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Capacity Building for Lifelong Learning Programme

method
GUIDEBOOK






















Human development can be driven with past experiences valorisation and all level stakeholders have available
lifelong learning programme results as a fundamental to improve their competence and ideas in any kind of
initiative

































































Capacity Building for Lifelong Learning Programme
method
GUIDEBOOK













November 2013
Capacity Building for Lifelong Learning Programme Consortium
Centro Servizi "Cultura Sviluppo" srl, via Puccini 80, 51100 Pistoia, Italy cscs.it

authors
Giovanni Crison
Reelika Parve (translations and general text adaptation)

ISBN 978-88-87156-10-2



This guidebook has been written thanks to the support of the following organizations:
ASSET TEC GREECE
CBE-GEIE BELGIUM
Central Denmark EU Office
CSCS ITALY
EfVET BELGIUM
EUCIS LLL BELGIUM
European Minds SWEDEN
Lapplands Gymnasium SWEDEN
School of Economics and Business Sarajevo, University of Sarajevo, BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA
SVAP GREECE
ABUplus International GERMANY
Thanks to:
Stefano Tirati CSCS, Ana Sarateanu CSCS, Alexia Samuel EUCIS-LLL, No Viedma EUCIS-LLL, Audrey Frith
EUCIS-LLL, se Hjlund Nielsen Central Denmark EU Office, Rasmus Mrk Central Denmark EU Office,
Valentina Chanina EfVET, Emiliano Cor CBE-GEIE, Ulf Hgglund European Minds, Manos Andreadis
ASSET-Tec, Caisa Isaksson Lapplands Gymnasium, Seid Fijuljanin University of Sarajevo, Ensar ehi
University of Sarajevo, Luana Ladu ABUplus International, Eva-Maria Henckel ABUplus International

Summary
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Aims and objectives ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3
Who's this guidebook for?........................................................................................................................................................... 4
CB4LLP pillars.................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Potentials and examples of resources ........................................................................................................................ 7
CB4LLP Consortium assistance to the Regional Office of Sardinia for learning mobility.................................... 8
Examples of available resources ................................................................................................................................................ 10
Europemobility Network.......................................................................................................................................................... 11
RAINOVA.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
AADLC knowledge Transfer in Change management .................................................................................................. 14
Strengthening the Vocational Education and Training System in Turkey ......................................................... 14
ExchangeAbility - European Students Network, ESN.................................................................................................. 15
EUROCLIO........................................................................................................................................................................................ 17
SOS Network - Social inclusion of students with special needs into vocational education and training
and at the labour market .......................................................................................................................................................... 18
LP-model and inclusion - Learning Environment and Pedagogical Analysis, a way to strengthen
inclusion in schools..................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Employ Design Your Future Employability .................................................................................................................. 20
Foundations for Work................................................................................................................................................................ 21
LEARNINC - Learning incubators/Business incubators for improving creativity and entrepreneurship
in historical-center clusters .................................................................................................................................................... 22
ENTER ENTrepreneurship Enhancement and Reinforcement ............................................................................ 23
IT-CLEX European clusters to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in fighting
early school leaving through IT ........................................................................................................................................... 24
Reducing Early School leaving by an Integrated Approach...................................................................................... 25
BeCome Business Critical Learning for individuals working in SMEs (AssetTec).......................................... 26
MOJO - Motivation and Job Opportunities Support Service...................................................................................... 27
Once Again-st Abandon............................................................................................................................................................. 28
The 8 solutions for fighting early school leaving in VET............................................................................................ 29
Lifelong learning: Enabling young unemployed persons to find first employment....................................... 30
Strengthening of competitiveness of marginalized social groups at the labor market ................................ 31
ENABLE - Enabling Labour Market Entry and Mobility by Engaging Learners through Innovation..... 32
Interactive Social Media for Integration, Skills Bartering, Empowerment, Informal Learning - ISABEL33
CB4LLP: an innovative character................................................................................................................................34
CB4LLP Consortium......................................................................................................................................................................... 39
CB4LLP Consortium structure............................................................................................................................................... 40
CB4LLP vision and member roles.............................................................................................................................................. 40
CB4LLP aims ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
CB4LLP action method................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Procedures and resources.............................................................................................................................................46
Innovation Caf - IC.......................................................................................................................................................................... 46
Innovation Caf day (Event) in few words ....................................................................................................................... 46
IC settings........................................................................................................................................................................................ 49
IC event creation.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Field and budget settings................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
IC Title ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Round tables / focus groups identification................................................................................................................................................................. 50

Stakeholders identification: Can you reach them?.................................................................................................................................................. 50
IC preparation ............................................................................................................................................................................... 51
Stakeholder category list creation.................................................................................................................................................................................. 51
Date definition........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 52
Contact plan creation and Location reservation....................................................................................................................................................... 52
Invitation creation and Web data creation (FB, website etc).............................................................................................................................. 52
Stakeholders invitation and data acquisition is the number high enough?................................................................................................ 52
IC event............................................................................................................................................................................................. 53
Welcome cocktail and registration / Stakeholder name public announcement .......................................................................................... 54
Field round-tables / focus groups.................................................................................................................................................................................. 54
Final announcement and picture.................................................................................................................................................................................... 54
Social Dinner........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54
Talk Show................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 54
IC data analysis & publishing.................................................................................................................................................. 55
Data collection........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 56
Data analysis........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
Report production / validation....................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
Publishing ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 56
Capacity audit tool............................................................................................................................................................................ 56
Step One: A plan for the capacity audit .............................................................................................................................. 57
Step Two: determine requirements..................................................................................................................................... 58
Step Three: establish existing capacity.............................................................................................................................. 59
Step Five: analyze gaps and propose solutions .............................................................................................................. 60
The CB4LLP Learning-by-doing training programme...................................................................................................... 60
Preliminary Needs Assessment First Workshop........................................................................................................ 61
Aims ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 61
Organization............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 62
Outputs...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62
Action Plan Second Workshop ........................................................................................................................................... 63
Aims............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 63
Organization............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 63
Outputs...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64
Impact analysis - Third workshop........................................................................................................................................ 64
Aims............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 64
Organization............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 64
Outputs...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65
TNAM - Territorial Needs Analysis Method.......................................................................................................................... 65
Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 66
Methodology .................................................................................................................................................................................. 67
TNAM Tools.................................................................................................................................................................................... 68
TNAM Initiative / project description .......................................................................................................................................................................... 68
TNAM Basic analysis............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 72
TNAM Advanced analysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 73
TNAM results.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74
CB4LLP Action Plan ......................................................................................................................................................................... 74
CB4LLP Impact analysis................................................................................................................................................................. 76
CB4LLP repertory of LLP sources............................................................................................................................... 78
Databases and researchable fields............................................................................................................................ 79
ADAM LdV......................................................................................................................................................................................... 79
EVE.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81
Jean Monnet......................................................................................................................................................................................... 83
COMENIUS AND GRUDTVIG TRAINING DATABASE......................................................................................................... 85
EST European Shared Treasure.............................................................................................................................................. 87
Compendium of EU financed projects ..................................................................................................................................... 88
CB4LLP Glossary and Guide on LLP terminology................................................................................................. 89
Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................................... 99

0


1
Introduction
Over the past years, it has become clear that capacity building is central to the quest for sustainable
development. The concept of capacity building, also referred to as capacity development or capacity
strengthening, is very complex and is subject to an articulated debate within the academic world. It is
important to stress that capacity building is not an academic discipline, but a common understanding of
structured processes developed in the practical dimension by international institutions, NGOs and other
organizations providing technical assistance to public and private entities. In fact, capacity building has
been directly associated to several different forms of assistance to institutions and organizations, aimed
to increase their financial reliability and to strengthen their capability to develop and to put into practice
autonomous, well-structured and coherent actions.
This publication, gathering contributions from CB4LLP Consortium partners as well as from the existing
extensive literature, outlines a set of procedures and methodological approaches allowing inclusion
and integration of LLP projects tools and resources in local development and capacity building
processes.
Based on some good examples and relevant publications, such as, for instance, Toolkit of local
government capacity-building programmes by Council of Europe, Management Capacity Building by DG
Enterprise and Industry or "European action plan on capacity building for integrated coastal zone
management" by ENCORA and "Organisational Capacity Audit tool" by GeSCI, this CB4LLP Consortium
guidebook focuses on the procedures and methodologies aimed to promote capacity building initiatives
based on the exploitation of LLP related outcomes and tools.
The method and the solutions described in this guidebook have been validated within piloting activities
accomplished by CB4LLP Consortium during two years of research co-financed by the EU Commission.
The guidebook provides a comprehensive presentation of sources of information on LLP, the procedures
to perform needs analysis and investigations on stakeholders' field of activities and the matching of
existing solutions with the planning of local development actions.
It is difficult to find a clear definition of capacity building useful to describe CB4LLP consortium aims;
there have been several attempts to define the concept, each of them stressing and focusing on different
aspects. In general terms, capacity building is strictly related to development and it has to be seen as an
answer to the multidimensional processes of change, rather than to defined actions aimed to reach a
specific and predefined aim.
1
Capacity building is a process that activates changes at several levels
(individuals, groups, organizations and systems) and aims to strengthen organizations adaptation
capacities, to allow them to easily adapt to a changing environment
2
.
Therefore, if we define capacities as the capability of individuals and organizations to elaborate
strategies, implement actions, solve problems and reach pre-set objectives in a sustainable way, the
capacity building for LLP can be understood as a process through which capacities are acquired,
strengthened, rearranged and ensured in the long-term to allow inclusion and integration of LLP projects'
tools and resources in development and capacity building processes.
Capacity building processes imply a long-term commitment by involved individuals and organizations
and for this reason can hardly be measured in costs-benefits terms. Within these capacity building
concepts, the focus of CB4LLP guidebook is directed to offer to individuals and organizations the
capability to adapt to a mutating context, to think out of the box and to find innovative solutions through
LLP resource examples.
Moreover, capacity building processes include not only human resources development but also issues
related to management (organizational re-engineering, knowledge management, etc.). Furthermore,
capacity building processes ultimately influence the context in which individuals and organizations

1
Eade, D., 1997, What is capacity building in Capacity-Building, An Approach to People-Centered Development, Oxford, Oxfam
Publications.
2
Morrison, T., 2001, Actionable learning, Tokio, Asia Development Bank Institute.

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operate and interact. Essentially, capacity building processes, under CB4LLP consortium's vision affect
three dimensions of capacities
3
:
Human resources development with disaggregated capacities (the ability of individuals and
organizations to manage specific tasks) and empowerment (the ability of individuals and
organizations to take advantage from and to influence the external environment);
Organisational development capacity as the ability of individuals and organizations to optimise
time and resources;
Institutional and legal framework development capacity as the ability of individuals and
organizations to set objectives and to create the conditions for their achievement.
In practical terms, capacity building processes are various forms of multi-dimensional assistance to
individuals and organizations, which need to strengthen their capacities and improve their performance.
In order to be effective, capacity building processes shall be accurately planned; this implies a complex
effort to identify individuals and organizations existing capacity and potential needs. It is important to
understand why there is the need for capacity building, which capacities shall be addressed and how
these capacities will be developed and used by targeted individuals and organizations. Moreover, capacity
building is mainly an internal process sustained by an external support; this means that in order for
capacity building to be effective, a strong organizational will and openness to change by targeted
individuals and organizations are needed.
The CB4LLP guidebook starts from the capacity building principles' context analysis where the objectives
of the guidebook are identified in relationship with the aims of the CB4LLP consortium, and comes then to
the definition of the method of intervention that outlines three stages that correspond to concrete
activities implemented by capacity builders in order to integrate the LLP results into their local
development activities.
In the guidebook, the CB4LLP consortium defines the basic elements that support its life and its activities:
Thematic Commissions, International Community of Capacity Builders, CB4LLP Ambassadors, Capacity-
Building Fairs, Dissemination and Exploitation Campaigns and Training program CB4LLP on resources,
procedures and methods, which represent indeed the key elements that characterize the consortium and
that are made available for capacity builders who approach this new field.
Through some practical examples such as the description of the experience made in the Sardinia Region,
Italy, for the implementation of an innovative service aimed to support citizens mobility for training
purposes, the guidebook represents a first-hand knowledge about the consistency and the experience of
the basic assumption of CB4LLP consortium - focusing at the existing and often unexplored resources
European Commissions LLP projects and their results to carry out territorial development actions,
aiming to create virtuous behaviours that value the most effective results in this field.
The method is first introduced, its values and references stressed, and then developed more in detail in
the Chapter CB4LLP action method at page 42 where its three phases are clearly outlined - Needs
Assessment / Action Plan and / Impact Analysis and for each contents and the specificities of their inter-
relatedness are broadly described.
Afterwards, the operational methods of intervention made available by the CB4LLP approach are listed
and explained with the aim to raise the awareness and involvement and to support the enrichment of
capacity builders competences. These innovative theoretical and practical tools upgrade the capabilities
of stakeholders. The tool list comprehends original methods such as innovation caf and methods from
other authors like capacity audit.
Finally, the detailed definition of the necessary tools for the practical application of the CB4LLP
intervention method is offered: TNAM - Territorial Needs Analysis Method, CB4LLP Action Plan and
CB4LLP Impact analysis. For each of them, we provide concrete references and instructions for their
application and in regard to the informative support, for each of them we describe the electronic modules
that are available online and explain how to use them.
Once the method and the tools necessary for the appropriate involvement of stakeholders have been
explicated and described, the guidebook finally provides additional operational guidelines to structure
training courses for capacity builders, suggests resources to be exploited during the exploration of LLP
results and projects with an exhaustive repertoire of sources, and supplies a glossary of support.

3
Morgan, P., 2003, Draft Background Paper on methodology. DAC Study on capacities, change and performance, ECDPM Research
Associate.

3
Aims and objectives
Under the Lifelong Learning Programmes transversal key activity 4 Dissemination and exploitation of
results, the CB4LLP Consortium has started to incorporate Lifelong Learning Programme projects
results into individual, organisational and institutional development strategies, to create and to promote
new capacity building methodologies and practical tools for stakeholders at sectoral, regional, national
and international levels.


Picture 1 - CB4LLP Consortium meeting, Brussels 2013
CB4LLP Consortium aims to revolutionize specific capacity building processes to bring up better LLP
projects results to sectoral, regional, national and international stakeholders attention and to
consequently enhance their level of ability to include them into their development strategies.
CB4LLP initiative focuses at two main target groups:
individual level targets, to tackle the individual stakeholders lack of competences in the
valorisation of existing LLP projects results;
group level targets, to face the lack of sound conceptual understanding among policy-makers, and
to put the relevance of LLP projects perspective and results into their usual discussions.
CB4LLP activities promote effective methodologies and practical tools that directly support the
dissemination and exploitation of LLP projects results, and promote the exploitation of cross-cutting and
EU-level actions.
CB4LLP Consortium focuses at three main types of capacity building processes that must be considered as
the activity objectives Human, Organizational and Institutional processes which are closely
interrelated and complementary to each other:
1. Human resources development
CB4LLP concept sets up tools and methodologies necessary to equip Capacity Builders (meaning the
actions beneficiaries) with the understanding, competences, knowledge and training that enable them to
access the information and perform effectively as individuals the incorporation of LLP projects results
into their capacity building activities and strategies.
2. Organisational development
CB4LLP concept sets up tools and methodologies to facilitate the incorporation of LLP projects results
into the management of organisations structures, processes and procedures, not only within
organisations but also referring to the management of their relationships with the different sectors
(public, private and community).

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3. Institutional and legal framework development
CB4LLP concept sets up tools and methodologies that enable organizations, institutions and agencies at
all levels and in all sectors to enhance their capacities to include LLP projects results into legal and
regulatory changes.
Who's this guidebook for?
This guidebook has been conceived as a methodological tool to present an innovative capacity-building
concept. It has been collaboratively written by all CB4LLP Consortium's founders and used as the
framework for piloting capacity building activities during two years of a creation and validation process
consisting in research and practical deployment on the field.
The guidebook represents the core tool to implement CB4LLP method and it is used to support the set-up
of thematic commissions on different themes when end-users needs are assessed and when their
capacity to transfer LLPs successful project outcomes is supported for an improvement.
The guidebook addresses both CB4LLP thematic commissions' facilitators and capacity builders-
beneficiaries and provides the necessary tools for the Commissions facilitators.
The potential beneficiaries are all local, regional and national level stakeholders engaged in human
development. To allow a rapid further search inside the Capacity Building Community, they have been
classified into the following categories of stakeholders:
institutional systems and policies - anybody at any level responsible for systems and policies
concerning all aspects of human development at local, regional, national or international level;
social partners - excluding market development, anybody at any level not directly responsible
for systems and policies concerning all aspects of human development at local, regional, national
or international level engaged in social dialogue like representatives and managers of NGO, politic
parties, trade unions, employers' organizations or any other organization as associations of
students, trainees, pupils, teachers, parents and adult learners;
market sector - enterprise managers, representatives and managers of social partners engaged
in market development issues, members of trade organisations and of chambers of commerce,
industry managers and representatives in their roles to promote and support market
development;
lifelong learning experts - excluding guidance/counselling activities, anybody working or active
in lifelong learning sector, personally engaged or as a member of institutions and/or of
organisations providing formal, non formal and informal learning opportunities;
guidance/counselling experts - anybody working or active in guidance, counselling and
information services, personally engaged or as a member of institutions and/or of organisations
providing guidance, counselling and information / support services;
researchers - centres managers and researchers working on lifelong learning and human
development issues;
CB4LLP pillars
In its main aspects, CB4LLP method is an understandable idea designed to help stakeholders engaged in
human development in their roles. Our pillars consist in few items thanks to a concrete and successful
cost-effective method.
Human development can be driven by the valorisation of past experiences, and stakeholders at any level have
available lifelong learning programme results as a basis to improve their competences and ideas for any kind
of initiative.
CB4LLP Consortium supports Capacity Builders with training materials, technical assistance and coaching
services aimed to insert LLP strategies and results into human development goals.
CB4LLP method is continuously improving and has been initially developed within two-years period of
consortium collaboration designing testing and piloting activities in a wide international context.
To develop and to consolidate its method, CB4LLP Consortium has identified some core elements that
constitute its DNA:
CB4LLP Thematic Commissions;
International Community of Capacity Builders: a group of stakeholders selected among public
administrators, decision-makers, social partners and educational providers at all levels, who
promote awareness of CB4LLP method as well as its additional exploitation activities; the
Community assures the improvement and diffusion of the method;

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CB4LLP Ambassadors: a group of selected stakeholders with high visibility, involved in CB4LLP
activities accomplished within CB4LLP Thematic Commissions. They create a multiplier effect and
assure additional reliability;




Picture 2 - Mr Stefano Tunis Director of Regional Office of Sardinia for learning mobility, MOVE Conference launch in
Cagliari, Italy, 19 June 2013

Capacity-Building Fairs: high-visibility promotional events and awareness raising activities for
the benefit of relevant stakeholders; Capacity-Building Fairs represent the opportunity to
showcase good practices, share project's methods, procedures and tools and to attract potential
new beneficiaries to the International Community of Capacity-Builders;
Dissemination and Exploitation Campaigns: high-visibility promotional campaigns targeting
decision makers, public administrators and educational providers to support the dissemination of
the CB4LLP activities and outcomes; the network made by the CB4LLP Consortium's members
represents the main channel for a wide impact of the dissemination and exploitation campaigns
on capacity building principles.

6

Picture 3 - CB4LLP Consortium member is introducing Ms Anna Butteroni, LLP - Italian National Agency - ISFOL
Programma settoriale Leonardo da Vinci and Mr Paolo Di Caro, Youth in Action - Italian National Agency, to CB4LLP
principles. Live broadcasting during MOVE Conference launch in Cagliari, Italy, 19 June 2013

Training programme on CB4LLP resources, procedures and methods: CB4LLP Consortium
has his Thematic Commissions, each one is specialized in a certain field of activities and organizes
piloting actions. All these activities produce a relevant literature available online at
capacitybuilding.eu website.
Each piloting action is composed by three workshops which implement an educational process
finalized to achieve the following objectives related to stakeholder's capacities:
o To acquire the necessary skills to act as a capacity builder and to promote local
development through the integration of LLP strategies, tools and resources;
o To implement the TNAM - Territorial Needs Analysis Method and to select a relevant
policy area to be addressed;
o To adopt CB4LLP method, to identify and select existing LLP-related projects with
relevant outcomes, tools and resources coherent with the needs and policy area to be
addressed;
o To prepare an Action Plan with detailed description of actions to be accomplished, based
on the exploitation of existing outcomes of LLP-related initiatives.
CB4LLP Consortium undertook to implement 50 piloting activities during 2013-2014 which
represent a significant exploitation measure aiming to involve a wide range of stakeholders at
local, regional, national and international level from at least 10 different European countries.
All these activities carried out by CB4LLP Consortium aim to diffuse this method on capacity
building and to implement a Training programme plan which is yearly renewed.

