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CSC 504

Semester Assignment
AMUDA, Tosin Joseph
090805009
UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
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Cloud Services Promoted By IBM Cloud Computing Technology
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1.0 Introduction
IBM cloud like every other cloud computing providers their services according to several
fundamental models: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), softare as a service (SaaS)
and platform as a service (!aaS) offered through pu"lic, private and hy"rid cloud delivery
models, in addition to the components that make up those clouds#
IaaS is the most "asic and each higher model a"stracts from the details of the loer models# $ther key
components in anything as a service (%aaS) are descri"ed in a comprehensive ta&onomy model pu"lished
in 2''(, such as Strategy)as)a)Service, *olla"oration)as)a)Service, Business !rocess)as)a)Service,
+ata"ase)as)a)Service, etc# In 2'12, netork as a service (,aaS) and communication as a service (*aaS)
ere officially included "y I-. (International -elecommunication .nion) as part of the "asic cloud
computing models, recogni/ed service categories of a telecommunication)centric cloud ecosystem
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1.1 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
1rom IBM, the definition of infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is pretty simple# 2ou rent cloud
infrastructure ) servers, storage and netorking) over the internet on demand, in a pay)as)
you)go model#
-he IaaS model provides 3ust the cloud infrastructure: hardare and netork4 the customer
installs or develops its on operating systems, softare and applications#
*ompute servers, storage, and netorking hardare delivered as a service# -his infrastructure
hardare is often virtuali/ed, so virtuali/ation, management and operating system softare
are also part of IaaS as ell#
1.2 Software as a Service (SaaS)
5pplications delivered as a service to end)users typically through a 6e" "roser# -here are
hundreds of SaaS service offerings availa"le today, ranging from hori/ontal enterprise
applications to speciali/ed applications for specific industries, and also consumer applications
such as 6e")"ased email#
SaaS has "ecome a common delivery model for many "usiness applications, including office
7 messaging softare, +BMS softare, management softare, *5+ softare, +evelopment
softare, gamification, virtuali/ation, accounting,colla"oration, customer relationship
management (*8M), management information systems (MIS), enterprise resource
planning (98!), invoicing, human resource management(:8M), content management (*M)
and service desk management#
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1.3 Platform as a Service (PaaS)
5n application development and deployment platform delivered as a service to developers
ho use the platform to "uild, deploy and manage SaaS applications# -he platform typically
includes data"ases, middleare and development tools, all delivered as a service via the
Internet# !aaS offerings are often specific to a programming language or 5!Is, such as <ava
or !ython# 5 virtuali/ed and clustered grid computing architecture is often the "asis for !aaS
offerings, "ecause grid provides the necessary elastic scala"ility and resource pooling#
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Measures of Graceful Degradation Provided in Linu and
!indo"s #S
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2.0 Introduction
Increased relia"ility of a computer system is crucial in many applications# -he a"ility of a
system to fall "ack to a reduced level of service hen a fault occurs and to revert to normal
operations hen the fault is rectified is called Graceful Degradation# -his is also knon as
fault tolerance#
-he $S must also "e capa"le of providing system reconfiguration schemes to support
graceful degradation# -he $S uses "oth hardare and softare duplication to ensure
continued operation despite faults#
2.1 Graceful Degradation in Windows
6indos $perating System uses the folloing fault tolerance mechanisms:
2.1.1 edundant !rra" of Ine#$ensive dis%s (!ID)
85I+ is a fault tolerant method of storing data, meaning that a failure can occur and the
system ill still function# 6hen 85I+ is hardare supported, the 85I+ hardare ill
perform parity calculations, thus freeing the system# -he various 85I+ categories supported
"y indos are:
+isk mirroring (85I+1) ) $ne disk is a mirror copy of the other# -his is geared for
relia"lilty, not speed# -he "oot and system partition may "e mirrored# Mirrored
volumes must "e of the same si/e# Mirroring is done "y clicking on the volume to "e
mirrored hile holding the *-8? key don, then clicking on some free space of
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eAual or greater si/e hile the *-8? key is held don# -hen click B1ault -oleranceB,
BmirrorB, and Besta"lish mirrorB# -o "reak a mirror, click on the mirror, and "reak#
