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CSC 504

Semester Assignment
AMUDA, Tosin Joseph
Cloud Services Promoted By IBM Cloud Computing Technology
1.0 Introduction
IBM cloud like every other cloud computing providers their services according to several
fundamental models: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), softare as a service (SaaS)
and platform as a service (!aaS) offered through pu"lic, private and hy"rid cloud delivery
models, in addition to the components that make up those clouds#
IaaS is the most "asic and each higher model a"stracts from the details of the loer models# $ther key
components in anything as a service (%aaS) are descri"ed in a comprehensive ta&onomy model pu"lished
in 2''(, such as Strategy)as)a)Service, *olla"oration)as)a)Service, Business !rocess)as)a)Service,
+ata"ase)as)a)Service, etc# In 2'12, netork as a service (,aaS) and communication as a service (*aaS)
ere officially included "y I-. (International -elecommunication .nion) as part of the "asic cloud
computing models, recogni/ed service categories of a telecommunication)centric cloud ecosystem
1.1 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
1rom IBM, the definition of infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is pretty simple# 2ou rent cloud
infrastructure ) servers, storage and netorking) over the internet on demand, in a pay)as)
you)go model#
-he IaaS model provides 3ust the cloud infrastructure: hardare and netork4 the customer
installs or develops its on operating systems, softare and applications#
*ompute servers, storage, and netorking hardare delivered as a service# -his infrastructure
hardare is often virtuali/ed, so virtuali/ation, management and operating system softare
are also part of IaaS as ell#
1.2 Software as a Service (SaaS)
5pplications delivered as a service to end)users typically through a 6e" "roser# -here are
hundreds of SaaS service offerings availa"le today, ranging from hori/ontal enterprise
applications to speciali/ed applications for specific industries, and also consumer applications
such as 6e")"ased email#
SaaS has "ecome a common delivery model for many "usiness applications, including office
7 messaging softare, +BMS softare, management softare, *5+ softare, +evelopment
softare, gamification, virtuali/ation, accounting,colla"oration, customer relationship
management (*8M), management information systems (MIS), enterprise resource
planning (98!), invoicing, human resource management(:8M), content management (*M)
and service desk management#
1.3 Platform as a Service (PaaS)
5n application development and deployment platform delivered as a service to developers
ho use the platform to "uild, deploy and manage SaaS applications# -he platform typically
includes data"ases, middleare and development tools, all delivered as a service via the
Internet# !aaS offerings are often specific to a programming language or 5!Is, such as <ava
or !ython# 5 virtuali/ed and clustered grid computing architecture is often the "asis for !aaS
offerings, "ecause grid provides the necessary elastic scala"ility and resource pooling#
Measures of Graceful Degradation Provided in Linu and
!indo"s #S
2.0 Introduction
Increased relia"ility of a computer system is crucial in many applications# -he a"ility of a
system to fall "ack to a reduced level of service hen a fault occurs and to revert to normal
operations hen the fault is rectified is called Graceful Degradation# -his is also knon as
fault tolerance#
-he $S must also "e capa"le of providing system reconfiguration schemes to support
graceful degradation# -he $S uses "oth hardare and softare duplication to ensure
continued operation despite faults#
2.1 Graceful Degradation in Windows
6indos $perating System uses the folloing fault tolerance mechanisms:
2.1.1 edundant !rra" of Ine#$ensive dis%s (!ID)
85I+ is a fault tolerant method of storing data, meaning that a failure can occur and the
system ill still function# 6hen 85I+ is hardare supported, the 85I+ hardare ill
perform parity calculations, thus freeing the system# -he various 85I+ categories supported
"y indos are:
+isk mirroring (85I+1) ) $ne disk is a mirror copy of the other# -his is geared for
relia"lilty, not speed# -he "oot and system partition may "e mirrored# Mirrored
volumes must "e of the same si/e# Mirroring is done "y clicking on the volume to "e
mirrored hile holding the *-8? key don, then clicking on some free space of
eAual or greater si/e hile the *-8? key is held don# -hen click B1ault -oleranceB,
BmirrorB, and Besta"lish mirrorB# -o "reak a mirror, click on the mirror, and "reak#