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Potentials and examples of
resources
We will start to go into detail in describing the
capacity building for lifelong learning programme method
with a concrete experience made by the Regional
Employment Agency of Sardinia (Italy).
Our aim consists in the creation of a very first idea about the
meaning of our method, then we delve deeper into the issue by
illustrating its procedures and providing some practical
guidelines for its application.
The experience that follows represents a path that has been
repeatedly followed by different actors and in several sectors.
The CB4LLP method has been the central issue during the
approximately 2-years of testing by various public and private
organizations with the support of the consultants of CB4LLP
consortium.
The flow of activities always starts with a first explorative
contact where individual stakeholders, directly or on behalf of the
institution represented, try to find out solutions to their
problems. These needs are often expressed during meetings,
conferences, seminars or through online information services,
or sometimes by simple affinity or personal contacts with
CB4LLP consortium consultants.
In the Sardinia Region, the first needs analysis of the institution,
initially carried out by internal officials participating to several
international conferences, started just like that, i.e. by networking
the expectations and needs developed by the stakeholders.
During the process structured by the CB4LLP consortium, the
needs analysis is carried out at the beginning with an analysis grid.
The stakeholder can participate to specific workshops designed to
perform a guided assessment of own needs or, alternatively, can
fill out a self-assessment questionnaire on the CB4LLP platform.
The questionnaire helps the stakeholders to catalogue their
needs according to the available meta-information about the
LLP results, as the subsequent matching between the current
needs and existing results must be done in order to identify
those outcomes and tools that fit best the actual needs.
The stakeholders from the Sardinia Region mentioned in the
following example, clearly defined and articulated their
expectations and with them the field of LLP resources to be
drawn upon with the assistance of CB4LLP consortiums
consultants.
The officials from the Sardinia Region choose therefore the
most appropriate outcomes and tools to support the
required organization change; the subsequent phase
concerned a direct assistance provided by the CB4LLP
consortium for the implementation of the applicable
LLP results, in this case, in the field of international
mobility.
Hereafter, the path is described with precise references

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that allow seeing how the situation has been evolving and what are the strengths of the method.
CB4LLP Consortium assistance to the Regional Office of Sardinia for
learning mobility
Picture 4 - Move, launch conference, Cagliari Italy, 19th June 2013
Since April 2013, the CB4LLP Consortium has officially started to provide technical assistance to the
Regional Employment Agency of Sardinia (Italy) for the opening of the first regional international
mobility office called MOVE.
The technical assistance sustained and boosted the development and improvement of professional skills
of several employees of the Sardinian Regional Employment Agency as well as the enhancement of
competences of decision-makers and of public and private stakeholders involved in the territorial
development of the Region.
CSCS, as Italian representative of CB4LLP Consortium, made available tools, methods and staff that were
essential to facilitate the exploitation of the results of European Commissions MOVIT research, of
Transfer of Innovation project Europemobility, and of the LLP Thematic Network project Europemobility
network.
The technical assistance activities aimed to support the organizational framework management and the
configuration process of the MOVE agency, both internally and well as far its relations with other agencies
and services were concerned, while another field of activity aimed at the development of institutional
framework, in particular looking at the regulations related to regional study mobility and public funding
opportunities for those purposes.
The MOVE agency represents, in particular, with the adoption of methods and best practices identified by
projects financed by EACEA, an element with a strong impact on the opinion of regional stakeholders who
are actively involved in the processes of evolution, formulation, revision and adaptation of legislation. The
agency was indeed initiated with the support and direct involvement of some local political leaders,
representatives of regional institutions and responsible for the utilization of regional and European funds.
The participation of regional policy-makers has been immediate and decisive not only during the opening
ceremonies and the launch conference, but also substantial in terms of administrative decisions.
From the launch of the services to the inauguration, made with extensive media involvement and launch
conference, in June 2013, with more than 150 participants from the whole Sardinia region as well as
experts from Germany, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden, the highest-level regional political leadership has
always been present and active.
The period of technical assistance to the Regional Employment Agency consisted of:
Free support materials for the organizational and professional skills development as, for example,
a repertory of Lifelong Learning Program resources, a glossary and a guide to the technical
terminology developed within the CB4LLP project, a guidebook with the LLP implementation
method, etc.
Animation opportunities called Capacity Building Fairs, i.e. events organized within the
framework of activities programmed by the Regional Agency aimed to the awareness raising and
dissemination;
Assistance to the development of materials and analyses to be presented at the CB4LLP
International Conference to gain further international visibility and to disseminate results;

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Training opportunities within numerous Thematic Commission Workshops tackling the following
issues identified jointly with the beneficiary organization:
o Mobility for Training: The importance of setting up a network for the creation of training
paths abroad;
o Mobility as a Challenge for Personal Growth: Overcoming obstacles to the mobility
through empowerment;
o Training for Business: The Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs and innovative models of
collaboration;
o Validation of Skills Learned Abroad: New technologies to support mobility.
Access to the network of capacity builders to implement improvement actions based on peer
education (International Community of Capacity Builders);
The appointment of selected participants as Capacity Building Ambassadors to give visibility and
importance to the realization of LLP project.
The co-operation focused on the enhancement of the selected LLP projects results with following phases:
Identification of necessary logistics solutions: CSCS provided assistance to the identification of the
necessary logistics solutions such as location, setting up phone connections, management of data
and of information system, web platform, etc.
Definition of mission, objectives and indicators: CSCS coordinated and guided the mission of the
Regional Centre for Youth Mobility of Regional Employment Agency, in Sardinia Region, identified
medium and long term objectives and defined performance indicators.
Standardized quality system: designing services and procedures. Support for the implementation
of a management system inspired by ISO models, by defining the organizational chart of functions,
a description of procedures, flowcharts.
Internal promotion project presentation to the staff:
Defining the contents for internal promotion: Support for the definition of the contents to be
conveyed within the institution by defining the institutional objectives and organizational
arrangements, which may involve other internal structures and offices to respond adequately to
the customers needs. Support for the definition of the contents and methods of internal
communication for the dissemination of information to other organizations that may be affected
by/involved in the activities of the Regional Centre for Youth Mobility.
Support for the presentation and involvement of the Agency staff: Organization of seminars
and/or other internal communication activities such as dissemination of information materials
aimed at the Regional structures and the promotion on websites and other sources of information
available to users (7 seminars each of 5 hours with 1 senior operator).
Realization of info-points:
Designing the contents: Support for the identification of the contents and the design of the logical
structure of the information for info-points.
Implementation of the contents: Support for the development, by the staff of the institution, of the
software for the info-points that implement the identified and logically structured contents.
Regulatory Tools: System support for the inclusion and utilization of the results of the EU LLP in process
definition of the regional legislative measures
Activation of new transnational initiatives: Assistance to the activation of new transnational initiatives
through the development of projects funded by national and or supra-national institutions.
System for the collection / selection / organization of continuative information: Operational support for
the design and implementation of a continuous system of collection, selection and organization of
information necessary to the running of the Regional Centre for Youth Mobility.
Preparation and printing of promotional materials: Assistance to the conception, design and creation of
graphics, brochures, website, etc.
Operators: Structured learning for agency staff:
Definition of Agency staff profiles: Operational assistance for the definition of profiles of agency
staff (35 hours assistance to junior operator). Agency staff selection;
Training for agency staff: Operational support for the definition of objectives, design and
planning, and to the implementation of training activities to be provided to the staff through study
visits (60 hours for senior operator).

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Training for switchboard operators: Operational support to the definition of the objectives, design
and planning, and to the implementation of training activities to be provided for the contacted
personnel providing the telephone services for bookings.
Knowledge management: Analysis, selection and support for the implementation of an adequate platform
to be used for knowledge management of the Regional Centre for Youth Mobility.
Promotional activities:
Design and programming of submission campaign in the territory: Operational assistance for the
design and programming of the promotional campaign of the Regional Centre for Youth Mobility
on the territory.
Implementation of promotional campaign on the territory: Operational assistance to the
implementation of promotional campaign on the territory one week of meetings, in addition to
future meetings on a regular basis that point to the self-empowerment; assistance for the
organization of a series of 5 promotional events, such as the Mobility Fairs at educational
institutions and organizations in the region (7 meetings and participation to 5 trade fairs - 1
junior operator).
Implementation of the inauguration program of the Regional Centre for Mobility: Operational
assistance and support to define the inauguration program, invitations, contents, and
organization.
Inauguration of the Regional Centre for Mobility: Operational assistance and support during the
inauguration.
Meetings with the staff of Job Centres: Support for the planning and preparation of meetings to
disseminate and promote the activities with the Employment Centres staff (6 meetings of 5 hours
each in Cagliari at the Centre for Mobility - 1 senior operator).
International Launch Conference:
Planning and identification of speakers;
Definition of the objectives and methods of organization of the conference and the first draft list
of Italian and foreign participants to the conference involvement of speakers, review and
closure of the programme.
Launch Conference: Operational assistance to the conference management and direct
participation of consultants.
Disbursement and monitoring of services: Ongoing assistance and support, monitoring and external
audits:
Intermediate audits: Mid-term performance checks and final project report.
Assistance to Agencys activities: Assistance to the activities for the provision of information
services and end-user training.
Examples of available resources
When speaking about capacity building we refer to human development and its various components, its
founding principles and the methods for its implementation and improvement.
The Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Commission represents a huge basin of ideas, hints,
data, relationships and experiences ready and freely available to be used in territorial and organizational
development processes. Projects documented are an essential resource for Capacity Builders of the
CB4LLP Consortium which can be dived recurrently on the basis of diverse and renewable needs.
The guidebook introduces just few examples of projects which stand out not only for their inherent
qualitative characteristics, but especially for their variety, evidencing the possibility to identify solutions
for the most diverse problems.
The examples are relevant also for their ideal peculiarities, for the procedures they represent, for the
resources they quote, for the networks they involve or for other thousands of factors which can be
identified according to our own needs.
Especially for those who approach these resources for the first time, in order to adequately appreciate the
benefits a Capacity Builder may gain by matching own needs, in terms of ideas and information, with the

11
outcomes of the Lifelong Learning Programme, we have selected some projects accomplished by the
members of the Consortium.
The vast potential of the LLP resources and the databases gathering the LLP results is as huge as poorly
known by people in charge for local development.
The aim of the CB4LLP Consortium is to spread the profusion of this information. In the previous
paragraph, referring to the example of how the Regional Government of Sardinia has benefited from the
resources and information on the LLP, we saw a tangible adoption of existing projects in the field of
transnational learning mobility while in the following pages we will showcase other typologies of
resources.
Europemobility Network
Since their introduction in 1987, European mobility programmes supporting work placements abroad
have registered a constant but modest increase in the number of beneficiaries. Still a low percentage of
learners go abroad as part of their educational path to accomplish a practical experience abroad, a work
placement or an internship. The recent boost of allocated budget, from the European Commission within
the LLL Programme as well as from certain member countries in northern Europe via national dedicated
funding, is going to amplify the volume of exchanges but a multiplier effects is required if we are to
achieve the objective of 80.000 VET students going abroad each year.
The European Commission has financed three major research projects (2005-2007) to increase mobility
in VET and, among them, the MoVe-iT initiative have been focusing on fostering: the development of
transnational mobility leading to qualifications as an integral element of vocational training pathways at
European level, by identifying all the obstacles to such development and concrete solutions for
overcoming them.

Picture 5 - Mr. Stefano Tirati during a presentation of EUMN initiatives

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Based on the results of these research initiatives, and on former TOI project, Europemobility Network
stimulates both quality and quantity of transnational learning mobility focused on practical experiences
and work placements abroad with a cross-sectoral dimension, embracing VET, Higher Education and Non
Formal Education.
Europemobility Network aims at improving both the quality and quality of work placements abroad by
establishing a pan-European network of professionals, experts and mobility coordinators responsible for
planning and accomplishing learning mobility initiatives.
Europemobility Network promotes awareness on the obstacles as well as on the tools, methodologies and
solutions available by the means of 5 Thematic Commissions, conceived as working groups, focused on
key aspects of learning mobility which are: Quality, Funding Schemes, Recognition, Cooperation Models
and Impact.
The main actions addressed by the project are:
European network of mobility coordinators: identifying and further expanding existing networks
in order to establish an International Community of Mobility Coordinators responsible for over
15.000 mobility initiatives per year
Benchmarking on mobility: adapting benchmarks to the needs and characteristics of learning
mobility in VET and work placements
Quality labels for students and host companies: adoption of quality labels to reward and ensure
visibility and pride to all beneficiaries taking part in learning mobility
Online web 2.0 platform: identifying and promoting effective technological solutions to serve the
needs of learning mobility coordinators
Study on the impact of learning mobility: establish an observatory to trace the quality of learning
mobility and measure the impact, via transnational comparative research, of learning mobility
both on youngsters and on host companies
Economic models to support learning mobility: identifying and disseminating positive measures
and best practices on European Social Fund to couple EU funding schemes; identifying financial
services and bank products to support learning mobility and cope with cash flow problems;
promoting information of available funding schemes for mobility outside the EU programmes
Awareness raising campaigns: identifying and promoting high visibility information campaigns
effective to promote awareness on the opportunities and benefits of learning mobility among
final beneficiaries; promoting an European Video Contest on Learning Mobility involving former
mobility youngsters and students as Mobility Ambassadors
Project web site: www.europemobility.eu | Video contest web site: www.europemobility.tv
RAINOVA
Vocational Training centres and, in general, most small and medium sized companies do not have tools or
systems that let them manage innovation properly. Their management systems are more geared towards
tackling the tasks that are their day to day work rather than creating time and resources for forward
planning that would enable them to work on innovative projects.
The RAINOVA project follows the general aim of encouraging development of Regional innovation
systems for the some regions represented by the project partners: Basque country, South Denmark,
Tuscany, Lower Silesia, Sweden, and Wales.
This aim is achieved through the following objectives:
researching the current situation in each region in terms of current innovation systems and
strategies;
identification of agents within the region who act in the field of innovation (educational
organisations, government departments, entities specialised in research and innovation, business
organisations, etc). A particular attention will be devoted to the analysis of the role played by
educational institutions in the innovation system, particularly those working in the field of
Vocational Training;
description of the role played by each institution in the general innovation process and
identification of the existing relationships between the different identified agents

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identification of different standards, programmes and other resources in each region related to
innovation management.
The study of different regional innovation systems represents one of the objectives of this project, it
tackles mutual relationships between the different agents and describes how they participate to the
innovating process.
In the same way, after having studied the different innovation systems
regionally, the project examines the challenge of designing and proposing
an Innovation Management Model (IMM) which means that the
challenge of innovation can be tackled in a more coordinated and
intelligent way. The following step is the creation of virtual Innovation
Observatories in each region which gather relevant information about
the fields of interest (technology, innovation, creativity, economic
situation, social situation, regulatory frameworks, support services,
emerging skills needs, etc.). The development of an Innovation
Observatory Guide helps organisations to navigate the information.
By allowing the flexibility required for each organisational and/or
regional context, the IMM can be used by agents in different regional
systems. This creates a shared vision of the innovating process, in terms of
organisations as well as of regional system. The methodology for the
Innovation Process Management includes project development, its
management, marketing and promoting of new ideas, partnership
working. Action Plans for the implementation of the IMM in
regional networks are designed and the interventions needed
to create or to improve the regional innovation systems are
identified.
The transfer process needed for the concrete
implementation of the results of innovation projects is
described, taking into account existing background,
Intellectual Property Rights concerns, patenting,
publishing, and other relevant issues. Moreover, the
project considers how to address specific factors
necessary for an effective transfer, e.g. market needs,
standardisation, customer requirements,
regional/national/international policies, skills, training
activities, financial support from administration, etc.
Finally, the management model is piloted with a small
number of organisations VET institutions, companies and
research organisations in the 4 regions of Tuscany, Wales,
Syddanmark and Basque Country (who are all members of
EARLALL) focusing on an innovative sector with emerging
technologies.
The results of the regional studies and the piloting of the innovation
management model allow to project partners to propose initiatives
that work with their respective systems. In order to guarantee shared
learning between the different regions and their respective systems,
creating a network of regional innovation systems is proposed,
encouraging its development and evolution. The aim of the regional
network is to support and to monitor the development and progress of
the networks, to monitor the implementation of the action plans, and to
adapt and improve the IMM after the piloting actions. Furthermore,
project aims to create an International Innovation Network.
Web site: http://www.rainova-project.eu

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AADLC knowledge Transfer in Change management
In May 2011, using funds provided by the Institutional Development Fund - IDF grant, the Association of
African Distance Learning Centers engaged ABUplus International-(formally known as ABU Consult) with
a team of international consultants - to further support and prepare the associations member Centers
and the Association in the process of implementing a structured transition from the current donor-
supported situation to a self-sustaining situation. The objective of the consultancy was to further
strengthen the institutional capacity of the Association and its centers in order to become independent
learning service providers.
The consultant worked closely with all the Association of African Distance Learning Centerss member
Centers managers providing first-hand international and African experience in the implementation of
activities in the following Strategic Areas: Governance, Business Development, Learning & Design and
Information Technology Development.
Following the Sustainability through Knowledge, Effectiveness and Participation approach for
strengthening the institutional capacity of the staff members of the Distance Learning Centers, four
thematic commissions - one for each strategic area, have been established and led by one Director of the
centers. Numerous discussions between the consultants and the member of the commissions took place,
including: videoconferences, face to face meetings, peer review of working documents, research and
analysis of different strategic documents. Considering the high number of beneficiary countries (thirteen)
and the fact that the international experts were working mostly on a home-office base from 4 different
continents, a moodle platform has been created for facilitating the communication and implementation of
the activities.
Under the Governance Area the vision and mission of the Association and its members has been realigned
and recommendations were proposed. The consultant supported the Association and its members in
strengthening and improving the administrative and organizational structure: Secretariat, Commissions
and working groups, Executive management and the structure of the centers. Under the Business &
Development area the consultant provided guidance and training to the marketing experts of individual
centers in the preparation of a Marketing Strategy for the Association and its centers.
In achieving the overall objective of the project the Learning and Design area (L&D), played a crucial role
in providing guidance in building the capacity of training coordinators in designing e-learning
services. Under this area, initially, the consultant analyzed the current capacity of the centers in
conducting Training Needs Assessment (TNA), in terms of human capacity and availability of tools,
techniques and materials. Training coordinators were guided in the implementation of a training needs
assessment of future clients. A training needs assessment of the training coordinators was implicitly
conducted. Guidance was provided in Learning Program & Content Design and in Content Development,
supporting the training coordinators in the preparation of training programs responsive to the needs of
the client and ensuring efficiency in designing content & learning programs. In addition, the consultant
carried out the systematic identification and analysis of tools and sources of information relevant to the
needs of the Association of African Distance Learning Centers for the delivery of online learning services.
Recommendations of learning Management System that can be adopted by the Association were
provided.
Strengthening the Vocational Education and Training System in Turkey
In the framework of the Education, Training and Youth program of the European Commission, ABUplus
International has provided a service which overall objective was to assist the Turkish Government,
through the Ministry of National Education, in the process of modernization and adaptation of the VET
system to the socio-economic needs of the country and to the principles of life-long learning.
To provide assistance in improving the quality and relevance of the VET system through the
implementation of a national reform, including the development of national qualifications system;
To strengthen institutional capacity at national, regional and local level of public administration,
social partners representatives and companies, leading to the establishment of an effective
partnership agreement among all institutions and social and economic partners involved in VET
and defining their role and contribution to the process of reform;
To speed up a process of decentralization of the system, by involving local actors in the
implementation of the process of reform.
As part of the strategy, the team of experts created the basis for facilitated a dialogue among main
stakeholders and policy makers coming from the ministries of education, economy and labour. After
setting ups different working groups actively involved in the implementation of the VET reform, a labour

15
market needs analysis has been conducted through the design and implementation of qualitative labour
market surveys carried out at a national level.
One major component of the project included the development of National Qualification System, which
implied the identification of occupational and training standards, and the implementation of a national
framework for assessing, grading and certifying vocational qualifications. An institution was appointed as
responsible for the National Qualification System and a capacity building program for its staff was
designed and implemented in order to make the structure operational. International trainers supported
by local consultants and stakeholders prepared tailor-made and modularized training programs for the
purpose of train the trainers (local experts and public officials). Applying the cascade mode the
institutional capacity at national, regional and local level of public administration, social partners
representatives and companies was enhanced.
For supporting the client in the adaptation of the VET system to the principles of life-long learning a
Lifelong Learning Working Group (LLWG) was established. This Working Group was in charge of
conducting an examination of alternative lifelong learning systems and legislation for Turkey including:
issues related to definition and development of lifelong learning concept with a focus on secondary and
adult continuing education; analysis of educational and training systems in Turkey in relation to lifelong
learning. The Lifelong Learning Working Group developed a white paper to promote the integration of
different levels of formal education, from primary to higher education, and informal learning into a
lifelong learning system for Turkey citizens. The results of the conducted research were presented in two
national conferences and 6 regional dissemination seminars.
ExchangeAbility - European Students Network, ESN
Going to study abroad for a period of time is a challenging time for young people, as they are facing an
unfamiliar environment, a new language and culture, to name but a few things. In addition, it can be even
more difficult for students with disabilities who may face inaccessible environments or disability-related
stereotypes. According to the data from the European Commission, there is a very low participation of
students with special need in the Erasmus mobility and, more in general, in exchange opportunities. As
recognition of such challenges, ESN developed the ExchangeAbility project to make our organisation
accessible for students with disabilities, to help remove obstacles to participation in exchange and
promote the opportunities available.
The ExchangeAbility project was also initiated due to the recognition of the current situation regarding
the mobility of students with disabilities. According to the data from the European Commission, during
the academic year 2009/10 230 students with special needs receiving a supplementary grant participated
in Erasmus for study. This represents 0.14 % of all Erasmus students. Although an increase compared to
the previous years has been observed, the number is still exceptionally low.
The main aim of ExchangeAbility is to encourage an increase in the number of students with special needs
taking part in the exchange programmes by stimulating their mobility through the organisation of site
visits connected with different activities. All parties involved lead a sensibilisation campaign composed of
different activities and outcomes that stress all the aspects of sending and welcoming disabled student at
HE institutions, the policy of universities on inclusive education, the accessibility of the departments, as
well as the social support and involvement in the student life.
The project has dual core aims that can be summarised as:
Making ESN a more accessible association for disabled students at all the levels of its activities.
This means that ESN wants to provide the conditions and opportunities for the disabled students
to actively be involved in the work with international students and therefore to benefit from the
exchange programmes at their home universities.
Increasing the number of students with disabilities going on exchange. The long-term vision of
the project is to promote the opportunities and support offered for students with disabilities to
study abroad. Also, ExchangeAbility works with ESN sections, HEIs and organisations that are
experts in the field to create the best conditions possible for disabled students during their stay
abroad.
Special attention is focused on the following factors:
Encouraging a higher number of students with disabilities to go for an exchange and the quality of
these exchanges;
Raising awareness among all the groups involved: university officials, students with and without
disabilities, pointing out opportunities of participating in the exchange programmes;
Creating a group of ExchangeAbility Ambassadors that will promote exchange programmes
among other students with disabilities during and after the lifetime of the project;

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Providing information on accessibility facilities available at the universities of the pilot group;
Providing audio-visual material and showing cases of good practice able to reach students with
disabilities and their close environment.
Other aims of the project are:
Increasing the involvement of students with disabilities in the community in general;
Creating cooperation between universities and students, as well as between disabled students
themselves and with other stakeholders involved in the inclusion of people with disabilities;
Changing the mind-set of the target groups involved about the mobility of students with
disabilities
Web site: http://exchangeability.esn.org

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EUROCLIO
EUROCLIO, the European Association of History Educators, was established in 1992 on request of the
Council of Europe to build bridges between history education professionals from all parts of the then
recently reunited Europe.
Learning is a lifelong and life-wide process: history, heritage and citizenship educators, like any other
professionals, need to regularly upgrade their skills and get new inspiration. Training courses, study
visits, online courses and fellowships are some examples of the opportunities that feature here, all offered
by a variety of recognised organisations. Unique characteristics of these events are that:
for a great majority of people who participate, they are the one and only opportunity to be trained
in their subject outside of their own country and with colleagues from other countries;
these courses represent a unique mix of local, national and European learning experiences
through a constant interrelation between these 3 levels in the programme, stakeholders'
involvement and participation.
In this sense, the EUROCLIO International Training Programme is highly relevant to at least 2 of EUCIS-
LLL CB4LLP pilot actions: access to lifelong learning and interculturality. Success and overwhelming
satisfaction from participants are confirmed each time through high attendance and high scores in the
evaluation forms.
EUROCLIO supports the development of responsible and innovative history, heritage and citizenship
education by promoting critical thinking, mutual respect, peace, stability and democracy. This is the
mission of the organization. Among its objectives one can mention:
Building professional capacity through developing and implementing innovative (on-line)
teaching tools;
Fostering professional knowledge exchange, intercultural dialogue and cross-community,
national and trans-border networking;
Supporting sustainable professional civil society stimulating, initiating and empowering
independent history and citizenship educators' Associations across Europe and beyond.
Various programmes include a manifold of conferences, seminars, workshops and
trainings, but one activity stands out each year. Once per year, since 1993, History,
Heritage, Citizenship Educators from all over Europe, and beyond, have the
opportunity to work and think together. At the EUROCLIO Annual Conferences and
Professional Training and Development Courses, around 4000 individual History
Educators have engaged with each other and thereby they contributed to shaping
the face of contemporary history education. Over these two decades, millions of
pupils throughout Europe have been influenced by the insights gained at these
Training and Development conferences.
Thanks to this Programme, many people from so many different
backgrounds are able to come together as History Education
Professionals to work on how they all teach and deal with
History. It is the unique opportunity for International Cooperation on a
subject that is constantly put forward as a prerogative of a Nation. Many
documents speak of Capacity Building, and in this light, the capacity of
hundreds of History Educators to come together, based on professional
and volunteering support, is something that deserves continued support.
Web site: www.euroclio.eu


