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BIOMETRICS

CONTENTS
1.INTRODUCTION
2.HISTORY
3. POPULAR BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGIES
FINGER RECOGNITION
FACE RECOGNITION
HAND RECOGNITION
IRIS RECOGNITION
VOICE RECOGNITION
SIGNATURE RECOGNITION
4. PROPERTIES
5. APPLICATIONS
6.FUTURE APPLICATIONS
7. DRAWBACKS
8 CONCLUSION
9.BIBLOGRAPHY
electronically, Instead of with pencil and paper
or face to face. This growth in electronic
transactions has resulted in a greater demand
for fast and accurate user identification and
authentication.Traditional means of security
using personal identification numbers (PINs)
through passwords or security-access cards
(smart cards) has a major drawback. They
recognize the PIN but not the person who has
provided it. So we would like to give information
on more secured way, which is biometrics
security.

ABSTRACT Biometrics is the science and


This present century is full of inventions technology of authentication (i.e.
and discovery, which lead to the invention of establishing the identity of an individual)
many sophisticated things. The more the things by measuring the person's physiological
are the more the security is needed. This has or behavioral features. The term is
lead to the invention of many security items. The derived from the Greek words "bios"
information age is quickly revolutionizing the for life and "metron" for degree.
way transactions are completed. Every day Biometrics ensures that the
actions are increasingly being handled individual trying to log on is actually
the authorized person and not just
someone who maliciously found a that converts the scanned
card or cracked a password. information into digital form, and,
Biometric technology is a way to wherever the data is to be analyzed,
achieve fast, user-friendly a database that stores the biometric
authentication with a high level of data for comparison with entered
accuracy. . The promise of ease and biometric data.
increased security are perhaps Biometrics is seen by many as a
biometrics most appealing features. solution to a lot of the user identification and
security problems in today’s networks. Password
abuse and misuse, intentional and inadvertent is
a gaping hole in network security. This results
The popular biometric mainly from human error, carelessness and in
technologies are : some case maliciousness. Biometrics removes
finger recognition human error from the security equation.
face recognition Our paper will examine all the
hand geometry technological and feasibility aspects as well as
voice recognition the practical applications. We will look at many
iris recognition different biometric methods of identifying the
signature recognition user. The presentation has been divided into the
following areas:
What is biometrics?
History of biometrics
Fingerprint and other Different methodologies of biometrics.
biometric devices consist of a Several applications of biometrics
reader or scanning device, software Benefits of using biometrics
There are number of applications of password. In the development of biometric
biometrics. They are widely used in forensics identification systems, physical and
such as criminal identification , prison
security and in a large number of civilian
applications. Biometrics can also help in the behavioral features for recognition are
prevention of unauthorized access to ATMs, required which must possess:
cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs,
• Uniqueness : that is, an identical trait
workstations, and computer networks and it can
shouldn't appear in two people:
be used during transactions conducted via
• Universality :occur in as many people
telephone and Internet (electronic commerce
as possible
and
electronic banking) to minimize risks • Permanence: don't change over time
Biometric authentication offers a highly • Measurability : measurable with
secure , reliable and efficient solution. So where simple technical instruments:
security is highly required, implementation of • User-friendliness : easy and
biometrics security is a very good solution as comfortable to measure:
there is to fear of stealing or forgetting the HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS:
password. The concept of biometrics probably
INTRODUCTION began with the human use of facial features to
WHAT IS BIOMETRICS? identify other people. One of the most
Biometrics is the science and wellknown
technology of authentication (i.e. biometrics characteristics is the
establishing the identity of an individual) by fingerprint. British scientist Sir Francis Galton
measuring the person's physiological or proposed the use of fingerprints for identification
behavioral features. The term is derived purposes in the late 19th century. He wrote a
from the Greek words "bios" for life and detailed study of fingerprints, in which he
"metron" for degree. Biometrics ensures that presented a new classification system using