+isk Striping (85I+') ) +ata is split into sections ith part of the data "eing ritten
to each disk in parallel# *an use 2 to 02 disks# -his provides speed "ut not relia"ility
unless disk striping ith parity is used# 9ach partition in a stripe set must "e the same
si/e# -he "oot or system partition may not "e part of a stripe set# +ata is stored in >;C
"locks# Must drives "e of the same type to "e part of a stripe setD (I donEt think so#)
+isk striping ith parity (85I+2F0F;F=) ) -he same as disk striping e&cept an
additional disk that stores parity information is used# *an use 0 to 02 disks# -he parity
information may "e used to recreate the contents of a failed drive# 5t least three disks
are reAuired to create a stripe set ith parity# -o make a stripe set from +isk
5dministrator, click on three areas of free space on three drives# 1rom the fault
tolerance menu choose Bcreate stripe set ith parityB# Select the B!artitionB menu,
Bcommit changesB# 8e"oot, then format the stripe set "y highlighting the stripe set and
selecting BtoolsB, and BformatB#
2..2 Dis! duple"ing
9ach disk gets its on controller so one controller failure canEt "ring "oth disks don#
6ithout redundant controllers, this is the same as disk mirroring#
2..# $eplication
In 6indos Server, one server is a complete copy of another in case one server fails# $ne is
used as a primary server and the other is a "ackup server#

2.2 Graceful Degradation in &inu#
2.2.1 !ID '$tions
-hree versions of 85I+ are associated ith ?I,.%: 85I+ ', 85I+ 1, 85I+ =
-he various 85I+ categories are:
' ) +isk striping ) +ata is ritten across multiple drives in parallel# +ifferent parts of the data
is ritten at the same time to more than one drive# If there are to drives, half the data is
ritten to one drive, hile the rest of the data is ritten to the other drive# 5ll partitions on
striped drives must "e the same si/e# ,o fault tolerance is provided ith 85I+)'#
1 ) +isk mirroring ) 5ll the data is ritten to to drives so each drive has a complete of all
stored data# If one drive fails, the other can "e used to get a copy of the data# -o "e more fault
tolerant, more than one controller card may "e used to control the mirrored hard drives# -his
is called disk duple&ing and ill allo the system to keep functioning if one controller card
= ) +isk striping ith "locks ith parity information stored using multiple drives# .ses five
disks ith one fifth of each one to store parity information#
#S Issues $Security% Peculiar to Linu and !indo"s #S
3. 0 (ile )anagement
(ile S"stem
6indos supports a variety of file systems, including the legacy 15-F15-02 file systems
from +$SF6indos and formats common to *+s and +H+s#
-he most common file system used in 6indos is %T&', hich has many advanced
features related to security, encryption, compression, 3ournalling, change notifications,
and inde&ing "uilt in#
?inu& supports a variety of file systems, including Microsoft file systems, for
compati"ility and inter)operation#
-he most common file systems are ("t2,("t#,and )*M+s J&' 3ournaling file system
(ile S"stem Im$lementation
6indos file systems are implemented as device drivers, and can "e stacked in layers, as
ith other device drivers, due to the o"3ect)oriented implementation of 6indos IF$#
-ypically ,-1S is sandiched "eteen 0rd party filter drivers, hich implement functions
like anti)virus, and the volume management drivers, hich implement 85I+
?inu& file systems are implemented using the Hirtual 1ile System (H1S) techniAue developed
"y Sun Microsystems# 1ile systems are plug)ins in the H1S model, hich is similar to the
general o"3ect)oriented model used for "lock and character devices#
(ile Permission
Discretionar. access control /DA012 *ontrols access "ased on the identity of the reAuestor
and on access rules (authori/ations) stating hat reAuestors are (or are not) alloed to do#
-his policy is termed discretionary "ecause an entity might have access rights that permit the
entity, "y its on volition, to ena"le another entity to access some resource#
8ole)"ased access control (8B5*): *ontrols access "ased on the roles that users have ithin
the system and on rules stating hat accesses are alloed to users in given roles#
9ach .,I% user is assigned a uniAue user identification num"er (user I+)#5 user is also a
mem"er of a primary group, and possi"ly a num"er of other groups, each identified "y a
group I+#6hen a file is created, it is designated as oned "y a particular user and marked
ith that userIs I+#It also "elongs to a specific group, hich initially is either its creatorIs
primary group, or the group of its parent directory if that directory has SetJI+ permission set