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SOS Network - Social inclusion of students with special needs into vocational
education and training and at the labour market
The SOS-network is being established due to the need for instant and relevant help and inspiration for
teachers/trainers, employers, counsellors and others working with social inclusion in vocational
education and training and at the labour market.
The SOS-Network has two main objectives: one is to reduce early school leaving and the second is to
ensure a good transition between education and employment. The main target group is teachers and
trainers in vocational education and training working with students/learners with special needs on a
daily basis, but also employers and counsellors who meet these young people in their transition to the
labour market. The students/learners with special needs have prior to the project start been identified
with reference to four categories of problems that may cause early school leaving or difficulties entering
the labour market:
students/learners with medical diagnosis;
students/learners with social problems;
students/learners with literacy and numeracy problems (learning difficulties not due to a medical
diagnosis);
students/learners with immigrant background.
The SOS-network is a network established with the aim of developing a sustainable and far reaching
network for professionals working with students and learners with special needs. It has been established
on an expressed need for exchange of experiences on how to tackle early school leaving from the
vocational education sector, and on how to ensure a good transition from education and onto the labour
market.
The SOS-Network unites 14 vocational education and training institutions, job centres, higher education
institutions, employers organisations and others working with social inclusion in education and training
from 12 different European countries. Each of these has specific competences and experiences in working
with students with special needs. For instance, one partner is specifically experienced in working with
student/learners with special needs in mobility projects; another has special competences in dealing with
young people with Aspergers syndrome; and others are experienced in guidance issues or are working
specifically with teachers within special education needs. In total, the consortium represents a wide range
of experiences and competences that cover all the aspects of the social inclusion being dealt with in the
SOS-network.
The main product is an online portal, a one-stop-shop, which comprises all types of relevant information
for those working within this field. This means access to well-proven methods and tool that can be used
directly by teachers and trainers; inspirational cases of approaches to social inclusion, as well as a rather
extended pool of information of use for teachers, trainers, counsellors, employers and others.
In general terms, the SOS-portal compiles all existing information on the subjects in focus here. The
ambition is to collect and present examples of what works, and to give professionals and other easy
access to the information. The SOS-network thus benefits largely from good result achieved in other
projects, funded by LLP or other programmes.
Two major steps have already been finalised by the network. One is a Europe-wide mapping of barriers to
education presenting different perceptions of students/learners with special needs. This mapping set the
starting point for the second major step, namely the identification of interesting cases describing
innovative and success-proven approaches to students/learners with special needs in different learning
environment.
And even during the development of the network the partners have benefited from the exchange of
experience and knowledge. The Danish partner, for instance, has been inspired by the success that the
Italian partner is able to present within the mobility field for students with special needs. The network
has also opened up to an on-going discussion of the approach to social inclusion, and how focusing on
competences and a choice of other concepts may contribute to reaching the ambition of reducing early
school leaving.
Web site: www.sosnetwork.eu

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LP-model and inclusion - Learning Environment and Pedagogical Analysis, a way to
strengthen inclusion in schools
A Comenius Regio project realized with Odder Municipality (Denmark) and the Norwegian municipalities
of Narvik and Hamary.
The LP-model was developed by the Norwegian professor Thomas Nordahl at the Hgskole in Hedmark.
The model has already been used in Comenius projects in cooperation between the professor and other
Danish educational institutions. The LP-model builds on systemic theory and focuses on concrete
situations as well as on the factors that reinforce problems. This involves the professionals looking
inwards as well, considering their own teaching practices. The model can form the basis developing and
executing strategies and initiatives that help minimise problems and enhance students learning outcome.
As part of the Comenius Regio-project the partners adjusted the model to be an even better tool for
creating better learning environments. Among other things the role of school managers has been better
incorporated into the model, and concrete methodologies to working with inclusion in the class room.
The project thus builds on insights from Norway and other LLP-projects and further developed the model
and tool for other projects to work with inclusion in the class room focusing on the learning environment
rather than the students.
Objectives of the project were:
to investigate, support and improve methods to include children in schools
to observe and exchange ideas for good practice
to explore and share ways to enhance the development of the professional teacher
to investigate and share ways to develop leaders, coordinators and counsellors role in the
interaction with teacher groups

Main results and conclusions of the Project:
The project has given substance to learning within the different levels in the organization: management,
school management, stakeholders and teacher groups. There have been organized study visits,
conferences, seminars and courses, and all groups in the school system have been affected. The
international dimension on the area of focus has led to a greater commitment and professionalism among
teachers and school managers. It has given a common platform for school development.
Impact and use:
The Schools in the three municipalities have all worked dedicated on learning environments and inclusion
and they have inspired each other to new initiatives. The cultures and school structures from the two
countries have several similarities, and it has been easy to transfer good practice between the two
countries. At the same time, the two countries have different ways of thinking about inclusion and
different ways to handle enrolment, which has given substance to many good discussions across national
boundaries and in the management teams. In the Danish group, there has been a high degree of
involvement and a consensus around the objectives of the project, which has made international
cooperation easier.
Web site: http://ec.europa.eu/education/comenius/doc/regio11/comp.pdf

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Employ Design Your Future Employability
The recent years have led to a substantial change on the labour markets: the introduction of new
information and communication technologies, effects of globalisation have had strong impact on contents,
requirements and professional competences. Current and emerging sectors and work environments are
characterised by higher level skills needs, and by a global competition that demands quality skills and
productivity. One of the primary roles of education and training systems is to supply the skills and
competences that young people need in order to enter the labour market, adapting to the changing
demand of the society and to the complex dynamics and requirements of the business environment.
Employ (2012-2014) is a European project funded by the Lifelong Learning Leonardo programme and
developed by 8 key partners from Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Turkey and UK.
In the light of the present economic situation and increased competition on job market that makes the
preparation more relevant than ever, the Employ project is an imperative for students to Employ
their energy, skills and creativity to gain employment, and for career staff and
trainers to Employ innovative tools to help job seekers and young
graduates to reach their employment objectives. Employ
focuses attention on preparing jobseekers and graduates to
stand out from the rest, by recognising and addressing the
personal competences that every modern worker needs in a
changing and innovative work environment. Employ aims to
offer to educationalists, employment services and students,
graduates and jobseekers a toolkit of assignments and
accompanying activities to promote intelligent, engaged and creative
acquisition of key non-academic or technical competences. Employ
equip students and jobseekers with the key transversal competences
they need to bridge the transition between training and work,
improving access to employment and providing skilled workers.
Targets design their way to success on the job market, developing the
competences and attitudes demanded in a broad range of
contemporary and emerging work environments and industries. The
recent International Needs Analysis identifies, analyses and draws
attention to the most valued key competences and attitudes across
countries by employers. As one of the challenges of the Project is to meet
current and emerging skill formation needs, Employ focuses on the
acquisition of the top 10 competences demanded by the companies.
As a collateral part of the project, a research has been carried out on the
credit allocation systems in VET in each partner country. EQF type credits
are allocated to the competences gained in the project programme,
further promoting the capacity to compete internationally for jobs.
Guided workshops offered by the project encourage the creation and
management of a personal portfolio of essential key competences and
skills linked to employers needs to enable young people and jobseekers to
enter successfully into the labour market.
Web site: www.employ-project.com

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Foundations for Work
Young migrant workers with low qualifications and workplace skills have been hit especially hard by the
economic crisis. Among immigrants, they are most likely to experience difficulties acquiring and retaining
employment. A range of VET initiatives now exists for immigrants, yet their generic nature and focus on
ICT means they are unsuited to the young male workers who are most at need, thereby causing further
exclusion.
The aim of Foundations for Work (FfW) is to increase the basic competences of young immigrants so they
may improve their job prospects and benefit from mainstream training in their host country. To do so, our
objectives include producing and disseminating a needs analysis and best practice training report for this
group; generating a multimedia DVD and resource pack for VET teachers for classroom or one-to-one use
and thoroughly testing it with both immigrants and trainers; widely disseminating the results with VET
and immigrant service stakeholders through high-profile events and focused communications, and
identifying viable exploitation strategies, including mapping the route to accreditation, to ensure high
take up in the short and long term.
FfW aims to increase the integration of young immigrants into the labour market of their host countries
by producing a multilingual, multicultural training course which allow them to acquire the basic
competences and transferable work skills needed to open up progression opportunities either directly
into employment and/or to further vocational qualifications. A secondary aim is to make VET providers
more aware of the variety of needs within the migrant population and thus better equipped to support
this subgroup.
Thus, the specific objectives include generating an up-to-date analysis of the needs of this particular
group relating to standards in basic competences; transferring and adapting the existing FfW course
materials into a multimedia DVD and resource pack for VET teachers and thoroughly testing it with both
migrants and trainers.
The desk research carried out by the FfW consortium of six core partners from five countries outlined the
situation of each country regarding migration demographics and education/employment trends among
young immigrants. To deepen partners existing knowledge of the training needs of young, migrant
workers with low educational attainment and of the perceived and real barriers to them gaining fulfilling
employment in their host countries.
On the basis of this knowledge to:
Provide a well-grounded basis for the development of the training course;
Propose principal themes and module titles for the new learning materials in Foundations for
Work course;
Identify and disseminate good practice within the VET and voluntary sector on responsive
strategies for the promotion of basic competences in the target group.
Incorporate country reports and baseline audit into a training needs analysis and good practice report
which compiles information on successful or commendable initiatives, proposes principal themes and
module titles for new learning materials in course, identifies and disseminates good practice within VET
and voluntary sector on responsive strategies for promotion of basic competences in target group.
FfWs strength lies in its back-to-basics approach and the way in which the innovation of the existing
resources was combined with a rigorous methodology and the experience of six project partners,
including four social organizations and two dedicated VET organizations, from five countries most
affected by migration. All partners have collaborated previously on immigrant training initiatives and
have specific VET expertise.
As a result of the project, voluntary immigrant service and VET organizations have a methodology and
resource pack for use with young underachieving migrants. High uptake is ensured by a charismatic
marketing and exploitation campaign. In the longer term, through increased skills, adaptability and
insertion into higher quality jobs, immigrants have more opportunities to fulfil their potential in the
labour market and benefit from mainstream training, as well as greater personal growth and social
integration.
Diversity Works leads the project and coordinates the materials development phase, given they author of
the range of original Foundations for Work materials, as well as an experienced provider of vocational
training to disadvantaged youth and coordinator of internationally funded projects .
Web site: www.foundationsforwork.eu

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LEARNINC - Learning incubators/Business incubators for improving creativity and
entrepreneurship in historical-center clusters
In the last decade a growing attention toward urban development policies has been registered
considering cities as home to change based on innovation, spirit of enterprise and economic growth (i.e.
Leipzing charter on sustainable European cities). Despite such an innovative vision of urban
development policies, a parallel coherent learning and training strategy has been generally neglected or
underestimated. On the contrary, urban development policies could be deeply boosted and reinforced by
a systemic and integrated approach to human resource development and empowerment. Nowadays
several historic centres have been renewed and restored in order to exploit their architectonic and
cultural resources for tourism but their productive realities, made up by loads of small activities linked
and interdependent with its own identity and field of specialisation like a micro-urban-cluster, had been
neglected. The experience of business incubators and entrepreneurs training is something running-in but
it still misses a systemic, spatial vision that could bring together many aspects of revitalisation and
several actors.
Starting from this scenario, the project aims at developing a brand new solution of integrated VET and
business creation in order to help European countries to cope with the common challenge of sustainable
urban economic revitalisation mainly supporting micro-clustering processes and new business start-up.
The local partnership, in each one of the 7 countries partners, is made up by municipalities, chambers of
commerce and consultancy companies and other organizations specialized in training and local
development.
This strategic aim is reached by the development of an innovative methodological path able to bridge the
gap among labour-market, human-resources, training system and public goals for the revitalisation of the
area by supporting and encouraging micro-clustering processes among trade, service (especially tourism
and ICT) and handicraft companies.
General objectives of the LLP related to LearnInc project are:
To reinforce the contribution of Lifelong Learning to social cohesion, active citizenship,
intercultural dialogue, gender equality and personal fulfilment
To promote creativity, competitiveness, employability and the growth of an entrepreneurial spirit
Specific objectives of Leonardo da Vinci Development of Innovation related to LearnInc project are:
strengthening the liaison between VET professionals and working life (enterprises, occupational
sectors, etc.);
developing and implementing measures to create learning conducive-workplaces;
actions to improve the recognition and validation of work-based learning to support career
development and lifelong learning;
improving skills acquisition by fostering creativity and entrepreneurship
Specific objectives of LearnInc project are:
Promotion of structured cooperation among local stakeholders;
Mapping & analysis of local productive vocations;
Strategic plan for revitalization of economic degraded pilot areas;
Entrepreneurship and micro-clustering process support;
Continuous comparison and exchange of best practices at EU level.
Learning Incubators is to be intended as a virtual or real organization planning, developing, managing
and promoting a net of businesses working in clusters, exchanging knowledge and learning from this
continuous sharing of information. To this end each partner city has chosen a city area where to
experiment the implementation of a micro-cluster Plan that includes: (i) a context analysis, (ii) a key idea
for the economic development of the area, (iii) an analysis of needs and potentialities of the area for what
concern the chosen pilot-cluster, (iv) a training module combining entrepreneurial and vocational
training and (v) a sustainability plan envisaged actions for business start-up.
Web site: www.learninc.eu

23
ENTER ENTrepreneurship Enhancement and Reinforcement
In a global economy where enterprise sustainability and employability is uncertain, the task of
successfully creating a new company requires the best knowledge, application of good practices and the
mastery of the most advanced methodologies in enterprise management. In this context, it becomes
essential to develop abilities and to deliver tools adequate to the necessities of these entrepreneurs. This
was recognized by the European Commission in the Report on the implementation of the
Entrepreneurship Action Plan1, that generated a remarkable set of Good Practices.
It is thus necessary to create a new strategic model of promotion of the entrepreneurship that promotes
the effective linking to the surrounding enterprise reality and that maintains the mentoring and training
of the entrepreneur, not only in the initial phase but during the whole process of launching the company.
Each entrepreneur must receive training and motivational counselling in the pre-incubator phase and on
enterprise aspects in a second phase, including the obligatory use of Technologies of Information and
Communication to prepare for the competitive global market.
The basic aim of the ENTER project was to leverage processes of development and individual promotion
of new entrepreneurs through the use of ICT-based platforms and tools that allow to deliver innovative
interactive multimedia contents but also support collaboration and communication in a Virtual Learning
Community spread in Europe, to provide and innovative training model that encourages people who hold
a business idea to adopt an entrepreneurship attitude in everyday life by strengthening their
entrepreneurial skills.
This aim was reached by the definition and implementation of a an innovative training-mentoring
methodology, that integrates Training centres, Science and Technology Parks, Enterprises Associations
and other stakeholders of the entrepreneurship value chain, in an European transnational and
intercultural context.
ENTER project was developed by partners from France, Greece, Romania and Portugal, and targeted
anyone from those countries having a business idea, mainly vocational trainees (level 3 and 4).
The trainees have participated in the e-learning pilot course and were oriented to acquire a complete
knowledge on issues like Business Plan, Company, Communication, Marketing, Finance, Innovation
Management, Intellectual Property Rights, Project Management and Internationalisation. They were
granted with individual mentoring by national and international experts through a virtual learning
community.
Some of the trainees, who developed bankable business plans, have effectively started companies to
which were offered special incubation conditions. In the process of learning, the up-to-date learning tools
have been fully employed: e-learning platform, interactive multimedia content, simulation, digital
repository, instant messaging, forum and video conference.
The course helped trainees in developing the key competences necessary for creating an enterprise and
understanding its management process. It also enhanced the trainees capacity to use their skills in
concrete situations and to promote the self-confidence they need to turn their ideas into realistic and
feasible projects. ENTER proposed an innovative training and mentoring model for the promotion and
adoption of a culture of entrepreneurship in Europe.
Web site: www.enter-project.eu


24
IT-CLEX European clusters to promote the exchange of knowledge and best
practices in fighting early school leaving through IT
According to the Communication Improving competences for the 21st Century: An Agenda for European
Cooperation on Schools, one of the measures to combat early school leaving includes closer collaboration
between the general and vocational education and training sectors, as well as an early identification of
dropouts. The IT-CLEX project took this idea further and developed tools and methods to foster holistic
work between different agents and collected best practices helping to identify students at risk of dropping
out.
The IT-CLEX project has the aim of contributing to reducing the drop-out rates in the countries where it is
implemented. This is line with the major strategic goal of the Lisbon strategy, to become the most
competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. It also contributes to the European
cooperation in education and training (ET 2020) published the 12th of May 2009, from the Council
conclusions, especially with the objective of Improving the quality and efficiency of education and
training and Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship.
The early school leaving and drop-out issue is a problem that affects the student as a person. If the
problem is not solved, it has consequences for the person in his/her adult life not only from the education
perspective but also from the social and economic point of view. Therefore, the IT-CLEX project clearly
contributes to attaining the goal set by the ET 2020.
IT-CLEX is a European initiative that aims to respond to the need to reduce drop-out rates and to improve
the quality of education and training in Europe. The project intends to provide a holistic solution to fight
early school leaving. In this sense, IT-CLEX offers to education professionals and other professionals
related to the topic (from Education Departments from children education to upper secondary education
and VET, Social Services, Health Services, Police, etc.) a set of tools and a solution-focused methodology to
face the early school leaving issue. The main idea behind the IT-CLEX project is to create a network of
professionals who have different perspectives and who are able to provide different solutions or options
when fighting early school leaving.
IT-CLEX identifies and transfers best practices and provides tools, mechanisms and methodologies,
especially focused on active cooperation between educational and non-educational actors.
IT-CLEX aims at helping education professionals and other agents to use and implement efficient and
useful tools addressed at fighting early school leaving throughout all education stages, i.e. from Childhood
education until University studies.
The direct beneficiaries of applying this process are youngsters at risk of dropping out of school or who
have already left school, who are more likely to be socially excluded, who have more difficulties in getting
employed. Also, students at kindergarten, primary and secondary education might benefit of the results
achieved by the project.
IT-CLEX is addressed to counsellors, headmasters/mistresses, teachers, educators, as well as other agents
who might devote part of their time to work with students. It also tries to widen their scope of action by
collaborating with other schools, training centres and other professionals from different areas (social
services, police, health services, etc.). All these actors benefit from the free resources, tools,
methodologies and experiences that have been gathered from education professionals throughout Europe
in this field, in the framework of the IT-CLEX project.
In the case of the public stakeholders, it is interesting to point out that they have the opportunity of using
the project results (main results are described in detail in the following chapters) for free: the ICT
platform (which can be used as a repository and communication tool), the collection of best practices, and
they can also implement the methodology for working collaboratively.
Web site: www.itclex.eu

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Reducing Early School leaving by an Integrated Approach
The project sets out to reduce drop-out rates in schools and colleges through improving the guidance
offered to students and through creating a more attractive learning environment. The project attempts to
bring together aspects of education and VET with the social work goals aimed at student welfare and
further intends to integrate the existing knowledge and expertise from a range of institutions into a
coherent guidance and counselling system based upon a model of social competencies adapted from
youth work.
Students with emotional, social and motivational problems are specifically targeted by the project in
order to assist these groups to make informed training and career choices.
To this end, an integrated methodology, aimed at reducing early school dropout, are developed by the
project partners and are based upon identified best practice across the partner countries. Such best
practice is grounded in the principles of an integrated approach to youth-based intervention between
institutions, alternative-learning pathways for young people and a sound pedagogical climate.
The identified best practice is adapted for piloting in the partner countries, with the onus on transferring
practice to different settings and user groups. The results of the pilot phase are presented in the printed
form and on CD-Rom (featuring video clips). A series of three printed newsletters and an interim report
raise awareness of project progress.
End results are promoted via a dedicated project website and comprise a series of recommendations for
integrated VET schooling and social work, aimed primarily at policy and
decision makers.
Web site: http://www.adam-
europe.eu/adam/project/view.htm?prj=2585#.UWgEUaKeOuI

26
BeCome Business Critical Learning for individuals working in SMEs (AssetTec)
C@rtesia was derived from the Distance Travelled Tool (DTT), a device developed in the UK during an
Equal Project (2004-2007) for the engagement of small and micro firms in VET and the development of
subsequent Training Plans for individual employees. BeCome project sought to develop a tool C@rtesia
which enhances the attractiveness of vocational learning to employers and employees in small and micro
firms and facilitates their engagement in VET.
C@rtesia in an online software developed by a European Partnership during a following project,
BeCome Business Critical Learning, and is a sort of interactive guide for small and micro enterprises,
with the task to accompany them from the survey of needs to the evaluation of training in terms of its
effectiveness in meeting their business critical needs. Secondly, C@rtesia wants to help these companies
to establish priorities in the management of staff training. Finally, it also aims to highlight, through
graphics and easy to read visuals, the effectiveness and impact of the learning in different employees
involved in training.
C@rtesia is an online tool which enables:
the engagement of SMEs in Vocational Education and Training,
the development of subsequent training plans for individual employees,
a simple and graphical Return on Investment (ROI) to the business,
employees to see graphically and simply the contribution of their increased skills both to their
own personal targets and to the Business Critical Needs of the company.
It has been designed to be in the hands of consultants, experts in business training aimed at small and
micro businesses. The idea is to sit next to the owners of the small and micro companies, to show them or
help them to clarify their training needs, to help them choose priorities and evaluate the efficacy of the
training on the job.
The main purpose of C@rtesia is to record and provide potential analysis of the learning progress that
each business and its individual employees will undertake.
The journey is towards the achievement of meeting the Business Critical Needs (BCNs). These were
initially identified from discussion with the business and with individual employees and what the training
/ learning requirements may be to meet them. The identification of what critical learning the business
requires, developed from the initial discussion and interview schedule generates a kind of map that helps
us to understand what are the priorities in terms of learning and training for the company and individual
employees to be involved in training.
The concept of BCNs is crucial for a correct and effective use of C@rtesia. The BCNs in fact are used to
correctly identify the training needs that will be subsequently analysed with the instrument. If we dont
identify correctly the BCNs, consequently all subsequent analysis and other measurements will be
invalidated and false.
Web site http://become.ning.com