the individual trying to log on is actually the prints of all ten fingers, which is the basis of
authorized person and not just someone who identification systems still in use. British police
maliciously found a card or cracked a official Sir Richard Edward Henry introduced
fingerprinting in the 1890s as a means of identifying criminals. Automatic
fingerprintbased
identification systems have been minutiae points. Minutiae points are local ridge
commercially available since the early 1960s. characteristics that occur at either a ridge
Until the 1990s these systems were used bifurcation or a ridge ending.
primarily by the police and in certain security
applications
Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) WHAT IS FINGERPRINT SCANNING?
were one of the first methods used for There are basically two different types
identification. There are also methods that of finger-scanning technology that make this
involve passwords and physical tokens e.g. smart possible.One is an optical method, which starts
cards. There are a number of problems with a visual image of a finger.The other uses a
associated with this kind of identification. People semiconductor-generated electric field to image a
forget passwords, lose tokens, reuse passwords, finger. There are a range of ways to identify
write them down, tokens can get stolen. The fingerprints.Fingerprint matching techniques can
recognition of the above does not mean the be placed into two categories: minutae-based and
identification of the person providing it - they
could be presented by anybody.. This results in a
deluge of passwords and means of access, which correlation based. Minutiae-based techniques
are often forgotten, misused or lost. With the first find minutiae points and then map their
increased population accessing these networks relative placement on the finger. However,it is
the risk of attacks on the networks is increased. difficult to extract the minutiae points accurately
Companies are turning to Biometrics Systems to when the fingerprint is of low quality. Also this
bring tighter security to their computer networks. method does not take into account the global
THE POPULAR BIOMETRIC pattern of ridges and furrows. The
TECHNOLOGIES: correlationbased
1. Finger recognition. method is able to overcome some of the
2. Hand geometry. difficulties of the minutiae-based approach. But
3. Face recognition. correlation-based techniques require the precise
4. Voice recognition. location of a registration point and are affected
5. Iris recognition. by image translation and rotation.
6. Signature recognition. FINGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION:
FINGER RECOGNITION: Large volumes of fingerprints are
collected and stored everyday in a wide range of
applications including forensics, access control,
and driver license registration. An automatic
recognition of people based on fingerprints
requires that the input fingerprint be matched
with a large number of fingerprints in a database
(FBI database contains approximately 70 million
fingerprints!). To reduce the search time and
computational complexity, it is desirable to
classify these fingerprints in an accurate and
consistent manner so that the input fingerprint is
required to be matched only with a subset of the
fingerprints in the database
The algorithms are developed to
Among all the biometric techniques,
classify fingerprints into five classes, namely,
fingerprint-based identification is the oldest
whorl, right loop, left loop, arch, and tented arch.
method which has been successfully used in
The algorithm separates the number of ridges
numerous applications. Everyone is known to
present in four directions (0 degree, 45 degree,
have unique, immutable fingerprints. A
90 degree, and 135 degree) by filtering the
fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and
central part of a fingerprint.
furrows on the surface of the finger. The
The classifier is tested on 4,000 images
uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by
in the database. . For the four-class problem
the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as the
(arch and tented arch combined into one class),
we are able to achieve a classification accuracy
of 94.8%.
ACCURACY AND INTEGRITY:
Someone may attempt to use latent print
residue on the sensor just after a legitimate user
accesses the system. At the other end of the
scale, there is the gruesome possibility of
presenting a finger to the system that is no longer
connected to its owner. Therefore, sensors Not surprisingly, government studies of
attempt to determine whether a finger is live, and facerecognition
not made of latex (or worse). Detectors for software have found high rates of
temperature, blood-oxygen level, pulse, blood both "false positives" (wrongly matching
flow, humidity, or skin conductivity would be innocent people with photos in the database) and
integrated. "false negatives" (not catching people even when
their photo is in the database). One problem is
FACE RECOGNITION:

