area and divides the
heat flow equally among all surfaces of the external pipe
6) Thermal energy is carried to the surface by the up-
going flow (8). The heated liquid goes to the heat
exchanger and transfers its heat and then returns
through the down-going pipe (2) for re-starting the
We have submitted a patent application of this solution
in the patent office of the Republic of Latvia as private

Technology: New tools for
measurements at high
The Icelandic startup company GIRO recently
introduced a new temperature and pressure
measurement tool that can be used up to 400 C. The
new measurement tool, called HP1, is the result of two-
years of development work at the company, which was
founded in 2011. Icelands National Power Company
(Landsvirkjun) has cooperated with GIRO on
developing the meter and has provided both financial
and technical assistance, plus access to equipment and
wells for testing. Landsvirkjuns CEO Hordur Arnarson
received the first meter at a ceremony in Reykjavik in
March. Initial measurements of temperature and
pressure with HP1 at the Krafla geothermal field in the
North of Iceland were conducted in collaboration with
the Icelandic engineering groups Mannvit, Reykjavik
Energy and Landsvirkjun. The results have been
promising. GIRO is also working on the development of
G1, a heat resistant direction and tilt meter, which is
now being tested. The company hopes to finalize testing
later this year. The new meter will be more heat resistant
than older scopes and will increase efficiency and reduce
the cost of geothermal drilling. Currently one must drill
and cool wells to measure the exact direction and angle.

Analysis: Geothermal Energy -
An Emerging Option for Heat
and Power
Roland N. Horne and Jefferson W.
(Excerpts by Luis C.A. Gutirrez-Negrn from an article
by Roland Horne and Jeff Tester originally published in
The Bridge, a quarterly journal edited by the US
National Academy of Engineering, Vol. 44, No. 1,
Spring 2014.)
() This renewed interest (in geothermal energy) is the
result of world economic and political forcesmainly
increased oil prices and moral preference for renewable
energycombined with technological advances making
geothermal energy more accessible. There have been
three particularly significant innovations in utilization
1. Increased use of innovative power plants, often by
marrying steam turbine (flash) plants with binary cycle
plants or using cogeneration approaches to provide both
heat and electric power. The result is an increased
recovery of thermal energy from the resource.
2. Use of fluids of lower temperature, with refined
binary cycle power plants. The result is the wider
availability of producible resources. A noteworthy
example is the 250 kilowatt (kW) organic Rankine cycle
plant at Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, which produces
electricity from a very low temperature (74 C)
geothermal resource (Lund et al., 2010).
3. Reservoir enhancement techniques. Over the past 35
years around the world, many EGS (Enhanced or
Engineered Geothermal Systems) field projects at
various scales have been under development. The first
commercial EGS plant began operations in Landau,
Germany, in 2007 (Schellschmidt et al., 2010). By 2013
active EGS field projects were operating at three sites in
Europe, one in Australia, and five in the United States.
IGA News No. 96 19 July-September 2014
For many years geothermal power plants had a degree of
uniformity thanks to the general adoption of strategies
that had worked in the small number of early flash
plants. Based on experience in the dry steam fields at
The Geysers in California, the 55-MW plant came to be
accepted as normal in size, and based on reservoir
temperatures common at the time turbine inlet pressures
tended to be in the vicinity of 600 kilopascals (kPa).
Recently, however, there has been considerable variation
in plant design. A good example is the combined cycle
plant at Rotokawa, New Zealand, one of the first built
with binary bottoming cycles supplied from the exhaust
of a steam flash plant. It combines a back-pressure
steam turbine that has a very high inlet pressure (2,550
kPa) with multiple binary cycle plants that receive the
exit steam (Legmann and Sullivan, 2003). This combined
cycle unit has a steam consumption of around 5 kg/kWh
(kilowatt hour), which is better to the steam
consumption of about 8 kg/kWh at The Geysers
(computed from data in Sanyal and Enedy, 2011) or
around 9 kg/kWh in Ahuachapn, El Salvador (Handal
et al., 2007).
Combinations of binary and flash plants are now found
in several other projects and in some cases have been
integrated into a range of direct uses and other
applications. An excellent example of such integration is
the Svartsengi power plant on Icelands Reykjanes
Peninsula. It provides hot water and CO2 for a range of
usesfish farming, carbon recycling, enhanced crop and
algae growth in geothermally heated and lighted
greenhouses and photobioreactors, and warm water for
the Blue Lagoon spa resort.