27
MOJO - Motivation and Job Opportunities Support Service
MOJO is a personalised support service to the long-term unemployed. Designed to develop self-awareness
and confidence MOJO features a motivational mapping programme using psychometric principles, the
results of which are used to create one-to-one life and coaching and mentoring services.
Service users are encouraged to set life- and work-based goals and actions plan and coaches are assigned
to assist their implementation. The outcome is more self-aware and more motivated individuals, ready for
work. MOJO involves employment support experts, coaches, mentors and employers in an integrated
process that directly engages with the long term unemployed.
Job seekers set life and work based goals and action plans and identify training/skills needs.
Personal coaches are assigned to assist implementation. The outcome is more self-aware and motivated
individuals trained and ready for work.
The aims of the project are to transfer the MOJO process and methodology to other EU countries, test it,
embed it in new environments, and develop some new approaches when and where required. MOJO
involves employment support experts, coaches, mentors and employers in an integrated process that
directly engages with the long term unemployed.
The consortium members are experienced in the management and delivery of programmes to support
and train unemployed individuals, particularly those at high risk (disabled, women, refugees etc)
The MOJO project objectives are:
Transfer current innovative employment support practice from the UK to other EU countries
To enrol and fully engage 20 long term unemployed individuals in a MOJO experience in each of 6
EU regions including the UKs West Midlands further to the 2009/10 pilot project
Profile individual concerns and motivations amongst the long term unemployed to inform future
practice
Evaluate current intensive employment support practice and establish a wider community of
practice amongst unemployment service specialists
Identify how this support service links to mainstream support, providing added value and
economic impact for the regions
Engage and discuss with employers in the regions, in order to ensure that the service provided
ultimately provides employable, work-ready individuals, able to access opportunities available to
them
Receive feedback from long-term unemployed people on the value of an intensive and
personalised service
S x M = P is a simple equation for the measurement of potential performance. Clients are asked to rate
their skill levels between 1 and 10 (10 being highest score) and their motivation score from the map and
multiply the two numbers to get indicative potential performance score out of 100. Low scores in skills
can be improved through training and study, which in turn improves the performance score. These are
issues to work on during review sessions. It is however important to ensure that training does not
become an end in itself as MOJO is about helping people as they are, the skills they have now, rather than
over-training leading to inaction.
Web site: www.mojosupportservice.com

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Once Again-st Abandon
It is a dissemination and valorisation pilot project co-financed within the LDV Programme II phase,
focused on actions and practices aimed at coping with school abandon. It has been conceived as a follow-
up of the outcomes achieved by the implementation of of the pilot project Again-st Abandon (2003-05),
concerned with the identification of:
social, cultural and economic factors that characterize drop-outs;
good practices implemented in partner countries.
Starting from the analysis implemented during the first experience, that allowed on one side to re-
organise the economic and socio-cultural factors characterising the drop-outs of young people, and on the
other to valorise the methodological practices and reintegration experiences applied and validated in
different national contexts (ES, IT, LV, UK), using as a key to the reading the communication and relation
methods and techniques, Once Again-st points at integrating the outcomes achieved widening the
research contexts of reference (PL, RO, DE, GR) and, consequently, the range of good practices existing on
the European territory, that need to be valorised.
Direct beneficiaries of the activities are counselling and guidance operators, the sector involved is the one
of the services aimed at supporting the individuals within the process of personal and occupational
development. Indirect beneficiaries and potential users are the young that has left compulsory education
or training pathways (aged between 14-24 y.o.) and the Education and Training Institutions.
The main goals of the project were the following:
Integration and valorisation of the outcomes achieved by Against Abandon project, focused on the
analysis of the communication practices adopted by operators working with young dropout,
through:
o the study of the linguistic codes and communication behaviours adopted by young;
o the communication and relation practices, process and modalities adopted by operators
tutoring and training young dropouts;
o the study of the unsuccessful communication practices and process adopted towards
young (by Education and Training Institutions in particular))
Creation of a permanent virtual community (Portal on School Abandon), with the aim of making
available online a space where rationalize, disseminate, exchange and valorise the practices,
solutions, materials and tools identified and validated by different local subjects through their
own experience and work.
Promoting the enhancement of communication/relational efficacy and efficiency of counselling,
guidance and training services addressed to young drop out.
So, the idea on which the project is based is that there actually exists all around Europe a wide range of
different practices and processes that can differ from each other but that share a basic theoretical
approach Young Centred from which arise:
complex whole of methodologies, techniques and information that can be useful to valorise and
share;
interventions and actions consistently structured, implying also specific tools.
In general, the project focused on methodologies and processes adopted by operators and organisations
referred, in particular, to the moment preceding the attendance by the young of an education or training
reintegration pathway (that is the process implemented by operators to involve young in reintegrating
themselves in the system, to ensure themselves the chance to enter the occupational market).
In this frame Once Again-st worked for the development of operators competences, promoting and
supporting the accessibility to operational documents and tools so as to foster their knowledge
concerning: the analysis of the opportunities available on the territory and within their specific working
areas.
Web site: www.once.againstabandon.net

29
The 8 solutions for fighting early school leaving in VET
The project The 8 solution for fighting early school leaving in VET could give a strong and visible signal
to the European VET schools and also to find out some possible solutions for reducing the number of the
early school leaving in VET. Reducing early school leaving is essential for achieving a number of key
objectives in the Europe 2020 strategy.
The main aim of the project was to identify the main factors of the early school leaving in VET, in order to
reduce drop-outs by increasing motivation of the VET students and helping them to adapt to the Lifelong
Learning Society. The project focused on the teachers working with VET students, including groups at
increased risk of early school leaving (e.g: children with a socio-economical disadvantaged background,
with migrant background or with special educational needs); this because being a teacher of the
mentioned group of students requires many soft skills in order to support, understand and motivate the
students to continue their compulsory education and to be able to obtain a
diploma/qualification/certification. It is necessary to build also the awareness of the school managers and
the decision makers in the field of VET regarding the existing problem of early school leaving. The
consortium included 6 partners from 4 countries from: three from EU (NL, IT, UK), as well as an acceding
country (TR). The structure of the consortium had a multi-player dimension (adult education provider,
voluntary organization, VET school, centre for drop-outs, and regional authorities).
Among the project outcomes one can mention coaching guide for teachers working in VET schools;
Quality procedures for reducing drop-outs in VET schools; Collection of innovative teaching and training
approaches and methods for reducing early school leaving in VET; Guidelines app for teachers
working with VET students in risk of drop-out; Kit for VET schools for identifying the
students in risk of drop-out; Training package for peer training for VET teachers.
Two types of impact were foreseen: a short term impact aimed to decrease the number
of drop-outs, through motivating VET students and training their teachers; and the
long term one through the introduction of Lifelong Learning and pro-active
attitude in the society and in VET schools.
The project aimed to develop a training course for VET teachers working with
VET students, as a particular target group with more risk of drop-out than in
the general education. In this respect, the project focused on the importance of
continuous training for VET teachers that have to face the necessity of
reducing the number of the early school leavers during the next years. Quality
assurance procedures were developed for reducing drop-outs in VET schools,
to be included in the general quality school management. Additionally, also
special quality assurance teams were initialised to deal with and for
coordinating the implementation of the quality assurance procedures regarding
drop-outs in the project life, as well as after the project period.
Web site: www.ldvfeight.eu

30
Lifelong learning: Enabling young unemployed persons to find first employment
One of the first LLL initiatives in Bosnia and Herzegovina was done by The Association for Research and
Organisational Development RODA Sarajevo, and their programme was called: Lifelong learning:
Enabling young unemployed persons (age group 18-40) to find first employment. The project was
implemented mainly in the Canton Sarajevo and targeted young people who had gone through either
college or higher education.
The key goal was to help the participants to gain new skills and knowledge and finally get the
internationally verified certificates in the fields of: IT, foreign languages and soft skills in social studies.
This project had a measurable success and the outcome was that nearly 70% of the young people that
went through the programme acknowledged that they have found an employment easily in 1-6 months
after acquiring the certificate.
Since it has proven very successful, in year 2010 this initiative has changed its course into a sustainable
and a very concrete action, gaining its own space at the School of Economics and Business of Sarajevo,
changing its name into the Career Centre. Career Centre now supports students and graduates in
developing the skills, knowledge, and competences that are more than necessary in the modern business
world, but also helps steer and continue education.
Centre also acts as a strong link between the academic and business community, providing an
opportunity for students to gain work experience during their studies while at the same time helping the
employers to find high-quality associates, interns and future valuable members of their teams.
Tasks of the Career Centre for students and graduates are:
Allow students to experience the business world, contacts with the employers, the practice in
business environment, volunteering and potential employment.
Developing and enhancing specific competencies and skills in students that will allow them to
position themselves in the labour market and successfully pursue a career after graduation
Organisation of workshops, training sessions, seminars, round tables, discussions and panels for
students. Those events cover the knowledge valued by employers, whether there are employers
present at the events or not.
Providing assistance with writing resumes, cover letter and prepare for interviews
Affirming students' proactivity, initiative and innovation.
Career Centre represents the right service to help students and graduates with all their doubts and
difficulties during their studies and afterwards, when they want to find their first job. If they want to find
their way in today's competitive environment, the Career Centre is there to help, and to contribute to a
better development of the society. The Career Centre offers to students education on technical matters
that they will surely need during development of their professional and learning career. The attendees,
members, volunteers and participants to the events that the Career Centre organises, learn how to
properly write a resume, cover letter, how to smoothly carry out internships and actually learn
something, to become proactive young people and fight for a better position in society.
The Career Centre helps students and job seekers to activate and accomplish more during their studies
and after the studies. It is a service which helps college students to grade and upgrade themselves, to raise
the foundations and become successful working force, to be respected and competitive in the labour
market and in the community.
One of the biggest advantages of this centre is that the Centre provides support not only to the students of
the School of Economy and Business Sarajevo, but also to students, graduates and postgraduates of other
faculties, and to people who are already involved in business, employed in a company and also those who
wish to further pursue their educational career and professional development.
More information regarding the Career Centre on the web:
http://www.efsa.unsa.ba/career/ba/career-startup/career-startup-2012

31
Strengthening of competitiveness of marginalized social groups at the labor market
Centre for support and development: Strengthening of competitiveness of marginalized social groups at
the labour market the overall objective was to decrease unemployment rate of the marginalized social
groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Direct beneficiaries were the unemployed persons who belong to
marginalized groups; Potential employers that deal with secondary energy sources.
Within the project objectives, there were the four specific ones:
Capacity building for marginalized groups
Introduction of the groups with the possibilities of labour market
Enabling dialogue with resource ministries in the Cantons
Improvement of the existing module of training for production and installation of (i.e.) solar
panels and secondary energy sources.
Throughout the project, following activities can be listed:
1. Conducting an analysis of the practices of services in the field of social inclusion and employment:
Based on analysis of the laws and documents in the field of social inclusion and employment and
conducted interviews and focus groups with representatives of social welfare centres, the State
Agency for Employment, social partners and non-governmental organizations, have prepared a
comprehensive report regarding the mentioned activity. At the same time, the report has included
the results of research carried out through the use of a survey among 500 long-term unemployed
subsistence allowance.
2. The formation of 8 working groups and implementation of seminars for members of the working
group. The 8 working groups were formed on the basis of the consultation process necessary for
the development of a model of social mentoring. In each of the working groups there were around
20 representatives of various institutions (social welfare centres, the Employment Services, NGOs,
social partners, representatives of municipalities, cantons, etc.).
3. Defining the formal procedures of cooperation: One of the fundamental prerequisites for
establishing a model of social mentoring is good cooperation between all relevant stakeholders in
the field of social inclusion and employment. In order to develop co-operation between relevant
organizations and further strengthen, as part of these activities there were two rounds of
consultations with each of the eight working groups formed within activity 2. Results of the
consultation, as well as the results of previously conducted activities, contributed to the
preparation of the draft "Code of Conduct in service long-term unemployed beneficiaries of
subsistence."
4. Organizing campaigns to sensitise the public opinion. The project carried out a series of activities
that contribute to the public's awareness of the needs of disadvantaged groups. Within the project
there were the independent consulting groups, which were represented by the representatives as
foreseen in the Action Plan of the media campaign that have been created by experts. The group
consisted of representatives of social welfare centres, academia, non-governmental organizations,
social partners - trade unions, employers and the Government Office for Social Partnership. By the
end of the project, the partners continuously collaborated with national and local media for the
purpose of popularising the subject, to sensitise the public on the activities necessary for providing
a platform for social inclusion and employment of disadvantaged groups - long-term unemployed
subsistence allowance.
5. Provide necessary training and means in order to enhance knowledge and skills for secondary
energy sources. This activity concentrated on the improvement of the existing module of training
(if there were any throughout the Cantons) for production and installation of solar panels and
secondary energy sources as well as other activities that enhance entrepreneurial skills (SME
development, Energy efficiency, LLL for business, etc.).

32
ENABLE - Enabling Labour Market Entry and Mobility by Engaging Learners through
Innovation
The project addressed low levels of participation in VET by "at risk" groups throughout Europe and
provide them the necessary ICT skills for both personal and vocational development. The mechanisms for
engagement and learning in this project were learner-led. The ICT programmes were developed by
focusing on the potential learners interests established through market research. The outcomes
comprised of an engagement methodology, software resources for the enhancement of
ICT/Digital/Creative skills to meet the needs of the local labour market and an open source e-learning
platform (eFront) in all partner languages as well as supporting documentation.
The ICT programmes developed by the project focused on the learners interests and delivered a product
that the learners told them they wanted. The research exercise conducted at the beginning of the project
identified the needs of learners and cultural differences of each group to enable the partners to develop a
desktop publishing software tool called Page Designer.
The Page Designer product developed by this project is a simple and easy-to-use publishing tool that
enables users with little or no ICT skills to practice and develop those skills enhancing their opportunities
to enter the labour market. The target groups expressed their interest to develop and increase their ICT
skills by engaging with the vocational learning product Page Designer.
This accessible product has encouraged women currently outside the labour market to engage with ICT
for the first time. They had the opportunity to develop skills and at the same time produce creative and
meaningful documents. The Page Designer allows users to create for example an insight into their life
and community, or food recipes traditional to their community with pictures and text. The Page Designer
and Training materials for use with Picasa were developed under a Creative Commons licence allowing
the products to be available for further and future usage.
Web sites: http://enable-lifelonglearning.ning.com ; http://www.enableeurope.eu

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Interactive Social Media for Integration, Skills Bartering, Empowerment, Informal
Learning - ISABEL
Isabel was one of the initiatives to promote citizens to be more active in their communities: to stimulate
them to participate in joint activities and to take part in learning, both formal courses and just learning
with others less formally. The project was about learning. Participants have acquired all kinds of skills
and knowledge to tell stories in different ways, using different media and distributing them in all sorts of
platforms from newspapers to Facebook, Twitter and radio. The project also committed to spread that
learning and to make it available to as many people as possible.
This project used community reporting and social media to involve citizens from every walk of life in a
range of activities focused on their communities and neighbourhoods. Community reporting was
designed to support individuals and communities in developing their own voice in order to:
challenge perspectives and enable them to describe their own experiences;
improve their neighbourhoods and communities by presenting positive stories, views and
concerns;
get communities and agencies to talk and act together to support community activities;
raise aspirations of individuals;
work with the whole community to develop their own solutions.
The project aimed at using ICT innovative practices such as Citizen Journalism for empowerment of the
groups and of communities at social and territorial level, strengthening inter-personal & intercultural
links, getting communities talking to each other, promoting personal/collective growth, empowering
people to ensure that their voices are heard.
The project was thus centred in the creation of Community Reporter and of Community reporting
leaders who vehicled the objectives and the activities to the other members involving them in providing
local UGC then networking to a wider audience. ISABEL processes were enacted at different social
domains, from disadvantaged communities to university students ones.
Experimentation concerned 4 LLP domains and targeted at the specific needs of the concerned
communities.
The identified target groups:
Scholastic Community : pupils and teachers
Professional community (social workers, educators and health workers)
Immigrants adults and intergenerational community within neighbourhood contexts
University Students
Web site: http://www.isabelproject.eu

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CB4LLP: an innovative character...
There are many applicable and relevant definitions of the term capacity building given amongst key
international organizations and a huge quantity and diversity of CB initiatives have been undertaken by
different organizations for different target groups. Briefly speaking, capacity building is essentially about
change. A change that enables individuals, organizations, networks, sectors as well as broader social
systems to improve their competencies and capabilities to carry out functions, and more effectively
manage the development over time. Thus, capacity building appears as an asset-based approach to
development.
The business dictionary defines capacity building as a planned development of (or an increase in)
knowledge, output rate, management, skills, and other capabilities of an organization through acquisition,
incentives, technology, and/or training. United Nations Development Programme defines capacity
building as the ability of individuals, organizations and societies to perform functions, solve problems
and set and achieve objectives. According to the World Bank (1998), "...capacity is the combination of
people, institutions and practices that permits countries to reach their development goals Capacity
building is... investment in human capital, institutions and practices." Unicef Namibia (1996) defined
capacity building as any support that strengthens an institution's ability to effectively and efficiently
design, implement and evaluate development activities according to its mission. Finally, Cohen (1993)
described capacity development as [] any system, effort or process [] which includes among its major
objectives strengthening the capability of elected chief executive officers, chief administrative officers,
department and agency heads and programme managers in general purpose government to plan,
implement, manage or evaluate policies, strategies or programs designed to impact on social conditions in
the community.
Moreover, capacity building is a process that helps and sustains a program and/or organization to
enhance its mission, strategy, skills, infrastructure and human resources to serve community needs in a
more valuable way. Capacity building is crucial to the sustainability of programs and organizations to
make them meet community needs efficiently and effectively. The focus on the enabling environment
(see Picture 7 Capacity building benefits (Gordon, Chadwick 2007)) derives from the wide-spread
acknowledgement that policies, laws and regulations have either a positive or negative influence on the
outcomes of actions taken by agents, playing therefore a key role in determining human interactions.
Capacity development at the individual or organizational level may not be of much
use if there are systemic impediments to performance, such as
poor incentives or lack of access to resources and thats why the
interlinkedness of actors and actions has always to be kept in mind
(Lavergne, Saxby 2001).


35

Picture 6 Complementary and inter-relatedness of 2 main capacity building blocks: Human and Institutional Capacity
building (Encora)
Capacity building should not be viewed as a single objective, it is a methodology which underlies all
development practice, it takes place over time, and requires a number of strategies and activities to be
sustainable. It encompasses training and other forms of learning and training aimed to increase and to
improve individuals knowledge and skills.
CB4LLP looks at the concept of capacity building in historical perspective, from Institutional Building in
the early 1970s within the UN to its transformation into capacity building, and to its establishment as a
central concept in Agenda 21 and in other UN agreements as well as a major priority of global
conventions and international communities. Indeed, capacity building has become a core goal of technical
assistance provided by the UN systems.
The beginning of 2000s has witnessed a rapid upsurge and the following flourishing literature on the
capacity building issues. The conceptual framework emerged over the past years involves a systemic
perspective that addresses various levels of management capacities and puts greater emphasis on the
Capacity Development process itself, on local ownership of its process and on equal partnership in its
support (Lafontaine, 2000). The levels of this new approach to capacity building are namely individual,
institutional and systemic. The inter-relatedness of different fields of capacity building has to be
considered when engaging in capacity building activities (Bolger 2000).

36

Picture 7 Capacity building benefits (Gordon, Chadwick 2007)
Capacity building refers to improvements in the ability of public sector, either alone or in cooperation
with other organizations, to perform appropriate tasks. This means improvements in their ability to
identify problems requiring public action, to evaluate options for responding to these problems, and to
formulate constructive policies to address these problems. It is the potential to act that capacity
development seeks to influence.
Capacity building can be difficult to measure and evaluate as its multi-level meaning and its interlocking
elements make it challenging to assess. Historically, approaches to capacity building were aligned with a
needs based approach that focuses on perceived weaknesses and deficiencies that should be fixed. The
key feature of capacity building is that its demand driven (Alley, Negretto, 1999), and emphases the
enhancement and strengthening of existing capacities.
Hailey et al (2005) examined how to assess the impacts of organizational capacity building and
highlighted some of conceptual, methodological and practical challenges and stressed the intrinsic
complexity of any impact evaluation of intangible, fluid and iterative processes as it is capacity building.
Lavergne and Saxby (2001) pointed also to the fundamental question of capacity building actions whose
capacity is to be promoted, and in whose interest and highlighted the awareness and sensitivity to
political issues when implementing capacity building actions.
As pointed out by Gordon and Chadwick (2007), any analysis of the capacity building impact needs an
analysis of the institutional environment. The Encora study about Coastal zone management identified a
capacity development structure that points to the analysis of existing capacity gaps with respect to the
assessment of needs with the aim to point to the construction of a real and feasible picture of current
strengths and weaknesses (see Picture 8 Steps in capacity development (Encora)).

37
Picture 8 Steps in capacity development (Encora)
UNESCO-IIBCA proposed the following capacity building matrix constructed with the main purpose to
understand what capacity needs to be developed and at what level, and to be used also as a checklist:
Overall Goal
Project Goal
Whose
capacity?
Capacity to do
what?
Breakdown
(Element) of
the capacity
How to
develop the
capacity
How to
sustain the
capacity
Individual (skill, knowledge,
attitude, value, experience etc
of staff)

Organization (infrastructure,
budget, decision-making,
process, leadership,
administrative structure,
organization culture etc)

Target
organization
Environment (policy
framework, legal system etc)


Picture 9 Capacity Building matrix (UNESCO-IIBCA)


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Picture 10 Capacity building activities evaluation (Gordon, Chadwick 2007)

39
CB4LLP Consortium takes into account that unfortunately capacity building methodologies and practical
tools addressed to social stakeholders and members of local authorities often are not focused on the
diffusion of Lifelong Learning Programme's projects and results and consequently the use of LLP projects
and results could be quite limited.
CB initiatives for social stakeholders and local authorities members are mainly focused at stressing the
abilities to raise and to spend funds for new project ideas rather than at the valorisation of the existing
panorama of already completed experiences that could instead constitute the highest on hand value.
Regarding this value, a key element in capacity building initiatives can be stated as the provision of the
right training at the right time to the right people and, in this sense, aiming at enhancing the capacities for
local and regional development, knowledge of LLP projects and results could be considered as a capacity
building goal. There are instead many examples of good training programmes addressed to social
stakeholders and local authorities members, often based on the best international experience, that are
instead unsuitably far-off to consider the relevance of LLP projects and results as a resource and
opportunity to help the human development management.
To conclude, even regarding the value of LLP results, the concept of dissemination is quite clear and
unmistakable and can be defined as "the process of information-giving and awareness-raising" seeking
for a "return on the investment as a mainstreaming or multiplying projects outcomes effect".
We disseminate to enable others to benefit from projects outcomes. CB4LLP initiative represents a real
innovative approach to the dissemination and exploitation of results because under this key activity it
aims to incorporate Lifelong Learning Programme projects and results into local and institutional
development strategies, creating and promoting new Capacity Building contents, methodologies and
practical tools for sectoral, regional, national and international stakeholders.
CB4LLP Consortium
CB4LLP method is based on the experience and strengths of its partners who represent different and
complementary dimensions required to create a framework for the effective exploitation of results of the
Lifelong Learning Programme at sectoral, regional, national and international levels.
European LLL framework for expertise, dissemination and exploitation EUCIS-LLL made up of 24
European networks active in education and training, is the key player in Europe in the expertise in
lifelong learning issues actively promoting concrete solutions based on the expertise, the competences
and the experience of its networks' experts and practitioners. Role: EUCIS-LLL guarantees the framework
for the dissemination and exploitation of project results and outcomes across Europe and beyond.
Vocational training EfVET among the main European networks of vocational training providers,
represents over 1.500 organizations across EU employing more than 250K staff members and train more
than 2M European citizens; Role: to foster pan-European network of VET-providers adopting quality
standards and procedures to ensure integration of LLL in capacity building processes.
Higher education University of Sarajevo active in research and implementation of local development
strategies and enduring LLL schemes; Role: to ensure methodological consistency for introducing LLL
resources and outcomes of previous related initiatives into capacity building processes at sector, regional,
national level.
Decision-makers and Public Administrators Central Denmark EU office, LG - Lapplands Gymnasium,
SVAP - Association for Sustainable Development represent stakeholders at local, regional and national
level responsible for local development strategies and for the undertaking capacity building processes;
Role: to support conception phase and piloting actions to integrate resources and outcomes of LLL-
related initiatives into local development and capacity building actions.
Funding schemes and financial and economic planning Cooperation Bancaire pour lEurope GEIE
consortium of private banks active in developing financial products to support local development; Role: to
support public authorities in sound economic and financial planning and management of capacity
building processes; to promote synergies between EU and national public funding with private funding.
Capacity building players European Minds / ASSET TECH consultancy companies active in
promoting local development through education and LLL; Role: to develop and to implement training and
coaching methodologies; consultancy for implementing LLL resources within capacity building processes.