that unlike our fingerprints or irises, our faces do


not stay the same over time. These systems are
easily tripped up by changes in hairstyle, facial
hair, or body weight, by simple disguises, and by
the effects of aging.
In addition, questions have been raised
about how well the software works on
darkskinned
people, whose features may not appear
clearly on lenses optimized for light-
skinnedpeople.
It would work especially poorly in the
frenetic environment of an airport, where
fastmoving
FACIAL RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY: crowds and busy background images
Facial recognition systems are built on would further reduce its already limited
computer programs that analyze images of effectiveness.
human faces for the purpose of identifying them.
The programs take a facial image, measure HAND GEOMETRY:
characteristics such as the distance between the
eyes, the length of the nose, and the angle of the
jaw, and create a unique file called a "template."
Using templates, the software then compares that
image with another image and produces a score
that measures how similar the images are to each
other. Typical sources of images for use in facial
recognition include video camera signals and
pre-existing photos such as those in driver's
license databases.
HOW DOES FACIAL RECOGNITION
WORKS?
Faces are highly complex patterns that
often differ in only subtle ways, and that it can HOW IT WORKS ?
be impossible for man or machine to match Every hand is unique. Hand geometry
images when there are differences in lighting, scanners such as those made by Recognition
camera, or camera angle, let alone changes in the Systems Inc. take over 90 measure- ments of the
appearance of the face itself. length, width, thickness, and surface area of the
hand and four fingers--all in just 1 second.
The technology uses a 32,000-pixel CCD digital colored circle, usually brown or blue, rings the
camera to record the hand's three-dimensional dark pupil of the eye.
shape from silhouetted images projected within The iris-scan process begins with a
the scanner. The scanner disregards surface photograph. A specialized camera, typically very
details, such as fingerprints, lines, scars, and dirt, close to the subject, no more than three feet, uses
as well as fingernails, which may grow or be cut an infrared imager to illuminate the eye and
from day to day. capture a very high-resolution photograph. This
When a person uses the scanner, it process takes only one to two seconds and
compares the shape of the user's hand to a provides the details of the iris that are mapped,
template recorded during an enrollment session. recorded and stored for future
If the template and the hand match, the scanner matching/verification.
produces an output--it may unlock a door, Eyeglasses and contact lenses present
transmit data to a computer, verify identification, no problems to the quality of the image and the
or log the person's arrival or departure time. iris-scan systems test for a live eye by checking
To register in a hand-scan system a for the normal continuous fluctuation in pupil
hand is placed on a reader’s covered flat surface. size.
This placement is positioned by five guides or The inner edge of the iris is located by
pins that correctly situate the hand for the an iris-scan algorithm which maps the iris’
cameras. A succession of cameras captures 3-D distinct patterns and characteristics. Algorithms
pictures of the sides and back of the hand. The have a number of steps and are used by the
attainment of the hand-scan is a fast and simple biometric system to determine if a biometric
process. The hand-scan device can process the 3- sample and record is a match.
D images in 5 seconds or less and the hand Iris’ are composed before birth and,
verification usually takes less than 1 second. The except in the event of an injury to the eyeball,
image capturing and verification software and
hardware can easily be integrated within
standalone units. Hand-scan applications that remain unchanged throughout an individual’s
include a large number of access points and users lifetime. Iris patterns are extremely complex,
can be centrally administered, eliminating the carry an astonishing amount of information and
need for individuals to register on each device. have over 200 unique spots. The fact that an
individual’s right and left eyes are different and
that patterns are easy to capture, establishes
irisscan
technology as one of the biometrics that is
very resistant to false matching and fraud.
IRIS RECOGNITION: The false acceptance rate for iris
recognition systems is 1 in 1.2 million,
statistically better than the average fingerprint
recognition system. The real benefit is in the
false-rejection rate, a measure of authenticated
users who are rejected. Fingerprint scanners have
a 3 percent false-rejection rate, whereas iris
scanning systems boast ratees at the 0 percent
level.
A highly accurate technology such as
iris-scan has vast appeal because the inherent
argument for any biometric is, of course,
increased security.