There is also interest in the combination of geothermal
generation with other sources, as in the geothermal-solar
operations in Ahuachapn (Alvarenga et al., 2008;
Handal et al., 2007) and Stillwater, Nevada (Greenhut et
al., 2010). The combination of geothermal and solar
thermal energy provides an opportunity to raise source
fluid temperatures and even out the inherent
intermittency of insolation. The combination of solar
photovoltaic and geothermal sources allows for
increased generation in the hot afternoon, when the air-
cooled condensers of geothermal binary plants are at
their lowest efficiency. Other designs combining gasified
biomass and geothermal heat are under consideration
(Tester et al., 2010).
Innovation will certainly continue with new hybrid
energy combinations for the supply of heat and power
and for the possible use of geothermal reservoirs to
sequester CO2 generated from fossil fuel power plants
(Randolph and Saar, 2011).
As electric production from lower temperatures
becomes more common, another intriguing possibility is
the recovery of geothermal energy from coproduced
fluids, such as water brought to the surface in oil fields.
Pilot projects are in operation in Wyoming (Johnson and
Walker, 2010) and Huabei, China (Gong et al., 2011).
The global oil industry produces as much as 300 million
barrels of water per day (540,000 kg/s) and in many
places the temperatures are within the range of
operational geothermal power plants. Oil field
operations are often substantial consumers of electrical
power, so the generation of electricity local to the
operation is of particular benefit.
The importance of resource temperature is somewhat
more complex than appears at first. Although in simple
terms it is true that hotter is better, there remains a
hole in resource accessibility because self-flowing
steam/water wells in hydrothermal systems drop
substantially in productivity at temperatures below a
certain range, while in pumped wells the downhole
pumps are effective only up to a specific temperature
range. This was succinctly described by Sanyal and
colleagues (2007), who showed that a gap lies roughly
between 190 and 220 C, where neither pumped nor
self-flowing wells provide sufficient thermal output
(Figure 2). This resource temperature gap represents a
technological challenge that is being addressed by the
geothermal industry.
The prospect for major expansion of geothermal
development lies in EGS when one or more of the three
critical ingredients for an operable system are lacking:
sufficient reservoir permeability and porosity, sufficient
Figure 2. Net megawatt (MW) capacity of a
geothermal well as a function of temperature. The
productivity index (PI) is defined as the ratio of the
volumetric flow rate of produced fluid divided by the
pressure drop through the reservoir. l/s/bar
=liters/second/bar. Reprinted (in The Bridge) with
permission from Sanyal et al. (2007).
IGA News No. 96 20 July-September 2014
quantities of natural steam or hot water in the reservoir,
and sufficiently high temperatures (Figure 3).
EGS provide a means of using geothermal energy when
hydrothermal conditions are not ideal, that is, when
natural conditions in the host rock do not provide
sufficient fluid content and/or connected permeability.
The idea behind EGS is to emulate what nature provides
in high-grade hydrothermal reservoirs at depths where
rock temperatures are sufficient for power or heating
applications. A fractured reservoir is stimulated
hydraulically and connected to an injection and
production well separated by sufficient distances to yield
a sustainable system for extracting the stored thermal
energy in the rock.
But there remain several important challenges before
EGS will be ready for commercial development: an
increase in production rates by a factor of 2 to 4 to reach
levels comparable to those of commercial hydrothermal
reservoirs, the achievement of sustained production with
sufficient reservoir thermal lifetimes, and demonstration
of the effective application of EGS technology over a
range of geologic conditions. A MIT-led study (Tester et
al., 2006, 2007) and recent IPCC report (Goldstein et al.,
2011) provide detailed evaluations of the technical and
economic requirements and deployment status and
potential of EGS.
Geothermal energy has experienced a renaissance in the
past 10 years as many new technologies and countries
have joined the industry. The technology for generating
electricity and deploying district heating from high-grade
hydrothermal systems is relatively mature and reliable.
Technologies for geothermal heat pumps are also mature
and are being deployed at increasing rates in the United
States and Europe. The use of innovative hybrid and
combined heat and power plants, lower resource
temperatures, and enhanced reservoir stimulation
methods are making geothermal energy accessible in a
much greater variety of places. At a number of field test
sites in the United States and elsewhere, EGS
technologies are being demonstrated at a scale that is
approaching commercial levels and, if operated long
enough to prove sustained production, would enable the
deployment of a substantially increased fraction of the
huge geothermal resource base, which for the United
States amounts to about 14 million exajoules (Tester et
al., 2007).