40
Project framework CSCS active in the field of local development via LLL; Role:
facilitator/coordinator. Management and coordination of the consortium, ensuring the dissemination and
exploitation of the results and tools developed within LLL-related initiatives via capacity building
processes.
CB4LLP Consortium structure
Coordinating Body, composed by CSCS and EUCIS-LLL, works on project management rules, activity
plan, deliverable characteristics, and biannual reporting procedures.
Steering Committee, with one representative per partner ensures, on 4-months basis, a constant
monitoring of project progress, revision and evaluation of work-plan and pilot activities undertaken by
Thematic Commissions.
External Evaluator, an European expert in lifelong learning strategies and capacity building process,
who supports evaluation of project activities and outcomes.
CB4LLP vision and member roles
As we have mentioned before, local development strategies seem frequently unlinked from the benefits of
Lifelong Learning Programme projects because Capacity Building methodologies and practical tools
addressed to stakeholders are often not focused on the diffusion of Lifelong Learning Programme projects
and results.
Furthermore and maybe as an effect, LLP projects and their results are often not just disconnected from
the local development strategies but they are also not particularly relevant for them. In this sense, local
administrators suffer a considerable and real difficulty to realize a sort of multiplier effect that instead
could be sometimes got simply by matching existing LLP projects results and resources with local
strategies.
If it is true that LLP projects and results remain in some instances unknown
and risk to become dead experiences due to the lack of long-term
dissemination and exploitation strategies and activities or missing
connection with real and concrete needs, it is also true that these often
remain at piloting stage due to the shortage of sustainable measures and
multiplier effects.
For all these reasons, CB4LLP Consortium contributes to the change of capacity
building processes by introducing methodologies and mechanisms that allow
stakeholders at sectoral, regional, national and European level to adopt and
exploit existing LLP projects results for their development strategies.
This change in reinforcing stakeholders potentials has to be expected both at
individual and group level. CB4LLP has to tackle the individual stakeholders lack of
competences, but also the lack of sound conceptual understanding among groups
of policy-makers, putting the relevance of LLP projects perspective and results
into their contextual challenges and policy issues.
CB4LLP supports stakeholders, policy-makers and educational providers at all
levels to foster their ability in understanding and implementing the value of LLP
projects perspective and results in their policy-making processes and thus
ensures a significant impact on the LLP projects dissemination and exploitation.
Disseminating LLP projects and results to an audience of stakeholders and policy-
makers who are not totally confident in adopting LLP solutions and resources as a
real opportunity, nor have the required skills to manage such capacity building
processes, would sound like the attempt to speak louder to a deaf.
For this reason, CB4LLP Consortium has identified the shortage of competences of
stakeholders and policy-makers as one of the main challenges to be addressed to ensure the effective
dissemination and exploitation of LLP projects and results.
This ambitious objective is attained by the experiences and strengths of project partners who represent
different and complementary dimensions required to create a framework for the effective valorisation

41
and exploitation of Lifelong Learning Programme results at sectoral, regional, national and European level
and enhance the quality of education and, more in general, the human development.
Consortium partners have a solid record of successful transnational cooperation, within the framework of
various national and European initiatives. They consider that education and training should not only aim
at employability or economic growth but it should also ensure the framework for personal and human
development and growth. In this perspective, the Consortium is already engaged in promoting the LLP
results for human development, identifying as a key point the stakeholder abilities in capacity building,
as stated in the UN Agenda 21 and in the UNDP's 2008-2013 "Strategic Plan for Development". Capacity
building is the "[...] organization's core contribution to development.
CB4LLP project refers to the "European Action Plan On Capacity Building For Integrated Coastal Zone
Management" and focuses its efforts on fostering individuals Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes, while
expanding and strengthening the network of stakeholders by building teams or networks of experts and
organizations at all levels across Europe.
The Article 3 of the European Charter of Local Self-Government states that Local self-government
denotes the right and the ability of local authorities, within the limits of the law, to regulate and manage a
substantial share of public affairs under their own responsibility and in the interests of the local
population. This scope of action constitutes the framework within which CB4LLP aims at ensuring a
strong impact through its piloting and exploitation activities, and what is guaranteed by the active
involvement of CB4LLP partners as EUCIS-LLL, its network members, as well as wide range of partners
among public administrations and decision-makers such as Central Denmark, Municipalities in Sweden,
and SVAP - Association for Sustainable Development. Representing several Municipalities in Denmark,
Sweden and Greece, they have the concrete interest in implementing these ideas for the benefit of a large
number of final beneficiaries both in terms of staff members, local politicians, citizens and organizations.
CSCS, European Minds and Asset Tec support a number of public bodies in promoting human
development and for this reason they are committed to implement CB4LLP project as an innovative
measure to valorise LLP results for the improvement of local development strategies and initiatives.
For Cooperation Bancaire pour lEurope GEIE as a consortium of private banks, CB4LLP represents a
strategic measure to develop training opportunities and resources on the economic and financial
dimensions within capacity building processes and development strategies at local, regional and national
level.
The University of Sarajevo which in CB4LLP project represents a bridge to the Balkan area, is interested
in the field of capacity building as a discipline and, in particular, in taking advantage of the integration of
CB4LLP outputs, methodologies and materials into its courses and of the transfer of project results in
their country, providing specific training to public and private management.
EUCIS-LLL and EfVET aim to guarantee the correspondence of the project to general goals and ambitions
in the field of human development, being both already deeply engaged in European LLP valorisation. Both
organizations have a particular interest to foster pan-European network of VET providers adopting
quality standards and procedures to ensure integration of LLP in capacity building processes.
CB4LLP aims
Referring to Lifelong Learning resources, international research and evidence show that those
responsible for development strategies, either at sectoral, regional or national level, tend frequently to be
relatively isolated in their choices, often relying on their personal abilities and contacts, and lack a solid
background of information on methodologies, tools and good practices especially emerging form Lifelong
Learning Programme and related initiatives.
This is even truer when considering the extremely week degree of cooperation often visible among
decision makers and public administration officials, which is unfortunately also reflected by an extremely
poor cooperation among different fields of education, such as VET, higher and non-formal education.
CB4LLP Consortium aims to overcome these barriers and to promote cooperation and synergies among
different players through sharing methodologies, tools and good practices with a wide audience,
primarily with decision makers, public administrators and educational providers, and thus contribute the
integration of LLP results and tools within capacity building processes.
The benefits of LLP strategies and methodologies, as also underlined by the EU2020 strategy, need to be
recognized as a priority by both policy makers and by the educational providers.

42
Despite the increased attention and funding, however, very few local development actors actively
recognize the value of and adopt LL-related outcomes and tools within their operations. The CB4LLP
Consortium is a concrete and focused group of international bodies that aims at changing these trends,
stimulates educational providers to support and cooperate with decision makers and public
administrators to adopt LLP procedures and methodologies, with the aim to support local development
actions.
The involvement of the main representative of Lifelong Learning sector in Europe - EUCIS-LLL - with its
wide audience of educational providers, decision-makers and public administrators, to CB4LLP
Consortium ensures a wide geographical coverage of all European countries (and beyond) and thus
guarantees a very significant source of contributors to the CB4LLP method development from the
beginning of consortium activities.
Furthermore, the activities undertaken within the Thematic Commissions promoted by CB4LLP
Consortium focus on the establishment of continuous piloting actions through participation and
involvement of key stakeholders in different countries, and assure at the same time a strong international
added value and a significant impact for innovation.
The joint dissemination and exploitation campaigns promoted by CB4LLP Consortium guarantee a solid
value added thanks to the extensive network of partners and stakeholders contributing to the success of a
variety of pilot initiatives that focus on the different policy issues defined by the Thematic Commissions.
CB4LLP action method
CB4LLP Consortium combines a variety of media and organizational aspects suitable to disseminate and
exploit results of Lifelong Learning Programme's projects into local and institutional development
strategies:
In reference to content resources and project tools, CB4LLP Consortium makes
available a repertory of LLP sources (that quote portals like ADAM, EVE, EST, and
other available tools, best examples etc.), a Glossary, a Guide on LLP terminology,
Procedures/Methods necessary to include LLP projects and results in capacity
building processes, a TNAM - Territorial Needs Analysis Method - based on the
information on LLP projects and results and comprehends the development
of a Training programme on CB4LLP resources, procedures and methods.
All the content resources are set up to support properly facilitation
activities.
With regards to communication tools and channels, CB4LLP Consortium
implements an official website, a mobile website and some printed
resources like a leaflet and this guidebook.
Communication is promoted and managed with a Dissemination and
Exploitation Campaign designed to launch high-visibility joint initiatives
on complementary communication channels, including web, TV, radio and
social platforms.
As facilitation activities, the CB4LLP Consortium designed from the sixth
month of project period International conferences, Capacity Building Fairs,
created CB4LLP Community and Ambassadors and pre-arranged Assistance
to them on study visit design and implementation with the intention to
promote excellence and to boost the diffusion of best experiences in LLP.
Additionally, CB4LLP organizes Thematic commissions responsible for
different issues and domains. CB4LLP Consortium partners are
responsible for different commissions which are also open to
members from other partner organizations as well as to other
interested external parties.
The Thematic Commissions define the agenda of Piloting
Activities and Workshops aimed at involving a widest possible
number of stakeholders and at establishing cooperation and
synergies to identify and disseminate positive strategies and
measures under a given area / challenges in the following

43
fields:
Employability
Youth policies
Active citizenship
Access, quality and innovation in education and training
Public administration efficiency
Industry and enterprise cooperation and support
Urban and rural planning and development
As already mentioned, CB4LLP method is conceived to incorporate Lifelong Learning Programme
projects results into individual, organisational and institutional development strategies within a driven
process involving stakeholders and their organizations. It consists in an articulated process that offers the
capacity builders the opportunity to devise innovative actions based on or inspired by models that have
been successfully adopted by projects funded by the Lifelong Learning Programme. To do this, CB4LLP
method provides concrete effective methodologies and practical tools for the development of human
resources, of organisations and institutions, and of legal framework.
The method is therefore sided by various resources such as the CB4LLP internet platform, this guidebook,
the CB4LLP Thematic Commissions, the Capacity-Building Fairs and the International Community of
Capacity Builders.
CB4LLP method is based on a quite simple logic process of: analysis / deployment / follow up. The three
phases are respectively called: TNAM, ACTION PLAN and IMPACT as shown in the following picture:

Picture 11 CB4LLP three phases method
The activities always start with the expression and categorization of the characteristics of a problem by
stakeholders according to the classification criteria used also in the collection of the LLP results.
This phase can be carried out autonomously by stakeholders or through interaction with the CB4LLP
Thematic Commissions, the Capacity-Building Fairs and the International Community.
In any case, in whatever way the stakeholder is supported during the definition of his needs or, more
generally, during the definition of his problem to solve, and even when the stakeholder proceeds
independently, the data of this activity should be gathered into the online platform or be collected as
hardcopies containing the same fields of study that characterize the software tool.
The online collection of this information is always preferred as it allows the CB4LLP consortium to
monitor the activities and to create information and resources, including statistical information, for the
scientific community and for Capacity Builders themselves, who benefit from these results through the
participation to the community.

44
This first work phase is defined in detail on page 65, in Chapter "TNAM - Territorial Needs Analysis
Method"
Indeed, the TNAM is the first of the activities of CB4LLP method, through which the territorial issues
under consideration are described according to the classification method applied also during the
collection of the LLP results. The objective of this phase is to allow a full comparability between the
analyzed problem and available solutions by applying the same analytical framework that the authors
have used for the cataloguing of the LLP projects results.
The needs of the stakeholders can therefore be expressed either independently or be facilitated with
group meetings, conferences, seminars or through online information services or with the direct support
of CB4LLP consortiums consultants or of other members of the community.
Some of the tools collected or created by the CB4LLP consortium with the aim to support the leaders of
this process are listed in Chapter Procedures and resources on page 46.
So, the stakeholders can participate to specific workshops designed to carry out a guided needs analysis
or can use the remote self-assessment questionnaire of needs, available after logging into the platform
CB4LLP.
The questionnaire helps the stakeholder to compile and to classify his/her needs according to the
available meta-information on the LLP results, as the next step will consist in the matching between the
stakeholders expressed needs and the results of available LLP projects, allowing to identify those that
best fit the current needs.
The matching phase consists, therefore, in the implementation of the results selected during the analysis
phase by using the databases described in CB4LLP repertory of LLP sources on page 78.
Based on the heritage of existing projects, stakeholder selects the most appropriate resources available to
be used as templates, samples, tools, collection of useful contacts, literature or, in general, in any other
material valid to address the given problem.
As the research is carried out through the use of available classification fields, it might provide initially
too broad outcomes to be used and deeply analyzed by the stakeholder. In this case, i.e. if the number of
projects extracted results excessive for their usability, stakeholder can access a second procedure, called
ordering, with which to deepen the knowledge of the extracted elements and to be able to list them
according to the correspondence with the analyzed problem.
As described afterwards, the search can be carried out in two levels:
1. Basic search - based on own territorial preliminary analysis;
2. Advanced search - Allowing an improved filtering and scoring
The final output of the TNAM will be always and however a list of available resources that stakeholder
will use to implement his/her activities.
The TNAM phase related to the research and the identification of resources, ends with a well-defined
output consisting of the LLP projects that stakeholder decides to exploit. This output represents the input
for the next phase of Action Plan thought to drive an effective exploitation activities design process. As
already mentioned, the forms of exploitation can broadly vary starting from a simple gathering of
information, contacts and references and ending up with the full implementation of a project experience
or with other intermediate forms as extraction of concepts, general principles, project parts or with every
possible form of exploitation of the identified resources.
The CB4LLP Action Plan phase, described at page 74, is also supported with an online questionnaire
linked to the first questionnaire on the preliminary needs assessment.
With this tool, the capacity builder can find out the proper way to identify the channels of exploitation
that are most appropriate and suitable for his territorial characteristics and expectations.
Consequently, the stakeholder is also able to implement theoretical outcomes and apply them to his
project.
After the exploitation design process the stakeholder is offered to complete the CB4LLP method through
the follow-up actions as they are described in chapter "CB4LLP Impact analysis" at page 76.
The Impact analysis consists in the self-evaluation of the obtained results. The activity can be carried out,
here as well, by using the offline models but it would be more advisable that the stakeholder inserts data
directly into online database in order to make them available for other stakeholders and to get
immediately his own analysis based on benchmarking principles.

45
After the follow-up, the methods cycle reaches the end, and can be restarted with a new problem
analysis.

46
Procedures and resources
The effectiveness of CB4LLP experience depends upon methods and procedures tested over two years by
an international team of experts with a solid and relevant knowledge, an outstanding experience and
track record in this field.
The methods described in the guidebook are a result of ideas aimed to promote capacity building, of the
direct experience gained through their use, of the experimentation and of an accurate analysis used for
the categorization of the activities with the final aim to make these methods available for the re-
application in various contexts.
The procedures/methods listed below represent therefore innovative and tested working tools available
for the capacity builders when carrying out their territorial development and organizational actions and
activities.
Innovation Caf - IC
A way to share knowledge among distinct stakeholders
Innovation Caf can be defined as a "one shot" learning method aimed to improve stakeholders
innovation capacity through their pairs' support, given in a structured and controlled meeting process.
While for the participants Innovation Caf learning occasion usually would last some couples of hours, its
final success depends upon the previous organization that should start weeks before the event.
In general, Innovation Caf idea is based on the implementation of a combination of various learning
opportunities and settings like focus groups, peer learning, social learning and thematic meetings with
the aim to encourage the socialization through specific procedures.
We believe that experts/specialist stakeholders often are not involved in peer learning events
partecipated by peers with different skills. We consider that the higher is the personal stakeholders
specialization in a certain field more relevant is his/her inclination to look for pairs specialized in the
same field with the exclusion of others.
The Innovation Caf background is the same of CB4LLP project principles, and consists in the
acknowledgement that usually stakeholders responsible for local, regional national and international
development appear to not valorise LL-results as these are out of their usual field of activity and/or
knowledge. To wide their angle of view, we create a peer learning context where their individual
knowledge and expertise become integrated into a broader team. We believe that the integration of highly
specialized individual knowledge may occur only when groups foster an atmosphere that encourages
cooperation and divergent thinking. Among favourable conditions and factors for effective and efficient
learning we can mention a relaxing and comfortable situation offered by Innovation Caf where relevant
professional peer education is linked to some kind of entertainment.
Through Innovation Caf procedures, in a visibly relaxing learning context, specialized stakeholders are
influenced and also taught by their peers from other sectors, with the aim to gain some new knowledge
that could be even not directly related to their own field of expertise.
Innovation Caf day (Event) in few words
Stakeholders are invited to this public event related to a specific issue of interest, and which content
is not necessarily linked to their professional expertise. The rationale behind these events is that in
CB4LLP project, we aim to integrate LLP resources into local, regional, national and international
development, and to increase stakeholders competences in a given field. This aim requires tying
together different stakeholders with divergent roles, involving them in round-table focus groups with
the purpose to attract their attention to the specific topics tackled during the discussions.

47
About an hour before the dinner time, the Innovation Caf starts with welcoming the participants with a
kind of cocktail party. The scene setting includes a large room with cocktail tables. There is background
music playing throughout the entire opening, for around 20 minutes. On arrival soft drinks are served and
stakeholders are introduced to facilitate an informal and relaxing atmosphere where to continue their
conversations in an inviting and comfortable environment.
Once the guest welcoming is ended, the guests split into smaller groups around the tables that correspond
to different arguments to be discussed during the event. Each focus group table should have about six-
eight participants. Each round-table tackles just one argument and one or more LLP resources and related
scientific references. Each table is coordinated by a moderator/facilitator equipped with a list of "proper"
questions and necessary information to valorise the chosen LLP project.
Each table is equipped with a digital recorder to document the discussions as a focus group and to
prepare later written reports.
With the support and guidance of the moderator of the session, the stakeholders discussion goes on for
nearly an hour tackling the specific issue and puts them in relation with their own expertise and areas of
interest. During the discussion, every participant can freely move from table to table as he/she likes. At
the arrival of a new participant, the facilitator supports his/her quick and easy integration into the on-
going discussion.
At the end of the round-table discussion, participants can continue their conversation and debate during
the dinner in an informal way. Dinner is offered as a buffet, the same tables can be used but during the
dinner there is no facilitators' support and the conversations are not recorded.
The dinner is followed by a talk show. At this point, the Innovation Caf consists of a show with some
artistic exhibition like music or other arts and during the show an anchor-man interviews stakeholders.
The questions are related to focus group issues and have the purpose to allow the stakeholders to share
publicly the reflections and considerations made during the first part
of the event.
These interviews have various effects and purposes: to let to share
information to all participants of the Innovation Caf; to boost the
learning process of the interviewed stakeholders; to create a shared
thought among participants.
The activities necessary to design and to manage the Innovation Caf event
are the following:

48

Picture 12: processes flow chart
Each of the four main activities is realized with various steps and is described in the next chapters.

49
IC settings

Picture 13: Settings

50
The setting phase of an Innovation Caf consists of the establishment of main aspects and of taking
strategic decisions about the proposed field and related resources. It focuses mainly on the identification
of the necessary resources and variables and on the answers to the following question: Is everything
feasible?
During the setting phase all preliminary information is processed and the conditions needed to pass to a
next operative preparation phase are established.
The setting phase consists of the followings steps:
IC event creation
First step is to set the data in your IT system: as, for example, to create the folder for the initiative, we
have to set the IT system, to create a repository file directory and to record the IC data in the events
database.
Field and budget settings
As soon as that the IT tolls are configured and ready to support the process, it is necessary to establish the
field of activity one wants to promote. Innovation and strategic creativity management processes can be
boosted in various fields. LLP resources can be valorised in hundreds of different human activities and the
LLP resources databank is truly a huge reserve of strategic suggestions for the stakeholders.
Established the argument of the Innovation Caf, financial parameters of the initiative must be fixed even
if the budget can be revised before passing to the next step.
IC Title
Identified the topic of the Innovation Caf, an appropriate title has to be defined. The title must express in
few words the field and the purpose of the event.
Round tables / focus groups identification
In the same way, once the suitable title for the event has been set, the subset issues for the definition of
roundtables or focus groups characteristics can be identified.
It is in this phase that LLP projects and resources, to be brought as examples and contents to the
Innovation Caf to support stakeholders learning processes, are identified.
For a certain field of knowledge, the aim is to create insights and exchange occasions among stakeholders
who participate to the event. The focus group tables represent islands where participants can land to get
insights and to which they can contribute with their own knowledge..
Stakeholders identification: Can you reach them?
This step consists in the detection of the categories of potential stakeholders and in the verification that
they could be potentially available to participate to the Innovation Caf. Stakeholders can be identified for
a specific purpose, an emergent need, an identified problem, or just to promote an idea, an initiative or
any other suitable reason to endorse their learning.
Categories and characteristics of stakeholders will be therefore defined with regard to previous decisions
taken in relation to the fields of interest and to the selected LLP projects.
Before the closure of this task, the participation by potential categories of stakeholders must be checked
in order to organize a certain number of qualified round-table focus groups.

51
IC preparation

Picture 14: preparation
Stakeholder category list creation
This step is aimed to produce a document with the list of identified categories of stakeholders. The
document called "Stakeholders category list" will contain potential participants to Innovation Caf. The
list can be filled with general categories, but might also contain specific targets and individuals.

52
It is necessary to define also the list of facilitators and the Innovation Caf chairman. All of them have to
be chosen in relation to the topic of the focus group as well as to their abilities to animate the scene.
Date definition
Second step consists of the identification of the meeting date that would be potentially feasible for the
chosen stakeholders category. Usually it is recommended to investigate stakeholders categories habits
and their availability of time to reduce participation adhesion limits.
Contact plan creation and Location reservation
The next step consists of the preparation of a concrete contact plan and the reservation of the location.
The contact plan, like the date setting, has to be prepared in consideration to the specificity of the chosen
stakeholders category. The most appropriate contact activities are the ones designed in function of
stakeholder category communication attitudes and habits. Possible solutions refer to social media
implementation, printed invitations, telephone contact strategies, personal contact strategies, and the
word of mouth approach and so on.
This represents a crucial phase of the event preparation as it is determined by the ability to involve the
right stakeholders and above all the most relevant stakeholders for the Innovation Caf.
Invitation creation and Web data creation (FB, website etc)
The event has to be well prepared in terms of availability of preliminary information and the visibility of
the event. This means that, before starting to contact anybody, the online resources, social media contents
and other materials have to be prepared.
The imagine must be managed not only in relation to electronic documents, but also thinking that many
people in local area could be invited by using printed resources. This means that it will be necessary to
develop the layout of invitation cards, posters or other printed stuff.
Stakeholders invitation and data acquisition is the number high enough?
As soon as all the materials are printed and the web contents developed and published, one can start to
deploy the marketing campaign, to contact stakeholders and to create the list of real participants. This
work has to be done till the question about the sufficient number of participants will get a positive
answer.