Iris scan biometrics employs the unique


characteristics and features of the human iris in
order to verify the identity of an individual. The
iris is the area of the eye where the pigmented or
VOICE RECOGNITION: can be captured in digital form and plotted on a
table or spectrum. This table of tones yields the
speaker's unique voice print.
The voice print is stored as a table of
numbers, where the presence of each dominant
frequency in each segment is expressed as a
binary entry. Since all table entries are either 1 or
0, each column can be read bottom to top as a
long binary code. When a person speaks his or
In her passphrase, the code word or words are
comparing voice to extracted and compared to the stored model for
other forms of that person.
biometrics, the When authenticating, a user is asked to
frequency locations answer up to three prompted questions, the
plotted on the voice answers to which are easily remembered by the
print table are proportionate to the physical user. In order to provide audible content of at
locations of minutiae used in fingerprint least one second in length, typical prompts are:
identification. The minutiae are the endpoints User's first, middle and last name .User's date
and bifurcations of the swirls of your fingerprint. and month of birth Mother's first, middle and last
The advantage of using speech is that the number maiden name .Home telephone number
of locations is almost endless. The capacity to SIGNATURE RECOGNITION:
extend data collection over multiple words for Signature verification is the process
even better accuracy is a distinct advantage over used to recognize an individual’s hand-written
image-based techniques such as fingerprints and signature.
retina scans where only a finite amount of There are two types of signature
biometric data is available. Although it is recognition techniques: simple and
virtually impossible for an impostor to copy dynamic.There is an important distinction
someone's voice, it is also very difficult for between simple signature comparisons and
someone to repeat exactly the phrase originally dynamic signature verification. Both can be
enrolled. This is very similar to the fact it is computerized, but a simple comparison only
difficult to reproduce the exact version of your takes into account what the signature looks like.
signature on your credit card.
Voice biometrics works by digitizing a
profile of a person's speech to produce a stored
model voice print, rather like a template, which
is referred to each time that person attempts to
access secure data. The position and movement
of the glottal tissues, lips, jaw and tongue
correspond with speech movements in the vocal
tract. Biometrics technology reduces each
spoken word into segments: sub-word like
syllables, phonemes, trip hones or similar units
of sound, composed of several dominant
frequencies called formants, which remain
relatively constant over that segment. Each Dynamic signature verification takes into
segment has three or four dominant tones that account how the signature was made. With
dynamic signature verification it is not the shape dynamic signature verification it is not the
shape
or look of the signature that is meaningful, it is
the changes in speed, pressure and timing that
occur during the act of signing.
There will always be slight variations in a
person’s handwritten signature, but the
consistency created by natural motion and
practice over time creates a recognizable pattern
that makes the handwritten signature a natural
for biometric identification.

or look of the signature that is meaningful, it is


the changes in speed, pressure and timing that
occur during the act of signing.
There will always be slight variations in a
person’s handwritten signature, but the
consistency created by natural motion and
practice over time creates a recognizable pattern
that makes the handwritten signature a natural

PROPERTIES:

APPLICATIONS:
Large volumes of fingerprints are collected and stored everyday in a wide range of applications
including forensics, access control, and driver license registration.
Geometry scanners verify identity at the front entrances of over half the nuclear power plants in
the U.S.
Employers use hand-scan for entry/exit, recording staff movement and time/attendance
procedures.
Iris-scan technology has been piloted in ATM environments in England, the US,
Japan and Germany since as early as 1997.
Airports have begun to use iris-scanning for such diverse functions as employee
identification/verification for movement through secure areas and allowing registered frequent
airline passengers a system that enables fast and easy identity verification in order to expedite their
path through passport control.
Prison visitor systems, where visitors to inmates are subject to verification procedures in order that
identities may not be swapped during the visit - a familiar occurrence among prisons worldwide.
Border control. A notable example being the INSPASS trial in America where travelers were
issued with a card enabling them to use the strategically based biometric terminals and bypass
long immigration queues. There are other pilot systems operating in SE Asia and elsewhere in this
respect.
Other applications include monitoring prison transfers and releases, as well as projects designed
to authenticate on-line purchasing, on-line banking, on-line voting on-line stock trading ,gold and
diamond mines to name just a few. Iris-scan offers a high level of user security, privacy and general
peace of mind for the consumer.
FUTURE APPLICATIONS -SOME COMMON IDEAS:
There are many views concerning potential biometric applications, some popular examples being;
 ATM machine use:
Workstation and network access:
Travel and tourism:
Internet transactions:
Telephone transactions:
Public identity cards:
DRAWBACKS OF BIOMETRICS:
Several countries, including Australia, Canada, the United States and New Zealand, have witnessed
public disquiet over identification schemes. Some of the fears that have been cited include:
• That people will be de-humanized by being reduced to codes

CONCLUSION:
So where security is highly required, implementation of biometrics security is a very good solution
as there is to fear of stealing or forgetting the password.Tomorrow will find ever-expanding applications
for this thoroughly time-tested technology for financial transactions, ticket-less travel, and new business
and residential applications where high security is a major concern.