Cited References
Alvarenga Y, Handal S, Recinos M. 2008. Solar steam
booster in the Ahuachapn geothermal field.
Geothermal Resources Council Transactions 32:395399.
Goldstein B, Hiriart G, Bertani R, Bromley C, Gutirrez-
Negrn L, Huenges E, Muraoka H, Ragnarsson A,
Tester J, Zui V. 2011. Geothermal energy. In: IPCC
Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate
Change Mitigation. Edenhofer O, Pichs-Madruga R,
Sokona Y, Seyboth K, Matschoss P, Kadner S,
Zwickel T, Eickemeier P, Hansen G, Schlmer S,
Von Stechow C, eds. Cambridge and New York:
Cambridge University Press.
Gong B, Liang H, Xin S, Li K. 2011. Effect of water
injection on reservoir temperature during power
generation in oil fields. Proceedings of the 36th Workshop
on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford
University, January 31February 2.
Greenhut AD, Tester JW, DiPippo R, Field R, Love C,
Nichols K, Augustine C, Batini F, Price B, Gigliucci
G, Fastelli I. 2010. Solar-geothermal hybrid cycle
analysis for low enthalpy solar and geothermal
resources. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress, Bali,
Indonesia, April 2529.
Handal S, Alvarenga Y, Recinos M. 2007. Geothermal
steam production by solar energy. Geothermal
Resources Council Transactions 31:503510.
Johnson LA, Walker E. 2010. Oil production waste
stream, a source of electrical power. Proceedings of the
35th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering,
Stanford University, February 13.
Legmann H, Sullivan P. 2003. The 30 MW Rotokawa I
Geothermal Project: Five years of operation.
International Geothermal Conference, Reykjavk, September.
Figure 3. The continuum of geothermal resources as a
function of average temperature gradient, natural
connectivity, and fluid content. Relative values of
permeability (k) and porosity () indicate effective
ranges in natural geologic settings. The arbitrary scale
for permeability is the ratio between the effective
permeability of the entire geothermal system relative to
a very permeable unconsolidated sand. Adapted from
Thorsteinsson et al. (2008). T = geothermal
temperature gradient.
IGA News No. 96 21 July-September 2014
Lund JW, Gawell K, Boyd TL, Jennejohn D. 2010. The
United States of America country update 2010.
Proceedings World Geothermal Congress, Bali, Indonesia,
April 2529.
Randolph JB, Saar MO. 2011. Combining geothermal
energy capture with geologic carbon dioxide
sequestration. Geophysical Research Letters 38:L10401.
Sanyal SK, Morrow JW, Butler SJ. 2007. Net power
capacity of geothermal wells versus reservoir
temperature: A practical perspective. Proceedings of the
32nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering,
Stanford University, January 2224.
Sanyal SK, Enedy SL. 2011. Fifty years of power
generation at the Geysers geothermal field,
California: The lessons learned. Proceedings of the 36th
Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford
University, January 31February 2.
Schellschmidt R, Sanner B, Pester S, Schulz R. 2010.
Geothermal energy use in Germany. Proceedings World
Geothermal Congress, Bali, Indonesia, April 2529.
Tester JW, Blackwell D, Petty S, Richards M, Moore
MC, Anderson B, Livesay B, Augustine C, DiPippo
R, Nichols K, Veatch R, Drake E, Toksoz N, Baria
R, Batchelor AS, Garnish J. 2006. The future of
geothermal energy: An assessment of the energy supply
potential of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) for the
United States. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
and Department of Energy Report, for the US DOE
Idaho National Laboratory, INL/EXT-06-11746
(2006) presented at the 32nd Workshop on
Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford
University, January 2224, 2007. Available at
Tester JW, Anderson BJ, Batchelor AS, Blackwell DD,
DiPippo R, Drake EM, Garnish J, Livesay B, Moore
MC, Nichols K, Petty S, Toksoz MN, Veatch RW,
Baria R, Augustine C, Murphy E, Negraru P,
Richards M. 2007. Impact of enhanced geothermal
systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first
century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A:
Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Tester JW, Joyce WS, Brown L, Bland B, Clark A,
Jordan T, Andronicos C, Allmendinger R, Beyers S,
Blackwell D, Richards M, Frone Z, Anderson B.