53
IC event

Picture 15: Event

54
During the event, a timer is required to check the time passing and it would be useful to have the timer
visible to all participants, too. This could be done just by projecting a computer timer with a video
projector.
Round-tables: one table, height 110 centimetres, for about eight participants. Each table has to be
equipped with a voice recorder. The location must be big enough to avoid noise that would disturb and
distract other discussions at neighbouring tables.
Welcome cocktail and registration / Stakeholder name public announcement
Tables are already ready and the chairman disposes of a speaker system and a wireless microphone.
Stakeholders are registered at the entrance room.
Stakeholders are introduced to the meeting room in a sort of official announcement giving them the
relevance as key stakeholders for the focus group discussions. Everybody is announced with his/her
name, sector of activity, expertise or reason why is invited. The aim is to allow the stakeholder to feel
him/herself as a protagonist of the day and to be acquainted about other participants role and expertise.
Field round-tables / focus groups
At the end of the introduction and the welcoming, and after the welcome cocktail, participants are told
about the organization and invited to join the round-table focus groups. Each facilitator, responsible for
one round-table, is introduced by the chairman and a short description of the round-tables is given.
Each table has a small plate indicating the treated argument, and is equipped with the voice recorder to
record all the contributions from all participants. The facilitators start the digital voice recorders
positioned on each table.
It is important to inform the participants that their initial choice of a round-table is not binding and that
they can freely move from one table to any other at any moment and for any reason.
As already mentioned, each round-tables coordinator/tutor has a certain number of prepared questions,
to carry out and ease this role. Questions are prepared with the aim to make the stakeholders reflect on
the discussed issues and to facilitate their conversation and the exchange of ideas. In practical terms, this
means to prepare mainly open questions focused at the tables issue.
Final announcement and picture
At the end, the Innovation Caf chairman announces the end of the discussions and asks all stakeholders
to make a group picture. The facilitators stop the recording and the focus groups are officially ended.
Social Dinner
Commonly, focus group participants engaged previously in the round-table discussions can continue to
talk about the argument also during the dinner. Dinner should be organized as a buffet, or with the
standard dinner setting if necessary and/or more suitable for the selected stakeholders.
Dinner represents a further valuable socialization occasion aimed to share different opinions and
information. Even if the focus groups are already officially finished, the scope of the dinner is to integrate
the Innovation Caf process as an additional element to mix people ideas and to create innovation.
Talk Show
The talk show starts after the dinner and the setting for it includes tables and chairs allocated as in a
cabaret theatre. In addition, it would be recommended to record the entire show.
The talk show is open to stakeholders and to the public and consists of hosting an art performance, a
music concert or similar. During the performance, the Innovation Caf chairman alternates the show with
some thematic questions to stakeholders.
To avoid long pauses and to get out of boring situations, the rhythm has to be very fresh and dynamic and
the interviews, i.e. the questions and the answers, must be short. The questions have to be properly
customized to highlight crucial aspects already discussed in the focus groups, the given insights have to be
simple to be remembered and not too complex to be understood by everybody. The aim is to give quick
insights and to allow people to understand and to position their opinion in comparison to what is
discussed.
Innovation Caf chairman plays a key role in this step and has to maintain always the control of the
microphone to avoid absolutely any waste of time or any speakers misconduct.

55
IC data analysis & publishing

Picture 16: data analysis & publishing

56
Data collection
During all the process of the conception, the design and the implementation of the Innovation Caf, data
will be recorded and organized. Their publishing will allow readers to understand better the context and
the variables considered for the target group choice and involvement.
As during the focus group, the facilitators got recorded all the discussions with digital voice recorders, the
recorded files have to be transcribed to be useful for the publishing together with the talk show records.
The chairman or other experts write comments and description about talk show interviews.
All the materials have to be collected together in unique document for the final analysis.
Data analysis
The discussions and the results of the talk show are ready for considerations and conclusions. The
information is written in the Innovation Caf report.
Report production / validation
The report, before being printed/published has to be revised and validated. It's necessary to ask
stakeholders for their contributions and/or opinions to be sure that the report fulfils also their
expectations.
Publishing
Publishing can be both electronic and/or hardcopy. Depending on the field discussed and on the
stakeholders' characteristics, the most appropriate media channel or platform should be chosen.
Capacity audit tool
The purpose of the current chapter is to help stakeholders to plan accurate capacity building actions, by
proposing a new reading of an effective analytical tool developed GeSCI and fully described in Wachira
(2009)
4
to analyse organizations capacities and to identify suitable capacity development strategies. This
tool, called capacity audit tool
5
, is a simple model implemented in 5 steps that allow to focus analytical
efforts and to optimise time. This tool can be used both by a capacity builder and by an organization
willing to set up internal capacity development processes.
The GeSCI model considers three different level of analysis: it looks at skills and resources (staff,
infrastructures, technologies, etc.), at the organizational level (strategic leadership, process management,
networks, etc.) and also at the external environment (cultural and social context, administrative and legal
system, policies and laws, etc.).
Within the CB4LLP Consortium these elements are closely interlinked too, and shall be taken into
consideration and inter-related while elaborating a capacity building strategy:
MICRO - Human resources development: at this level the skills of the staff of the organization shall
be considered, such as its ability to perform tasks and to share and exploit information;
MESO - Organisational development: at this level the elements related to the organizational
structures and the management shall be considered; such elements include the internal structure,
the definition of roles and responsibilities, the leadership, the attitudes and incentives, the
appraisal procedures, the budgetary allocations for various tasks, the facilities, the access to
information, the infrastructures, the technology and the communication within the organization;
MACRO - Institutional and legal framework development: at this level the elements that are
external to the organization shall be taken into consideration; such elements include the social
and economic context, the political dimension, policies and laws in the field of activity of the
organization, other stakeholders in the same sector, networks and partnerships.

4
Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative, www.gesci.org
5
Esther Mwiyeria Wachira, Organisational capacity. Audit tool, GeSCI, http://www.gesci.org/resources.html.

57


Picture 17 Organisational capacity. Audit tool Source: Wachira (2009)
According to Wachira (2009), capacity building audit must analyse capacities at all three levels, in order
to have an adequate picture and a clear understanding of the shortages and potential of the audited
organization and of the gaps to be filled.
Audit activities have to take into account and interrelate all relevant elements to evaluate and improve
the performance of the audited organization.
This capacity audit tool can be used to audit any kind of public and private entities, as well as single
units and departments within the targeted organization. It provides an evaluation model in the following
five steps:
step 1: plan for the capacity audit
step 2: determine requirements
step 3: establish existing capacity
step 4: determine the gaps/issues
step 5: analyse gaps and propose solutions
Step One: A plan for the capacity audit
In order to be effective, the capacity audit has to be carefully planned, the context in which the capacity
audit will be carried out analysed, the staff and resources necessary to conduct the assessment identified
and the expected objectives and outputs to be achieved set up.
First of all, it is essential to evaluate the organizations readiness to be involved in a capacity building
process. As stated before, the success of capacity building processes soundly depends on the presence of a
strong organizational will within the targeted entities and individuals. In order to carry on this task the
following parameters shall be considered:

58
Cultural readiness: the presence within audited organizations and individuals of an open-minded
and proactive attitude to give suggestions to improve performances;
Leadership readiness: that is the presence of a strong political and leadership support within the
audited organization, which will be translated into the allocation of appropriate internal
resources to support the capacity audit team;
Vision and strategy ownership: the strong commitment of the audited organization to identify
objectives, fulfil the tasks and constantly improve performances;
People readiness: the availability within the audited organization of suitable staff resources to
support the capacity audit team throughout the entire capacity audit process.
Secondly, it is necessary to clarify whether the capacity audit is aimed to improve the organizations
performance in carrying on its daily task or it aims to create the capacities to implement a specific project.
Subsequently, the auditor (or the audit team) shall establish the specific scope of the capacity audit,
identifying the main issues to be addressed and the methods through which the capacity audit will be
conducted. This means for the auditor to select the indicators to be used throughout the capacity audit
process, as well as to identify all the available sources of data. Moreover, the auditor shall identify suitable
data collection methods, which can include:
Questionnaire;
Survey;
Face-to-face/telephone interview;
Focus group;
Round table;
Document review;
Observation in the working environment;
Once tools and sources for data collections have been individuated, the auditor has to identify and select
appropriate instruments for data collection and processing.
Finally, the audit team shall be set up, with the aim to conduct all the phases of the capacity audit and to
develop the capacity building strategy. Each member of the team shall have clear roles and
responsibilities. A coordinator shall be appointed to coordinate field activities. Full cooperation of the
audited organizations staff has to be granted, in order to allow the auditor to access all relevant
background information. In particular, a member of the staff of the audited organization shall be put at
disposal of the audit team to facilitate the field work of the team.
Step Two: determine requirements
Once assessed the predisposition of targeted organization and individuals to the capacity building and set
the plan for the capacity audit, it is necessary to establish the needed requirements to achieve the
objectives that the audited organization intends to pursue through the capacity building process. As
stated before, capacity building can be aimed to improve organizations and individuals capacities to
perform daily tasks or to implement a specific project. Therefore, according to the objectives of the
capacity building initiatives, the audit team shall identify which would be the necessary resources in an
ideal situation to perform these tasks or to implement the project.
The analyses shall be exhaustive and shall consider all relevant elements at all above mentioned levels
(micro, meso and macro level). Factors to be considered at this stage include the number of people
required to implement the tasks at hand, the skill-sets necessary for the task, the technology resources
needed, the budgetary requirements, the kind of leadership required, the external factors that must be in
place for the project or the daily performance of the organization, the proposed output, the operational
cost required, the organizational execution of the tasks.
To determine the required resources the audit team will rely on the table below. The use of this table will
help the audit team to define a clear and synthetic picture of all necessary requirements.
Capacity component Requirements Description
Human resources Staff, roles, responsibilities.
Strategic leadership Mandate, organizational structure, organizational
goals and objectives, strategic plans, leadership,
etc.

Financial resources Budgetary allocation within the organizations.

59
Infrastructure and
technology
Electricity, telecommunications, transport,
connectivity, human resource to support existing
technology, skills to use the technology, space
allocation, etc.

Process and programme
management
Organizational processes relevant to the project at
hand, documentation, knowledge management and
sharing processes, etc.

External environment Legal and administrative environments, political
will and stability, policies, networks and
partnerships.

For each capacity component, the audit team shall clearly indicate what are the necessary requirements
to fulfil the tasks corresponding to the objectives of the capacity building process to be set up.
Step Three: establish existing capacity
After having defined the objective and the scope of the capacity audit (step 1) and after having
determined the requirements needed to carry on the organization daily activities and/or other specific
projects (step 2), it is possible to proceed with the analysis of the existing capacity of the organization
being audited. The analysis shall consider all the three levels mentioned at the beginning of the chapter
(micro, meso and macro level).
At micro-level, the analysis shall focus on the staff of the organization and their performance of duties. In
particular, the components to be taken into consideration are:
staff (number of people, skills, etc.);
roles and responsibilities (job description);
The analysis at micro-level can be conducted by examining internal documents, collecting questionnaires
and carrying on face-to-face interviews.
At meso-level the analysis shall focus on internal structure of the targeted organizations, its infrastructure
and resources and its internal management. In particular, the components to be considered are:
the mission, the mandate and the organizational structure of the organization;
organizational goals and objectives;
motivations, incentives and appraisal procedures;
the budgetary allocation;
the technologies and the facilities;
management processes;
knowledge sharing and building.
At meso-level, the analysis can be carried on by means of questionnaires, interviews, observation and
examining internal documents.
Finally, at macro-level shall be considered the elements that are external to the targeted organization, but
can affect (positively or negatively) the fulfilment of daily tasks or the implementation of a specific
project. In particular, the focus shall be on the following components:
the legal and administrative environment;
the political will;
external policies;
existing networks and partnerships;
other stakeholders.
Step Four: determine the gaps/issues
In the fourth step it will be assessed whether the organization is able to run the project or fulfil its
assigned responsibilities given the current capacity. The results of the analyses conducted within step 2
and 3 will be cross-checked, in order to highlight possible capacity gaps. In order to have a clear overview
of the required and available capacity and of potential gaps, it will be useful to summarize the data in the
following table:

60
Capacity Magnitude of gap Capacity
component
Required Available High Medium Low
How does the gap
affect the performance
Human
resources

Strategic
leadership

Financial
resources

Process
management

Infrastructure
Monitoring and
evaluation

External
environment

This table allows to easily identifying gaps to be addressed and filled in throughout the capacity building
process. The dimension of the gap will be immediately evident, such as the way it affect the possibility to
fulfil the tasks that correspond to the objective of the capacity building. In other terms, this table will
provide the basis for the elaboration of the capacity building strategy.
Step Five: analyze gaps and propose solutions
Considered the gaps highlighted in the previous phases, the fifth and last step consists in the elaboration
of the final solutions and recommendations. This step requires a good knowledge of the sector and the
capacity to propose innovative solutions.
Conclusions and recommendations on how to fill the gaps can be drawn using the following table:
Component Gap Proposed solution(s)
Component 1
Component 2
Component 3

To conclude the capacity audit process, a capacity audit report has to be drafted. The report shall include
an executive summary that outlines the purpose, methods and findings of the audit and it shall describe
the purpose of the assessment and the terms of reference. Moreover, the report shall answer the
questions posed in the terms of reference, describe the methods used to collect and analyse the data,
indicate the limitation of the methodology and include the data, suitably analysed, on which the
conclusions are based.
The CB4LLP Learning-by-doing training programme
The learning-by-doing training structure might be useful to organize capacity builders learning activities
on CB4LLP method. In order to create a real mastery of this method, capacity builders can be helped to
discover the LLP resources value and characteristics and to learn how the valorisation of these resources
is possible for different purposes and under several personal approaches or starting situations.
The CB4LLP training programme contains sound methods like peer learning and learning-by-doing
approaches, but preserves still a relatively simple structure: is composed by three sequential workshops

61
and is based on the use of CB4LLP online resources including four questionnaires designed to drive the
capacity builders successfully to the final output.
Moreover, the training programme is sided by various additional resources and tools, all available on
CB4LLP platform, designed to support the knowledge acquisition and networking activities.
The training programme has quite a basic structure that can be implemented adapting the time and the
contents to individual needs and characteristics of the participants.
The simple idea behind the design of this learning-by-doing training programme is that the best way to
learn how to develop an effective strategy to implement the CB4LLP method could be to just to make
practical experiments of it on the field. This approach lets capacity builders to discover and learn not only
the procedures, but with a practical, structured drive and given instructions, the practice and the theory
behind the method itself. The training process is designed to support them in the concrete
implementation of the method the first time, with CB4LLP available tools, experts help and peers support.
During the training, each participant territorial need is concretely analysed with the CB4LLP
questionnaire implementation, relevant LLP-projects are identified and compared and good practice are
extracted and transferred to match the identified needs.
This is, in synthesis, the standard CB4LLP process that all capacity builders become able to repeat after
the training course for unlimited times in the future, to assess their new needs.
Using CB4LLP resources, the participants are shown how to make their needs analysis, to find out
relevant LLP projects or resources and to write down their own valorisation action plan.
Each workshop is composed by following common components:
Tools knowledge acquisition
Tutoring
Peer learning approach
Learning-by-doing approach
Networking
On-line resources
Guidebook
Questionnaire driven procedure
Concrete output results

ANALYSE EXPLORE IMPLEMENT
Needs Workshop Matching Workshop Planning Workshop
Aim
Training in how to analyse
local needs
Training in how to find and
select LLP projects
Training in how to convert
LLP results into actions
Content
1) Introduction to the
Capacity Building program
2) Needs analysis using
TNAM
1) LLP capacity building
principles
2) Exploring the project
databases
1) Defining aims of local
development projects
2) Incorporation of LLP
results into projects
Tool TNAM
LLP capacity building
principles Project planning tools
Output
List of local needs to improve
learning activities. List of relevant LLP projects Local action plans


Examples of workshop programs, presentations, video, group exercises and additional tools can be found
on the CB4LLP website in the training section or under Thematic Commissions resources repository.
Each workshops detailed programme and contents should be customised taking into account the
participants characteristics, their learning preferences and attitudes leaving also room for creativity and
non-traditional approaches such as the Innovation Caf.
Preliminary Needs Assessment First Workshop
Aims
To set the learning process to a good start with lots of energy and enthusiasm and to implement the
TNAM to analyse the local needs to improve learning activities.

62
During this first meeting, the entire process made up by three workshops is presented to the participants.
In particular, they acquire knowledge about audit tools available within the CB4LLP method and are then
guided to apply the TNAM to analyse their own needs and specific situations within a learning-by-doing
settings.
The presence of various stakeholders allows to compare and to discuss how to identify needs and found
useful indicators. The natural networking activity started during the discussion is likely after the
subscription of CB4LLP community membership, and due to website resources that allow researches and
contacts.
Participants learn how to use the LLP projects and resources databases and implement a research (for
example in the ADAM and EVE databases) to find out relevant project results and to match it with
individual territorial needs.
Organization
The workshop can be based on Innovation Caf method as a part of it or can be arranged
as an independent seminar. Participants share information about the whole
training setting, including the second and the third workshop with usual
presentation methods and discussion
6
.
To help the capacity builders to make a helpful analysis when at home, it is
possible to introduce and discuss about the Capacity audit tool aimed to provide a
proper picture and a clear understanding of the lacks and the potential of the
audited organization they represent and of the gaps to be filled. Anyway, this
presentation is optional and depends upon the characteristics of the participants and
on their expectations about the acquisition of additional tools.
The ice-breaking discussion between participants can be motivated with short
personal presentations, more focused on stakeholders' needs than on their personal
characteristics. This aims to facilitate the self-assessment analysis based on the
reflection about personal environment, compared to other participants' situations.
Peer learning approach support is also encouraged by asking participants to
share their own needs and situations in small groups to help the identification
and the highlight of common characteristics and differences.
The number of the personal presentations, the number and the duration of the
small peer groups must be set out in function of the participants number and of
the duration of the whole workshop. The course points also to build long run
partnerships between participants.
During the workshop, the available online CB4LLP tools are presented,
implemented to perform a concrete learning-by-doing process.
The TNAM questionnaires are filled with individual data. All the workshop
participants create a personal profile online on the CB4LLP platform, where the
outputs are recorded and shared with all the community of capacity builders.
Through the TNAM Basic search, the capacity builders identifies the most
appropriate projects, funded by the Lifelong Learning Programme and produces
an output that is also recorded online.
If the list of results is too long, the capacity builder can go deeper into the data
extraction and implement the Advanced search to improve the definitive list of
resources before the second workshop meeting.
Outputs
knowledge of training programme structure, contents, aims and organization
knowledge of Capacity audit tool and TNAM
online subscription to the Capacity Builders Community and use of online tools
Online surveys 1 - TNAM Initiative / project description
(optional) Online surveys 2 - grid to check and assess the accomplished projects, funded by the
Lifelong Learning Programme

6
To set the workshop it could be useful to see the survival kit for LLP project managers found here:
http://www.european-project-management.eu/index.php?id=104

63
Online surveys 3 - list of identified appropriate and coherent projects and initiatives
accomplished and funded within the framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme

Action Plan Second Workshop
Aims
The Action Plan workshop aims to enable to plan the expectations. By planning the expectations we
mean a list of ideas, resources, tools, contacts and whatever element could be extracted and valorised
from LLP selected projects and/or resources giving a general indication of how these elements could be
fruitfully implemented to the current project idea.
The training programme points to enable capacity builders to identify and create a list of information that
represents already a sort of individual LLP valorisation plan. This activity regards the ability to read and
understand the project contents and the ability to match these contents with the individual territorial
needs expressed before.
In particular, the learning process is aimed to create a specific ability to analyse, extract and define how to
valorise:
General ideas for the territorial project
Stakeholders, individuals or organizations potentially useful for the territorial project
Partnerships and/or desired potential collaborations with the previously listed stakeholders
Other potentially useful information (logistics, organizational, references etc.)
Solutions adopted to implement available resources, exemplary and repeatable (mode of delivery
of funds, guarantees, advance payments, monitoring, etc.)
General organizational characteristics exemplary and repeatable (phases, processes, used
representative models, control, collaboration, etc.)
Particular organizational characteristics exemplary and repeatable (particular processes and/or
special/specific procedures)
Project internal communication systems, exemplary and repeatable
Project external communication systems, exemplary and repeatable
Educational materials functional or adaptable
Non-educational materials, functional or adaptable
Equipment and intangible technologies implemented, exemplary and repeatable
Systems for quality monitoring, exemplary and repeatable
Systems to document taken actions, exemplary and repeatable

Organization
The second workshop could have an introductory activity to let capacity builder to share their individual
results of the first workshop. Like already suggested for the previous meeting, even the second workshop
could be based on Innovation Caf method as a part of it or be arranged as an independent seminar. In
both situations, capacity builders could be asked to present shortly the information gathered about LLP
results or projects, to push them to become able to own and reveal such kind of information.
Capacity builders should prepare in advance a short and effective presentation: the information must be
given avoiding long procedures, but nevertheless all the particular ideas, information, resources,
procedures or whatever emerged from their selected resources should be evidenced, to clarify the
potential use to themselves for first.
This approach, to share the results, regards various explored effects:
increase the ability of reading and understanding LLP extracted information
provoke peer learning approach
develop the community

The reading and understanding of LLP projects and resources can be also facilitated by the CB4LLP
glossary that contains a large repertory of well-explained relevant concepts and definitions, available on
the CB4LLP platform.
To extract and collect data, capacity builders complete the online surveys 4 - CB4LLP Action Plan that
leads them to properly describe their own way of LLP resources valorisation.