+isk Striping (85I+') ) +ata is split into sections ith part of the data "eing ritten
to each disk in parallel# *an use 2 to 02 disks# -his provides speed "ut not relia"ility
unless disk striping ith parity is used# 9ach partition in a stripe set must "e the same
si/e# -he "oot or system partition may not "e part of a stripe set# +ata is stored in >;C
"locks# Must drives "e of the same type to "e part of a stripe setD (I donEt think so#)
+isk striping ith parity (85I+2F0F;F=) ) -he same as disk striping e&cept an
additional disk that stores parity information is used# *an use 0 to 02 disks# -he parity
information may "e used to recreate the contents of a failed drive# 5t least three disks
are reAuired to create a stripe set ith parity# -o make a stripe set from +isk
5dministrator, click on three areas of free space on three drives# 1rom the fault
tolerance menu choose Bcreate stripe set ith parityB# Select the B!artitionB menu,
Bcommit changesB# 8e"oot, then format the stripe set "y highlighting the stripe set and
selecting BtoolsB, and BformatB#
2..2 Dis! duple"ing
9ach disk gets its on controller so one controller failure canEt "ring "oth disks don#
6ithout redundant controllers, this is the same as disk mirroring#
2..# $eplication
In 6indos Server, one server is a complete copy of another in case one server fails# $ne is
used as a primary server and the other is a "ackup server#

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2.2 Graceful Degradation in &inu#
2.2.1 !ID '$tions
-hree versions of 85I+ are associated ith ?I,.%: 85I+ ', 85I+ 1, 85I+ =
-he various 85I+ categories are:
' ) +isk striping ) +ata is ritten across multiple drives in parallel# +ifferent parts of the data
is ritten at the same time to more than one drive# If there are to drives, half the data is
ritten to one drive, hile the rest of the data is ritten to the other drive# 5ll partitions on
striped drives must "e the same si/e# ,o fault tolerance is provided ith 85I+)'#
1 ) +isk mirroring ) 5ll the data is ritten to to drives so each drive has a complete of all
stored data# If one drive fails, the other can "e used to get a copy of the data# -o "e more fault
tolerant, more than one controller card may "e used to control the mirrored hard drives# -his
is called disk duple&ing and ill allo the system to keep functioning if one controller card
fails#
= ) +isk striping ith "locks ith parity information stored using multiple drives# .ses five
disks ith one fifth of each one to store parity information#
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#S Issues $Security% Peculiar to Linu and !indo"s #S
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3. 0 (ile )anagement
(ile S"stem
Windows*
6indos supports a variety of file systems, including the legacy 15-F15-02 file systems
from +$SF6indos and formats common to *+s and +H+s#
-he most common file system used in 6indos is %T&', hich has many advanced
features related to security, encryption, compression, 3ournalling, change notifications,
and inde&ing "uilt in#
&inu#
?inu& supports a variety of file systems, including Microsoft file systems, for
compati"ility and inter)operation#
-he most common file systems are ("t2,("t#,and )*M+s J&' 3ournaling file system
(ile S"stem Im$lementation
Windows
6indos file systems are implemented as device drivers, and can "e stacked in layers, as
ith other device drivers, due to the o"3ect)oriented implementation of 6indos IF$#
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-ypically ,-1S is sandiched "eteen 0rd party filter drivers, hich implement functions
like anti)virus, and the volume management drivers, hich implement 85I+
&inu#
?inu& file systems are implemented using the Hirtual 1ile System (H1S) techniAue developed
"y Sun Microsystems# 1ile systems are plug)ins in the H1S model, hich is similar to the
general o"3ect)oriented model used for "lock and character devices#
(ile Permission
,indo-s
Discretionar. access control /DA012 *ontrols access "ased on the identity of the reAuestor
and on access rules (authori/ations) stating hat reAuestors are (or are not) alloed to do#
-his policy is termed discretionary "ecause an entity might have access rights that permit the
entity, "y its on volition, to ena"le another entity to access some resource#
&inu#
8ole)"ased access control (8B5*): *ontrols access "ased on the roles that users have ithin
the system and on rules stating hat accesses are alloed to users in given roles#
9ach .,I% user is assigned a uniAue user identification num"er (user I+)#5 user is also a
mem"er of a primary group, and possi"ly a num"er of other groups, each identified "y a
group I+#6hen a file is created, it is designated as oned "y a particular user and marked
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ith that userIs I+#It also "elongs to a specific group, hich initially is either its creatorIs
primary group, or the group of its parent directory if that directory has SetJI+ permission set
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