2010. Co-generation opportunities for lower grade
geothermal resources in the Northeast: A case study
of the Cornell site in Ithaca, NY. Proceedings of the
Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting,
Sacramento, CA, October 2427.

Geochemistry: Integrated
Solute Geothermometry
Solute geothermometers have been successfully used for
decades to infer the temperatures of deep geothermal
reservoirs (temperature being a key parameter in
evaluating how productive a geothermal source could
be) from analyses of spring or exploration-well fluid
samples. However, traditional geothermometers relying
on the concentrations of one or a few solutes have
limitations, particularly when geothermal fluids
ascending to the ground surface are affected by gas loss,
mixing, or dilution with shallower waters, masking their
deep geochemical signatures.
A team of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of the
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the U.S.
revisited a geothermometry method relying on the
saturation indices of multiple minerals computed from
full chemical analyses of geothermal fluids. The method
was initially developed in the early 1980s by Dr. Mark
Reed at the University of Oregon. Now, the ESD team
with Nicolas Spycher and Loic Peiffer as lead, and
including Christoph Wanner, Eric Sonnenthal, Guiseppi
Saldi, and Mack Kennedy, aimed to simplify the
application of this method and to combine it with
numerical optimization for a more integral application
using multiple water analyses simultaneously and from
various locations. The reconstruction of the deep
geothermal uid compositions and geothermometry
computations were implemented into a stand-alone
program (Geo-T), allowing unknown or poorly
constrained input parameters to be estimated by
numerical optimization using external parameter
estimation software. The reservoir temperature was then
estimated by numerically assessing the clustering of
mineral saturation indices computed as a function of
This new geothermometry system was tested both with
geothermal waters from previous studies, and with uids
at various degrees of waterrock chemical equilibrium
obtained from laboratory experiments and reactive
transport simulations. The method was further tested
and applied at the Dixie Valley geothermal system. Such
an integrated geothermometry approach presents
advantages over classical geothermometers for uids
that have not been fully equilibrated with reservoir
minerals, or that have been subject to processes such as
dilution and gas loss. The range of applications for this
method and other solute geothermometers was further
investigated using a reactive transport model and
IGA News No. 96 22 July-September 2014
simulated geothermal springs under various rates of fluid
ascent and reaction with surrounding rocks.
Three papers presenting this new system are to appear in
the July 2014 issue of Geothermics. The first paper
(Spycher et al., 2014) details the geothermometry
approach. In the second paper (Peiffer et al., 2014) the
approach is applied to the Dixie Valley geothermal
system in Nevada. In the third paper (Wanner et al.,
2014), a reactive-transport model of Dixie Valley is
applied to evaluate deep fluid and thermal flow patterns
at this site, as well as to test various solute
geothermometry methods using synthetic water
compositions from a modeled spring.
Science: Water trapped in the
mantle can be the source of
our oceans
A reservoir of water three times the volume of all the
oceans has been discovered deep beneath the earths
surface. The finding could help explain where the earths
seas came from. The water is hidden inside a blue rock
called ringwoodite that lies 700 kilometres deep in the
mantle. This new discovery supports an alternative idea
that the oceans gradually oozed out of the interior of the
early earth. There is good evidence the earths water
came from within, says Steven Jacobsen of
Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. The
hidden water could also act as a buffer for the oceans on
the surface, explaining why they have stayed the same
size for millions of years. Jacobsens team used
seismological data, grew ringwoodite in his lab and
exposed samples of it to massive pressures and
temperatures matching those at 700 kilometers down.
They found signs of wet ringwoodite in the transition
zone 700 kilometers down, which divides the upper and
lower regions of the mantle. At that depth, the pressures
and temperatures are just right to squeeze the water out
of the ringwoodite. It is rock with water along the
boundaries between the grains, almost as if they're
sweating, says Jacobsen.
Jacobsens finding supports a recent study by Graham
Pearson of the University of Alberta in Edmonton,
Canada. Pearson studied a diamond from the transition
zone that had been carried to the surface in a volcano,
and found that it contained water-bearing ringwoodite,
the first strong evidence that there was lots of water in
the transition zone. Since our initial report of hydrous
ringwoodite, weve found another ringwoodite crystal,
also containing water, so the evidence is now very
strong, says Pearson.
So far, Jacobsen only has evidence that the watery rock
sits beneath the U.S. He now wants to find out if it
wraps around the entire planet.