64
The specific features of the exploitation activities they might design can broadly vary starting from a
simple collection of information, contacts and references to a partial implementation of concepts, general
principles, projects parts and ending up with whatever possible exploitation like the outright
implementation of a whole project.
In the case of trainers who set up the workshop as a distance learning activity, the individual
presentations can be replaced by both live or recorded presentations and interactions. Capacity builders
can be asked, in this case, to upload their presentations and to comment other participants presentations
or to present their work during live meetings with tutors and other participants.
This kind of organization, in case of distance learning choice, could be really relevant to help the social
dimension and the interaction between participants even without being present at the meeting.
Outputs
knowledge of extracted LLP information indicated in the online survey filled during the first
workshop / phase
individual short / effective presentations of extracted LLP resources or projects
understanding of other participants valorisation approach
use of the glossary and acquisition of a basic LLP terminology
Online surveys 4 - CB4LLP Action Plan

Impact analysis - Third workshop
Aims
The last workshop aims to promote the appropriate competences necessary to deploy a self-evaluation
activity on the results obtained with the Action Plan implementation. In particular, we expect to promote
the required abilities to produce a realistic output, asking to make a concrete, but simple, projection on
the field of the expected impact on the implementation of local actions.
The effect is searched through a preliminary sharing of information between different fields of
intervention to let each capacity builder to calibrate his/her evaluations inside of a general reference
framework given by other participants comments and remarks.
In this sense, the Impact analysis workshop wants also help the stakeholders to become able to set out a
sort of simple individual rating system useful in further cycles and also afterwards available to other
stakeholders with the purpose to circulate peer examples and knowledge.
Organization
Like already suggested for the previous meetings, even this workshop could be based on Innovation Caf
method as a part of it or as an independent seminar.
At the beginning of the meeting, the workshop tutors define the variables that characterise the self-
evaluation system. To perform the self-evaluation activity on the results obtained with the Action Plan
implementation, the capacity builder goes through a checklist to reflect under a minimum and common
standard of fields, on the fulfilment and performance of valorisation actions.
This activity can be carried out using CB4LLP online platform and with the support of offline models, but
it would be preferred that the participants insert their data immediately online, during the workshop, in
order to make the values immediately available to other stakeholders of CB4LLP community and to get
instantly their own self-analysis according to the benchmarking principles.
As for all data extracted from LLP results it is necessary to define the scope and the dimensions, the tutors
facilitate a discussion between participants by putting them a list of questions that can be answered and
commented. This workshop organization provokes the capacity builders active participation and an open
debate.
Time available for the whole workshop can be properly distributed to have a first common session with
questions, shared answers and comments, and a second individual session, sided by personal short
individual tutoring support, to let the participants to implement the group references discussed and or
acquired during the debate.
The questions used to trigger the debate are based on the same variables used to build the checklist of
individual self-assessment, as in the following list:

65
In which cases we can consider stakeholders, individuals or organizations potentially useful for a
territorial project data concrete and not outdated or partial?
How can we describe, in order to be understood by third parties, potential partnerships and/or
desired potential collaborations with stakeholders?
What we do we mean by additional potentially useful information (logistics, organizational,
references etc.) for a territorial project?
What do we mean by an effective and clear description of exemplary and repeatable solutions for
resources implementation (mode of delivery of funds, guarantees, advance payments, monitoring,
etc.)?
In which cases general organizational characteristics of a project or a solution can be considered
exemplary and repeatable (phases, processes, used representative models, control, collaboration,
etc.)?
In which cases particular organizational characteristics of a project or a solution can be
considered exemplary and repeatable (particular processes and/or special/specific procedures)?
How can we describe project internal communication systems to understand their exemplarity
and repeatability?
How can we describe project external communication systems to understand their exemplarity
and repeatability?
What are the main elements that make us think of the possibility of an adaption of existing
educational material or its availability on the market?
What are the main elements that make us think of the possibility of an adaption of existing non-
educational material or its availability on the market?
What are the main elements that make us think of the possibility of an adaptation of available
equipment and of intangible technologies or their availability on the market?
What are the main elements that make us think of an eventual adaptation of existing systems for
quality monitoring?
What are the main elements that make us think of an eventual adaptation of existing systems to
document taken actions?
Outputs
Online surveys 5 - CB4LLP final output
eventual new recorded training material
new shared competences: improved ability on distinguish the information that must be owned to
transfer the values from existing resources or project to new ideas or activities
The most relevant evidence of this workshop should be the list of self assessment points contained in the
'Online surveys 5 - CB4LLP final output ' described at page 77, that every participant is helped to produce
during the second part of the meeting.
However, the filled questionnaire is not the only evidence and result we can expect from the last
workshop: in the case of the Innovation Caf modality, the debate can be recorded and shared on the
platform and the output, in this case, consists also of new training materials and peer education materials.
TNAM - Territorial Needs Analysis Method
7

The TNAM, Territorial Needs Analysis Method, is a specific CB4LLP Consortiums tool to guide capacity
builders in the complex process of identifying and implementing positive solutions and projects to their
challenges or problems.
In effect, TNAM represents the core value of CBLLP method, considered that all other activities and tools
provided by CB4LLP Consortium orbit around it.
This chapter describes how stakeholders may use TNAM to identify the most appropriate projects, funded
by the Lifelong Learning Programme, in coherence with their own challenges, contexts or strategic
objectives, while the following chapters focus on how to adopt and integrate the outcomes of such
initiatives within their own context and how to evaluate the overall impact of the capacity building
process.

7
It includes: "Matching LLP results and outcomes with local needs for Human resources development, Organizational development
and Institutional and legal framework development"

66
Different stakeholders and social actors have clearly different needs but also have different levels of
power and control over decision-making processes. This means that those different needs, motivations
and agendas must be recognized and understood in order to negotiate and generate a broader consensus
on and around issues and projects to be designed and the most appropriate way to develop them.
Self-assessment in capacity building has been pointed out as one of the key elements, and one of the most
effective ways of ensuring that an evaluation will produce useful results is to involve intended users
throughout the evaluation process (Hailey et al 2005, ECDPM 2003).
Several kinds of tools and methodologies have been conceived for organizational capacity assessment.
However, there is a growing consensus on the need to apply a mix of methods and tools (Taylor 2003,
Roche 1999) as the usual quantitative measures have shown several limitations in the area of impact
assessment because of their inadequacy to explain why something has happened and to capture the
relationships between different components/actions/actors.
The Ripple model (James 2002) highlights clearly how the capacity building interventions spread over a
given target and across community.

Picture 18 The Ripple model (James 2002)
Objectives
TNAM provides an effective method for different levels of stakeholders to analyse a given context or
challenge in the perspective of enabling the identification of successfully accomplished projects and
initiatives, funded by the Lifelong Learning Programme.
This process stimulates the adoption of a structured approach to tackle and overcome local problems or
challenges by raising awareness of their characteristics, specificities and nature.

67
By adopting this method, the capacity builders develop the ability to look for existing results of successful
initiatives funded by the European Commission within the framework of the Lifelong Learning
Programme.
TNAM is a simple and ready-to-use method to guide the capacity builder in assessing and comparing the
relevance of existing solutions and projects with respect to the needs of a given challenge, problem or
strategic objective.
The coherence and relevance may be identified again in a number of concurrent dimensions, which may
include, for instance:
Sector of education
Typology of end users
Typology of promoter
Business sector
Entity of investment
The main purpose is to search and identify projects which may be used to support own operations in any
field related to social, economic or educational development.
With TNAM, capacity builders get an evaluation system that enables them to compare accomplished
active policies or initiatives in the perspective of adopting a pro-active approach to deal with:
Problems or deficits
Forthcoming changes
Strengths & Opportunities
Internal or external mandates
New policy requirements
The TNAM provides the capacity builders with a structured approach to score implemented projects
funded by the European Commission and to prioritise them in connection with their coherence and
usefulness in different contexts and environments.
Methodology
The capacity building process implemented by TNAM is based on the active involvement of a team of
stakeholders who adopts different and complementary measures and tools to analyse a given context.
The discussion on the need analysis among local stakeholders may start by using the mind mapping
technique, which can serve well both individuals and groups in sharing cooperatively their views on a
given topic.
This approach is particularly useful as it allows visual representation of different components of the
challenge in question, raises awareness not only on individuals views but also provides the overall
picture of the main issues perceived by the team members.
Mind mapping can be used at different stages of the capacity building process, during the preliminary
analysis, during the definition of the action plan as well as at the final stage of the impact evaluation.
TNAM proposes a holistic approach, aimed at addressing a given context as a whole, exploring how its
different parts inter-relate, stimulating the identification of priorities which are not easy to identify in the
daily work.
There are two main phases that distinguish two different activities:
First phase of collecting data from capacity builders context
Second phase of matching data and extracting LLP resources.
First phase - preliminary self-analysis - consists in the support to capacity builders while defining their
own context, needs, initiative or project. In this phase, called "TNAM Initiative / project description", the
capacity builder describes his own initiative or needs by adopting the fields of analysis that are consistent
with the ones adopted by the databases and repository tools of the European Commission, to get a list of
accomplished projects funded by the Lifelong Learning Programme.
The collection of this information is done by using the CB4LLP online questionnaire, provided with the
subscription to the CB4LLP platform or by using offline forms printed out from the website.
The phase aims to draft the state of the art and to make a clear picture of the following crucial individual
or organizational aspects the capacity builder is asked to describe:
Environment

68
Capacity
Motivation
Performance
Capacity builders may use a wide range of techniques and tools to accomplish a more in-depth analysis,
which may imply:
Direct Observations
Interviews with persons in key positions or with specific knowledge
Focus Groups
Questionnaires
Tests
Records & Report Reviews
Review of literature and accomplished projects
The collected data are used for two purposes: 1) the matching with LLP metadata, done with LLP search
engine tools in TNAM phase two; 2) publishing this information for the CB4LLP community, to give other
stakeholders the possibility to look for comparable experiences and to extract results.
The second TNAM phase is based on the results of the first step: here the capacity builder keeps
searching for appropriate and coherent projects and initiatives accomplished and funded within the
framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme, to get a manageable list of resources to be valorised.
As the output of the second phase is represented by a list of projects, materials or initiatives, in general
extracted for valorisation from the LLP repertory, it is necessary to take into account the volume of data
that could result from the matching between needs and available LLP resources. For this reason, the
TNAM method proposes 2-level analysis that could be implemented depending on the volume to be
handled:
1. TNAM Basic analysis is the first of the two levels and is based on the simple match between
preliminary territorial analysis data (defined in the first phase) with existing LLP data, using LLP
database search engines: the first level search may be considered accomplished and appropriate if
the stakeholder identifies a not excessive number of initiatives and projects to be profitably
managed for the intent of valorisation.
2. TNAM Advanced analysis is the second of the two possible analysis levels, and not always
necessary as it has to be deployed only when the list of resources got from the first level analysis is
too large and not immediately manageable by the capacity builder. The second level analysis can be
considered over with an output of sorted resources that permit an effective valorisation of LLP
resources in the given context.
The advanced search capacity building process may require access and analysis to additional information
and supporting documents like:
Individual profiles and training needs
Organizational description, infrastructure and human resources chart
Relationships and cooperation agreements with other stakeholders
Funding and fiscal system
Management procedures and rules
Communication channels
TNAM Tools
TNAM Initiative / project description
The capacity builder describes his own initiative or needs adopting the CB4LLP questionnaire fields,
which are consistent with those adopted by the databases and repository tools of the European
Commission to list accomplished projects funded by the Lifelong Learning Programme.
Providing this information, the capacity builder helps the community to collect relevant data for the
online benchmarking services. Each CB4LLP community member will be in fact able to go through these
data and look for initiatives of other capacity builders facing problems or needs relevant for the current
case. In the benchmarking approach, data will be used to give feedbacks by cross-checking initial and
follow-up data, so the capacity builder may use other capacity builders results with similar fields of
research or of any relevant field considered.
The questionnaire is available online on the CB4LLP platform both like an online survey or can be printed
out to facilitate capacity builders activities. The outcome of the questionnaire is a collection of data that

69
capacity builders will have to use to perform the next researches directly into projects databases. The
questionnaire aims to help them to reflect on their own field of interest and to define the problem and the
needs faced using the same classification set for the LLP projects in public LLP databases.
The questionnaire is composed by four columns:
column number 1 indicates available LLP search engine fields
column number 2 contains a very brief explanation of the column 1 fields
column number 3 describes the fields that capacity builders has to fill in by using the same
classification of LLP project databases
column number 4, "TAGS or values that will be used for the research" is a deeper analysis of
keywords, thought to help capacity builder in identifying special tags and data to be used for the
LLP project research engines.
LLP databases classification CB4LLP database - Territorial Initiative / Project /needs
column 1 column 2 column 3 column 4
Fields Description Fields

instructions for capacity
builders
TAGS or values that will be
used for the research
instructions for capacity
builders
Capacity Builder identity
this value is recorded with no
operations in the online form

Date
this value is recorded with no
operations in the online form

Title This field allows to easily and
univocally identify a project.
Unfortunately often the LLP
projects use acronyms that
make it hard to understand
what the project is aimed to.
So the risk is to perform a
research in this field that
excludes results that do not
contain given key words
Title of your initiative key words will be used to
make text researches in LLP
databases Title field
Description This field is probably the
most important one as it
allows to search through a
general description of
accomplished initiatives.
Usually the project manager
inserted here enough
information to define the
project.
Provide short description of
your initiative. That will be
available to other
stakeholders looking for
previous solutions adopted
by capacity builders like you
and will give them the
possibility to discover
similarities and to look for
the solution adopted.
Please consider these
guidelines to make your own
description including:
individual or organizational,
aspects:
- Environment
- Capacity
- Motivation
- Performance
techniques and possible
tools:
- Direct Observations
- Interviews with persons in
key position or with
specific knowledge
- Focus Groups
- Questionnaires
key words will be used to
make text researches in LLP
databases Description field

70
- Tests
- Records & Report Reviews
- Review of literature and
accomplished projects
Coordinator contact details Name, email, telephone etc. if you are interested in some
particular organizations
projects or results, put here
the name of the organization
you will search for
Coordinator Country This is not the language of the
project! This field just shows
the country of the
coordinator organization
if you are interested in some
particular country where the
project has been leaded,
write it here.
Consider that you could
maybe be confident with the
language used in the
coordinator country or you
could have similarities or
particular relationships with
the coordinator country, so
you could prefer to select
such kind of LLP projects
Coordinator Region This is not the language of the
project! This field just shows
the region of the coordinator
organization under the NUTS
2 classification
if you are interested in some
particular region where the
project has been leaded, put
it here.
Consider that you could
maybe be confident with the
language used in the
coordinator region or you
could have similarities or
particular relationships with
the coordinator country, so
you could prefer to select
such kind of LLP projects
In the LLP databases, there is
a list of regions according to
the NUTS 2 classification. The
paper version doesnt list
these regions because of the
space, but the online version
does.
Partners Provide information about
additional stakeholders, if
any
as for the coordinator field, if
you are interested in some
particular organizations
projects or results, list here
the name of the organizations
you will search for in the
partners field
Theme This is the field where the
project coordinators
expressed the
correspondence of their
project characteristics to a
list of one or more themes
with grade.

Tick appropriate themes of
your interest. This list will be
used to search for your
initiative in the CB4LLP
database, the same list is
available in LLP databases:
Access for disadvantaged
Continuous training
Ecology
Enterprise and SMEs
Equal Opportunities
Higher Education
ICT
Initial training
Intercultural learning
Labour market
Language training
Lifelong learning
Open and distance learning
Quality
Recognition, transparency,


71
certification
Social dialogue
Sustainability
Utilization and distribution of
results
Vocational guidance
Others
Target groups List of beneficiaries of LLP
project. (only available in
Gruntvig db)
Target groups. This list will
be used to search for your
initiative in the CB4LLP db
and also to search LLP project
only in Gruntvig db
Tick the appropriate target
groups:

Individuals
Groups
Teachers
Trainers
Careers officers
Inspectors
Head
teachers/principals/manager
s
Non-teaching administrative
staff
Members of
students/teachers councils
Other

Type Describes the typology of
initiative.
EU LLP are split in many
initiatives like pilot, network,
multiannual, other
Tick the appropriate type to
establish if you will search
some particular initiative:
Best practice
Methods for Training of
Teachers/Staff
European Credit Transfer
System for VET
European Qualification
Framework
Inclusion of all in Lifelong
Learning
New Skills Network
Quality Assurance in Lifelong
Learning
Sector This is a field where the
project coordinators
expressed the
correspondence of their
projects characteristics to a
list of one or more sectors by
using ratings.
Tick appropriate sectors of
your interest. This list will be
used to search for your
initiative in the CB4LLP db
and is the same list available
to you to make searches in
LLP db:
Accommodation and Food
Service Activities, HORECA
Activities of Extraterritorial
Organizations and Bodies
Activities of Households as
Employers; Undifferentiated
Goods and Services,
Producing Activities of
Households
Administrative and Support
Service Activities
Agriculture, Forestry and
Fishing
Arts, Entertainment and
Recreation
Construction
Education
Electricity, Fas, Steam and Air
Conditioning Supply


72
Financial and Insurance
Activities
Human Health and Social
Work Activities
Information and
Communication
Manufacturing
Mining and Quarrying
Other Service Activities
Professional, Scientific and
Technical Activities
Public Administration and
Defence; Compulsory Social
Security
Real Estate Activities
Transportation and Storage
Water Supply, Sewerage,
Water Management and
Remediation Activities
Wholesale and Retail Trade,
Repair of Motor Vehicles and
Motorcycles
Others
Educational sector Describes the relevant sector
of education
In case your project or need
is related to an educational
sector, tick the appropriate
voice and this value will be
available for other capacity
builders to search for your
initiative and for you to
search appropriate LLP
projects. Otherwise, just leave
it blank.
Pre-primary
Primary
General secondary
Vocational/Technical
secondary
Special education for disabled
persons
Adult Education Provider
Second change or remedial
education
Higher education
Organizations working with
migrant groups/ethics
minorities
Centres for guidance,
counselling or accreditation
Other sectors of adult
education

Year year of implementation When do you plan to realize
your idea?

years that you are interested
to search for
Language Describes the language used
to produce final results and
outputs of the LLP project
write your project language
in ISO 639-2 Code

Online surveys 1 - TNAM Initiative / project description
TNAM Basic analysis
Basing on the first phase output, the capacity builder proceeds with search for appropriate and coherent
projects and initiatives accomplished and funded within the framework of the Lifelong Learning
Programme:
The main sources of information are:

73
by needs side:
step 1 questionnaire with identified search values
by LLP available results side:
ADAM Database www.adam-europe.eu
EVE Database ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/eve
Comenius and Grundtvig Training Database ec.europa.eu/education/trainingdatabase
European Shared Treasure www.europeansharedtreasure.eu
Jean Monnet Project Directory
http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/llp/jeanmonnet/directory/New/Version/2008/V1/ajmrepertoire/dis
trib.Asp
The outcome of TNAM Basic analysis is a list of successful projects accomplished with the support of the
Lifelong Learning Programme, which are relevant for and whose outcomes can be used in capacity
builders initiatives of local development.
The phase can provide an exhaustive list of resources or could also produce a too extensive list that could
be not reasonably managed for valorisation.
The collected data are recorded online in the second part of the questionnaire filled in phase one. The
data structure is defined in the chapter "TNAM results" at page 74.
In the case of a too large list, capacity builders can go through the TNAM Advanced analysis, to be able to
refine the list and to order the contents.
TNAM Advanced analysis
The TNAM Advanced analysis represents the higher level analysis in the TNAM method. The idea behind
it is to rank the LLP resources extracted from the TNAM Basic analysis, because the actual results are
considered too large to be valorised.
TNAM method doesn't impose a strict procedure to select information and to rate the results extracted
with Basic analysis, but offers a list of references that can be implemented by capacity builders depending
on their preferences. Below these techniques are indicated to help the in-depth analysis after the
preliminary needs assessment.
The outcome of Phase 2 is an improved understanding of a wider number of successful projects
accomplished with the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, which are relevant for and whose
outcomes can be used in capacity builders initiatives of local development.
The capacity builder adopts further measures to analyse the produced list of Lifelong projects and assigns
them a score in terms of relevance and usefulness for its own context and local development strategies.
The following grid can be used to check and to assess the accomplished projects, funded by the Lifelong
Learning Programme.
Tools Tools
Description
Application of Tools on Selected
Initiative / Project
PESTLE
The PESTLE analysis can be used as a basis for future
planning and strategic management as it focuses and
guides the analysis of the external context of the
individual or of an organization.
This not very successful acronym stands for the
different fields covered by this approach, which are:
- Political
- Economic
- Social
- Technological
- Legal
- Environmental
The factors may be tackled at macro level, for
instance national, transnational or worldwide level,
or micro, such as at institutional or individual level.
This framework helps to reflect on the context as a
whole, to list the main trends and to identify the
main threats and opportunities arising from the
Describe context and
scenario in terms of:
- Political
- Economic
- Social
- Technological
- Legal
- Environmental
Apply PESTLE analysis both on your
context as well as on selected projects
funded by Lifelong Learning Programme
and assign for each dimension a score in
terms of relevance (0 = no relevance; 10 =
high relevance)

74
environment in which the capacity builders operate.
SWOT
The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities,
Threats) analysis can be also used to analyse and to
evidence the internal strengths and weaknesses of
organizations, as well as to highlight the external
opportunities and threats faced. In addition to a
general evaluation, the SWOT analysis can be used
also to assess specific problems or challenges faced
by organizations/individuals.
It is very useful to combine the PESTLE with the
SWOT analysis as they provide a complementary
overview of the scenario to be dealt with, as once
completed the overview of the context with the
PESTLE grid, it makes more sense to identify what a
capacity builder can do, at individual or institutional
level, do reduce the negate impact of own
weaknesses, maximise the potential of own
strengths, reduce influence of external threats and
catch arising opportunities.
Describe context and
scenario in terms of:
- Strengths
- Weaknesses
- Opportunities
- Threats

Apply SWOT analysis both on your context
as well as on selected projects funded by
Lifelong Learning Programme and assign
for each dimension a score in terms of
relevance (0 = no relevance; 10 = high
relevance)
Budget / investment

Acquire information on
budget / investment
foreseen
Compare the resources available with the
investment required by selected projects
funded by Lifelong Learning Programme
and assign a score in terms of
relevance/feasibility (0 = no relevance; 10
= high relevance)
Online surveys 2 - grid to check and assess the accomplished projects, funded by the Lifelong Learning Programme
TNAM results
The phase of research and identification of appropriate and coherent projects and initiatives
accomplished and funded within the framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme, ends with a well-
defined output consisting of a list of a LLP projects or related resources.
In both cases, implementation of 'TNAM Basic analysis' or implementation of 'TNAM Advanced analysis',
the list of identified projects or materials, useful to territorial project development is recorded online in
CB4LLP website according to the following structure:
priority /
relevance order
title link comments / description
1
2
3
ecc
Online surveys 3 - list of identified appropriate and coherent projects and initiatives accomplished and funded within the
framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme
CB4LLP Action Plan
As aforementioned, the forms of exploitation can vary from a simple collection
of information, contacts and references to the outright implementation of an entire project,
or other intermediate forms as use of concepts, general principles, projects parts or
whatever form of exploitation of the identified resources.
By applying the procedures provided by TNAM, the capacity builder has therefore selected
a sufficient number of LLP results that enable him to implement the theoretical solutions
for his/her own project.

75
The Action Plan phase denotes therefore an activity of CB4LLP method with which the capacity builder
defines the terms of valorisation for the implementation of the selected theoretical resources.
Be aware that this does not mean the development of a territorial planning, but rather a sort of
preliminary feasibility study on how and at which stages the identified theoretical resources can be
exploited and valued.
Before the development of a concrete territorial development project, capacity builder defines how to use
these new identified resources in order to ensure a probable success during the implementation.
The CB4LLP consortium has indeed the aim to affect the territorial planning by offering to the capacity
builder new skills that are carried out with the clear vision of how the identified LLP resources will be
implemented.
In order to define clearly and in a standardized manner the implementation and to facilitate the logical
process of their identification, capacity builder has available the following check list that guides him
through the possible implementation options, and that is available both as an online questionnaire and on
CB4LLP the platform:
Elements to be valued Expectations
Useful general ideas for the territorial project
Stakeholders, individuals or organizations potentially useful for
the territorial project

Partnerships and/or desired potential collaborations with the
previous listed stakeholders

Other in general potentially useful information (logistics,
organizational, references etc.)

Solutions adopted to implement available resources, exemplary
and repeatable (mode of delivery of funds, guarantees, advance
payments, monitoring, etc.)

General organizational characteristics, exemplary and
repeatable (phases, processes, used representative models,
control, collaboration, etc.)