The purpose of WING (Women
in Geothermal)
Andrea Blair
Chair of WING (
The purpose of WING is to promote the education,
professional development and advancement of women
in the geothermal community (worldwide). It is free to
join and members come from all aspects of industry,
Example multicomponent geothermometry using
a geothermal water from Long Valley, California.
The temperature is determined from the
saturation indices of all minerals shown. Top:
saturation indices as a function of temperature.
Bottom: minimization of saturation indices using
standard statistical functions (median, mean,
root mean square and standard deviation).
Results of classical geothermometers are also
shown for comparison (using the reconstructed
composition of the deep fluid) (Figure taken
IGA News No. 96 23 July-September 2014
IGA News
IGA News is published quarterly by the International
Geothermal Association. The function of IGA News
is to disseminate timely information about geothermal
activities throughout the world. To this end, a group
of correspondents has agreed to supply news for each
issue. The core of this group consists of the IGA
Information Committee:
Luis C.A. Gutirrez-Negrn, Mexico (Chairman)
Rolf Bracke, Germany
Paul Brophy, USA
Varun Chandrasekharam, India
Surya Darma, Indonesia
Ldvk S. Georgsson, Iceland
Jos Luis Henrquez, El Salvador
Susan F. Hodgson, USA
Eduardo Iglesias, Mexico
Marcelo J. Lippmann, USA
Alfredo Man-Mercado, Mexico
Fernando (Ronnie) Pearroyo, Philippines
Paul Quinlivan, New Zealand
Alexander Richter, Iceland
Horst Rueter, Germany
Benedikt Steingrmsson, Iceland
Koichi Tagomori, Japan
Shigeto Yamada, Japan
The members of this group submit geothermal news
from their parts of the world, or relevant to their
areas of specialization. If you have some news, a
report, or an article for IGA News, you can send it to
any of the above individuals, or directly to the IGA
Secretariat. Please help us to become essential reading
for anyone seeking the latest information on
geothermal worldwide.
While the editorial team makes every effort to ensure
accuracy, the opinions expressed in contributed
articles remain those of the authors and are not
necessarily those of the IGA. The editorial team does
not assume any liability for external content taken
from public sources and websites, or endorse the
products or services mentioned.
Send IGA News contributions to the editor
( and/or:
International Geothermal Association (IGA)
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Lennershofstr. 140, 44801 Bochum, Germany
Tel.: +49 (0)234 32 10712, Fax: +49 (0)234 3214809
This issue of IGA News was edited by Luis C.A.
Gutirrez-Negrn. Susan F. Hodgson proofread the
articles. Distributed by Marietta Sander for the IGA
Secretariat. Design layout by Franois Vuataz.
from science and engineering through to business, legal,
and government. It is a supportive environment whereby
we arent looking to place blame, we actually like men,
but to empower our WING. We have country/region
Ambassadors, and a Global Steering Committee which
drive the WING engine.
WINGs focus for the next year is Bringing Us
Together; gathering the coalition of the willing;
networking through events, conversations on Facebook
and Linked In; and old fashioned getting out there and
talking to each other.
I have recently taken over the position as Global Chair
for WING, and look forward to growing our
international WING network of amazing women. In my
day job I do a lot of international travel, and have met
some inspiring women in our industry that are working
hard and making things happen.
At the World Geothermal Congress in Melbourne and
New Zealand next year we will be having a global
WING networking event and an Ambassadors meeting
to develop the WING direction for the next five years.
Here we will decide where we will put our energy. In the
meantime, I encourage you WINGs out there to
participate in the events and online communication,
make an effort to meet and talk to other women in
geothermal, chase those leadership roles and be visible
to our community!
In fact if you wish to host a WING event, which can be
as small as after work drinks, I encourage you to do so
(and let us know about it). Put a group of smart women
into a room together and awesomeness is bound to
If you are travelling to another country for work or play
and would like to meet other WINGs just let us know
and we can put you in touch with local members.
Upcoming WING events:
- WING Networking Event during the 38th Annual
Meeting of the GRC, Portland, US. Tuesday 30th
September 2014, 5-7 pm, Urban Farmer, 525 SW
Morrison St.
- WING Networking Event during New Zealand
Geothermal Workshop, 24-26th November 2014,
Auckland, NZ.
- WING Networking Event + Ambassadors Meeting
during World Geothermal Congress 2015, 19-25th April
2015, Melbourne Australia and New Zealand.

If you are interested in becoming a WING member send
me an email saying add me to the Team.
Go forth with the power of awesomeness!
IGA News No. 96 24 July-September 2014
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