Particular organizational characteristics, exemplary and
repeatable (particular processes and/or special/specific
procedures)

Project internal communication systems, exemplary and
repeatable

Project external communication systems, exemplary and
repeatable

Educational materials, functional or adaptable
Non-educational materials, functional or adaptable
Equipment and intangible technologies implemented, exemplary
and repeatable

Systems for quality monitoring, exemplary and repeatable
Systems to document taken actions, exemplary and repeatable
Online surveys 4 - CB4LLP Action Plan

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CB4LLP Impact analysis
The Impact analysis consists in the self-evaluation of the results obtained with Action Plan
implementation.
The Impact analysis output is called 'final output' in Picture 19 and is based on the projection of the
impact expected on the implementation of local actions. Also this activity can be carried out with the
support of offline models, but it would be preferred that the stakeholder puts data immediately online in
order to make the values of his/her performance available to other stakeholders of CB4LLP community
and to get immediately his own analysis according to the benchmarking principles.
With the follow-up the methods cycle is over and can be restarted related to a new problem area.
The Impact analysis represents therefore a sort of validation and individual rating system made available
to other stakeholders. The analysis is performed by monitoring the continuous improvement cycle that
requires the reassessment by the capacity builder of produced output with respect to the achievement of
a minimum quality standard.
The capacity builder has available a check-list to make him/her reflect on the fulfillment and performance
of valorization actions, and which final output is given by a standard value.
Through the application of the check-list, the capacity builder self-assesses the quality of the output
produced in the previous phases, and if that does not meet the required criteria, performs the revision of
previous phases in order to reach the required threshold.
The process can be seen on the following graph:

Picture 19 output of the self-analysis process


77
Clearly established the correspondence of the data collected regarding the level of quality perceived by
the capacity builder which meets the threshold value indicated in the grid, capacity builder makes an
evaluation of his/her expectations/a projection of the expected results to be achieved through the
implementation of the LLP projects selected during the action plan.
Useful general ideas for the territorial
project
self-assessment of results
sufficient level rating: yes / not
the rate must be applied only in case
of existing collected values
value expectation
rating 0 - 10
What impact do you expect?
Stakeholders, individuals or organizations
potentially useful for the territorial project
data are concrete, not outdated or
partial
0 - 10
Partnerships and/or desired potential
collaborations with the previous listed
stakeholders
potential partnerships are described and
comprehensible by third parties
0 - 10
Other in general potentially useful
information (logistics, organizational,
references etc.)
the information are described,
understandable by third parties and
focused on understandable matters
0 - 10
Solutions adopted to implement available
resources, exemplary and repeatable (mode
of delivery of funds, guarantees, advance
payments, monitoring, etc.)
the solutions are described,
understandable by third parties and
focused on the implementation of
available resources
0 - 10
General organizational characteristics
exemplary and repeatable (phases, processes,
used representative models, control,
collaboration, etc.)
the information is clear to third parties
and focused on general organizational
characteristics
0 - 10
Particular organizational characteristics,
exemplary and repeatable (particular
processes and/or special/specific
procedures)
the information is clear to third parties
and focused on particular organizational
characteristics
0 - 10
Project internal communication systems,
exemplary and repeatable
the information is clear to third parties
and focused on particular internal
communication systems characteristics
0 - 10
Project external communication systems,
exemplary and repeatable/adaptable
the information is clear to third parties
and focused on particular external
communication systems characteristics
0 - 10
Educational materials, functional or adaptable the materials are clearly identified and
potentially available or repeatable
0 - 10
Non-educational materials, functional or
adaptable
the materials are clearly identified and
potentially available or repeatable
0 - 10
Equipment and intangible technologies
implemented, exemplary and adaptable
the equipment and/or intangible
technologies are clearly identified and
potentially available or adaptable
0 - 10
Systems for quality monitoring, exemplary
and adaptable
the systems for quality monitoring are
clearly identified and potentially
available or adaptable
0 - 10
Systems to document taken actions,
exemplary and repeatable/adaptable
the systems to document taken actions
are clearly identified and potentially
available or repeatable/adaptable
0 - 10
Online surveys 5 - CB4LLP final output self-analysis

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CB4LLP repertory of LLP sources
CB4LLP repertory of LLP sources allows stakeholders, educational providers and public administrators
to discover and access to relevant information for their activities.
The main focus CB4LLP repertory is to ensure to capacity builders as relevant stakeholders, educational
providers and public administrators effective access to main EU databases on Lifelong Learning, such as
ADAM, EVE, EST as well as specific sub-programmes databases and partners search databases.

79
Databases and researchable fields
ADAM LdV
http://www.adam-europe.eu/adam/homepageView.htm#.UVLxW1dvBMk
Basic research
Search projects by key-word;
Search products by key-word;
Advanced research:
Search Project by:
Theme;
Year;
Country;
Type (ToI, networks, etc);
Sector (i.e. industry);
Possibility to participate for individuals (Yes/No);
Groups;
Status (completed/granted/running);
Search Contractor by:
Organization type;
Country;
Region (NUTS 2);
Search Coordinator organization type:
Type;
Country;
Region (NUTS 2);
Search Partner organization type;
Organization type;
Country;
Region.

80

Picture 20 - ADAM website

81
EVE
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/eve/share/page/user/visitor/dashboard
In EVE by:
In EVE titles
In EVE identifyers:
In EVE coordinators:
Country;
Year
Area:
Education and training:
External Programmes and Policies;
LLP (2007-2013);
Previous programmes.
Culture:
Culture (2007-2013);
Culture 2000 (2000-2006);
Pilot Projects for artist mobility.
Youth:
Youth (2000-2006);
Youth in action (2007-2013).
Citizenship:
Citizenship (2000-2006)
Europe for Citizens (2007-2013);
European Years:
2008 European Year of Intercultural Dialogue;
2009 European Year of Creativity and Innovation.

82

Picture 21 - EVE website

83
Jean Monnet
PROJECTS:
http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/llp/jeanmonnet/directory/New/Version/2008/V1/ajmrepertoire/distrib.Asp
Country;
Year;
Town;
University;
Name of the teacher;
Type of the Project;
Discipline.


Picture 22 - Jean Monnet website
PEOPLE:
Country;
Name;
University;
Subject.

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Picture 23 - Jean Monnet website

85
COMENIUS AND GRUDTVIG TRAINING DATABASE
ec.europa.eu/education/trainingdatabase
TRAINING:
Thematic field(s) of the training
Main;
Secondary.
Training details;
Title of the training event (or part of it);
Organising institution;
Country;
Type;
Main language of the training event.
Training Target groups:
School/adult education;
Education sector;
Target audience.
Training Event Dates:
Start from to.

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Picture 24 - COMENIUS AND GRUDTVIG

87
EST European Shared Treasure
(focuses on the European Dimension of education, thousands of teachers, trainers and educators
cooperating in partnerships with the aim to share the wealth of their experience.
http://www.europeansharedtreasure.eu
Searchable by :
Title/description;
Institution/organization;
Town.


Picture 25 - EST European Shared Treasure

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Compendium of EU financed projects
http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/llp/results_projects/project_compendia_en.php
The projects presented in these compendia were selected for funding at European level selections. The
key aim of setting out past projects in these compendia is to inspire others to create new, future projects.

Picture 26 - Compendium of EU financed projects website


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CB4LLP Glossary and Guide on LLP terminology
The Glossary and Guide on LLP terminology is aimed at helping to overcome the eventual language
barriers faced by capacity builders who could often do not master English required to access main EU
databases.
The Glossary and Guide on LLP terminology is aimed at promoting awareness and adoption of
appropriate technical language among the stakeholders, such as public administrators and educational
providers, who are going to cooperate within capacity building processes in development initiatives at
local, regional or national level.
n Glossary terms Description
1 Accompanying
Measures
Accompanying Measures support various activities which, though not eligible under the main sub-
programmes, will clearly contribute to achieving the Lifelong Learning Programme's objectives.
2 Additionality This principle requires that Community assistance be additional to national funding and not to
replace it.
3 Adult Education This denotes all forms of non-vocational adult learning, whether of a formal, non-formal or
informal nature
4 Adult Learner A learner participating in adult education
5 Award Criteria The award criteria shall be such as to make it possible to assess the quality of the proposals
submitted in the light of the objectives and the priorities set. Award criteria are each time specified
within relevant Calls for Proposals
6 Awareness Raising Awareness-raising is used primarily in the context of publicising the existence of programmes and
initiatives, their aims, objectives and activities and the availability of funding for given purposes.
This definition excludes the publicising of results. As such, promotion and raising awareness
occurs primarily before and during the actual implementation of the programmes or initiatives.
7 Benchmarking A standardised method for collecting and reporting critical operational data in a way that enables
relevant comparison of the performances of different organisations or programmes, often with a
view to establishing good practice.
8 Beneficiary Those who benefits from project results
9 Bilateral Involving partners from two Member States
10 Bologna Process The Bologna Process is an intergovernmental initiative which aims to create by 2010 a European
Higher Education Area (EHEA) based on three cycles: Degree/Bachelor Master Doctorate. As of
2006, it has 45 signatory countries.
11 Call for Proposals Legal text calling on interested parties to submit proposals for projects. The text defines the
necessary specifications to prepare and submit a proposal, ie thematic priorities, instruments used,
address and other technical means for submission, deadlines etc.. Calls are published in the Official
Journal of the EU in all Community languages.
12 Career Guidance Career guidance refers to services and activities intended to assist individuals, of any age and at
any point throughout their lives, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to
manage their careers. Such services may be found in schools, universities and colleges, in training
institutions, in public employment services, in the workplace, in the voluntary or community
sector and in the private sector. The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and
may be face-to-face or at a distance (including help lines and web-based services).
13 CEDEFOP
(European Centre for
The purpose of the Centre is to provide assistance to the Commission and, through its scientific and
technical activities, to help promote vocational and continuing training at Community level. The

90
the Development of
Vocational Training)
non-profit-making Centre is based in Thessaloniki (Greece).
14 Consortium A group of partners participating in a project.
15 Contact Seminar Contact seminars are organised by national agencies throughout the year. These seminars bring
together interested institutions from those countries participating in LLP. Workshops give
participants the opportunity to discuss the chosen topic, to get to know colleagues in Europe and
brainstorm on a new cooperation project. The national agencies are represented and give
information and advice on shaping the project proposal. The 'pressure cooker' effect of these
seminars often gives rise to any number of new projects and learning partnerships.
16 Content and Language
Integrated Learning
(CLIL)
CLIL refers to any dual-focused educational context in which an additional language, i.e. usually not
the first language of the learners involved, is used as a medium in the teaching and learning of non-
language content.
17 Copenhagen Process The Bruges-Copenhagen Process aims to enhance cooperation in vocational education and training
(VET) in Europe. Education Ministers from 31 European countries and the European Commission
signed a declaration in Copenhagen in 2002 which will work towards creating a knowledge-based
Europe and ensuring that the European labour market is open to everyone. This was preceded in
2001 by the Bruges meeting of Directors General for Education which laid the political foundations
for transparency and cooperation in VET.
The Process seeks to help European citizens meet the demands of the European labour market by
allowing them to pursue their training needs between different levels of education, and different
occupations, sectors and countries. It will also play a key role in achieving the Lisbon Strategy goal
of making the EU the worlds most dynamic, knowledge-based economy by 2010.
The work of the Bruges-Copenhagen Process is currently focusing on areas relating to quality
assurance and the transparency and recognition of qualifications. Cooperation has begun on a
number of practical projects:
The development of a single framework for transparency of competences and qualifications -
Europass
A system of credit transfer for vocational education and training, similar to the European Credit
Transfer System (ECTS) in higher education.
Common criteria and principles for quality in VET to serve as a basis for European-level initiatives
in quality assurance.
Common principles for the validation of non-formal and informal learning to ensure greater
compatibility between approaches in different countries.
Providing lifelong guidance with a European dimension.
18 Curriculum
Development
The purpose of CD activity is to reinforce the quality and the European dimension.
19 Development of
Innovation
Development of Innovation aims at producing innovative results. These results are those which
represent some new and distinctive features, distinguishing them from others existing ones with
similar characteristic, and adding value in comparison to conventional solutions. In other words
developing a new solution to cope with a common challenge of several countries in the educational
area.
20 Diploma Supplement The Diploma Supplement (DS) is a document attached to a higher education diploma aimed at
improving international 'transparency' and at facilitating the academic and professional
recognition of qualifications (diplomas, degrees, certificates etc.). It is designed to provide a
description of the nature, level, context, content and status of the studies that have been
successfully completed by the individual named on the original qualification to which this
supplement is appended. It should be free from any value-judgements, equivalence statements or
suggestions about recognition. It is a flexible non-prescriptive tool which is designed to save time,
money and workload. It is capable of adaptation to local needs.
The DS is produced by national institutions according to a template that has been developed by a
Joint European Commission - Council of Europe - UNESCO working party that tested and refined it.
The DS is composed of eight sections (information identifying the holder of the qualification,
information identifying the qualification, information on the level of the qualification, information
on the contents and results gained, information on the function of the qualification, additional
information, certification of the Supplement, information on the national higher education system).
Information in all eight sections should be provided. Where information is not provided, an
explanation should give the reason why.
A description of the national higher education system within which the individual named on the
original qualification graduated has to be attached to the DS. This description is provided by the
National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs) and is available on the website:

91
www.enic-naric.net.
21 Dissemination and
Exploitation of Results
Activities designed to ensure that the results of the LLP and its predecessors are appropriately
recognised, demonstrated and implemented on a wide scale. Within the context of the LLP, the
following distinctions should be observed:
Promotion and awareness-raising is used primarily in the context of publicising the existence of
programmes and initiatives, their aims, objectives and activities and the availability of funding for
given purposes. This definition excludes the publicising of results. As such, promotion and raising
awareness occurs primarily before and during the actual implementation of the programmes or
initiatives
Dissemination is defined as a planned process of providing information on the quality, relevance
and effectiveness of the results of programmes and initiatives to key actors. It occurs as and when
the results of programmes and initiatives become available
Exploitation consists of mainstreaming and multiplication. Mainstreaming is the planned process
of transferring the successful results of programmes and initiatives to appropriate decision-
makers in regulated local, regional, national and European systems. Multiplication is the planned
process of convincing individual end-users to adopt and/or apply the results of programmes and
initiatives.
Dissemination and exploitation are therefore distinct but closely related to one another. The keys
to a successful exploitation of results are:
- producing relevant results from projects ad programmes/initiatives to satisfy the demands
of providers, policy-makers and ultimately society more generally, and
- ensuring, through the use of effective dissemination and exploitation, that such results reach
the right target audiences in a format and at a time which enables them to benefit from them
22 Dissemination and
Exploitation Plan
A plan for dissemination and exploitation indicates those activities that are going to be carried out
during a projects lifetime. The plan has to be drafted at the very beginning of a project (often at
proposal stage) and must contain activities to be carried out continuously until the projects end
(and possibly afterwards).
23 Eligibility Criteria Eligibility criteria are formal conditions a proposal must respect. Only proposals which meet all the
formal eligibility criteria go forward for evaluation. Eligibility criteria are each time specified
within relevant Calls for Proposals.
24 Eligible Expenditure Eligibility criteria are formal conditions which a proposal must fulfil. Only proposals which meet all
the formal eligibility criteria go forward for evaluation. Eligibility criteria are specified in the
respective Calls for Proposals
25 Education & Training
2010
Over the last five years the Education and Training 2010 work programme has been established as
a crucial contribution towards achieving the Lisbon goal to make Europe the most competitive and
"knowledge-based" economy in the world.
The Education Council agreed for the first time in 2001 on common concrete future objectives to
be achieved by 2010 for quality, access and opening up of the education and training systems. In
June 2002 it also passed a resolution committing Member States and the Community to developing
national strategies for lifelong learning.
The Copenhagen process was launched in November 2002 by the Ministers responsible for
vocational education and training in cooperation with the social partners and the Commission in
order to enhance European cooperation in vocational education and training.
The Education and Training 2010 work programme integrates these different policy strands,
setting up cooperation between 32 countries and involving different stakeholders including civil
society, social partners and international organisations. It covers all systems (formal, non-formal)
and levels of education (pre-school, primary, secondary, tertiary, adult, continuing) and training in
the context of lifelong learning.
26 Enterprise All undertakings engaged in economic activity in the public or private sector whatever their size,
legal status or the economic sector in which they operate, including the social economy.
27 Equal Opportunities The general principle of equal opportunities contains two key elements: one is the ban on
discrimination on grounds of nationality, and the other is equality for men and women. It is
intended to apply to all fields, particularly economic, social, cultural and family life.
28 Euroguidance Euroguidance is the working title for the Network of LEONARDO National Resource Centres for
Vocational Guidance (NRCVG). Established by the European Commission, the NRCVG are a network
of resource and information centres, promoting mobility throughout Europe.
The NRCVG, which exist in all EU and EEA Member States and many Central and Eastern European
Countries, act as a link between the guidance services of each country, exchanging information

92
about work, study and training opportunities throughout Europe.
Individual NRCVG represent the various Ministries of Education, Training, Labour and Youth
across their respective countries
29 Europass The Europass is a single portfolio enabling citizens to provide proof of their qualifications and
skills clearly and easily anywhere in Europe. It comprises five documents designed at European
level to improve the transparency of qualifications. Its aim is to facilitate mobility for all those
wishing to work or receive training anywhere in Europe.
30 European Added Value European added value is to be found in actions that cannot be sufficiently undertaken at Member
State level, and therefore, for reasons of scale or effects, are better undertaken by the Community.
It is the results of this synergy which emerge from European cooperation and which constitute a
distinctive European dimension in addition to actions and policies at Member State level.
31 European Credit
Transfer System
(ECTS)
The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System is a student-centred system based on the
student workload required to achieve the objectives of a programme, which objectives preferably
specified in terms of learning outcomes and the competences to be acquired. ECTS was introduced
in 1989, within the framework of Erasmus, now part of the Socrates programme. ECTS is the only
credit system which has been successfully tested and used across Europe. It was set up initially for
credit transfer. The system facilitated the recognition of periods of study abroad and thus
enhanced the quality and volume of student mobility in Europe. More recently ECTS has been
developing into an accumulation system to be implemented at institutional, regional, national and
European level. This is one of the key objectives of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999. ECTS
makes study programmes that are easy for all students, local and foreign to read and compare.
ECTS facilitates mobility and academic recognition. ECTS helps universities to organise and revise
their study programmes. ECTS can be used across a variety of programmes and modes of delivery.
ECTS makes European higher education more attractive for students from abroad.
32 European Dimension This describes moving from a national to a wider reference point through exchange, cooperation
and mobility between educational and training institutions and their staff and learners.
33 European Higher
Education Area
European Higher Education area is to be established by 2010, with the aim of facilitating mobility
of students and scholars, transparency and recognition of qualifications, quality and a European
dimension in higher education, as well as increasing the attractiveness of European institutions for
third country students (Bologna Process).
34 European Integration
Studies
European integration studies involve the study of the origins and evolution of the European
Communities and the European Union in all its aspects. European integration studies cover the
analysis of both the internal and external dimension of European integration, including the
European Union's role in the dialogue between peoples and cultures. Comparative studies
concerning national practices are not regarded as European integration studies.
35 European Official
Languages
Czech (CZ), Danish (DA), Dutch (NL), English (EN), Estonian (ET), Finnish (FI), French (FR),
German (DE), Greek (EL), Hungarian (HU), Italian (IT), Latvian (LV), Lithuanian (LT), Maltese (MT),
Polish (PL), Portuguese (PT), Slovak (SK), Slovene (SI), Spanish (SP), Swedish (SV), and as of 2007
Irish (IR)
36 Eurydice With a view to increasing and improving cooperation between Member States in the field of
education, and to making it easier to draft initiatives at national and Community levels, the
EURYDICE network is the main instrument for information on national and Community structures,
systems and developments in the field of education. EURYDICE thus serves to highlight both the
diversity of education systems and their common trends.
37 Evaluation Evaluation (at project level) is a crucial phase for projects since it allows a review and qualitative
and quantitative assessment of: 1) the results achieved against the aims (as regards
activities/products), with implications for the whole of the grant if results are unacceptable and
where results are very poor; 2) the means used to achieve these results in relation to the
contractually agreed budget.
Evaluation (at program level): evaluation in the Commission is defined as a judgement of
interventions according to their results, impacts and the needs they seek to satisfy.
38 Exclusion Criteria The purpose of exclusion criteria is to verify that applicants are not, at the time of the grant award
procedure, in a situation where they cannot receive a grant, under the terms of the Financial
Regulation applicable to the general budget of the European Community. Exclusion criteria are
specified in each relevant Calls for Proposals.
39 Executive Agency Executive agencies are organisations established in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No
58/2003 (OJ L 11, 16.1.2003) with a view to being entrusted with certain tasks relating to the
management of one or more Community programmes. These agencies are set up for a fixed period.

93
The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) is the one responsible for the
management of certain parts of the LLP.
40 Final Beneficiary (end
user)
A final beneficiary is an individual or an organisation directly positively influenced by the project
outcome. Not necessarily receiving a financial grant and even not being directly involved in the
project, the beneficiary may exploit project outcomes for its own purposes.
41 Follow Up Activities In general the follow-up activities take place when the project is finished in administrative terms.
Their aim is to maintain, sustain and update project results, and to promote their continuing
application and where possible their transfer to wider contexts, thereby maximising their impact.
42 Formal, Non-Formal
and Informal Adult
Education
Formal learning usually takes place in schools, universities or training institutions and leads to a
diploma or certificate. Non-formal learning includes free adult education within study circles,
projects or discussion groups advancing at their own place, with no examination at the end.
Informal learning can be found everywhere, e.g. in families, in the workplace, in NGOs, in theatre
groups, or can also refer to individual activities at home, like reading a book.
43 Good Practice A good practice is an exemplary project (including results or processes) which has positively
influenced systems and practices through its activities and results. Consequently, these good
practices are worth transferring and exploiting in different contexts and environments by new
users or entities.
44 Guidance &
Counselling
A range of activities such as information, assessment, orientation and advice to assist learners,
trainers and other staff to make choices relating to education and training programmes or
employment opportunities.
45 Higher Education
Institution
Any type of higher education institution, in accordance with national legislation or practice, which
offers recognised degrees or other recognised tertiary level qualifications, whatever such
establishments may be called in the Member States
Any institution, in accordance with national legislation or practice, which offers vocational
education or training at tertiary level
46 Impact Impact is the effect that the project and its results have on various systems and practices. A project
with impact contributes to the objectives of programmes and to the development of different
European Union policies.
47 Initial Vocational
Education and Training
cfr Vocational training
48 Innovative Results Innovative results are those which represent some new and distinctive features, distinguishing
them from others with similar characteristic, and adding value in relation to conventional solutions
49 Interim Report A financial report covering a period of less than a year that is not typically audited.
In projects, an interim report is often compiled to analyse how the project is proceeding, before its
final completion.
50 Joint Masters This means master courses in higher education that:
- Involve a minimum of three higher education institutions from three different Member
States
- Implement a study programme which involves a period of study in at least two of those three
institutions
- Have built-in mechanisms for the recognition of periods of study undertaken in partner
institutions based on, or compatible with, the European credit transfer system
- Result in the awarding of joint, double or multiple degree, recognised or accredited by the
Member States, from the participating institutions
51 Less Widely Taught
and Less Used
Languages (LWULT)
This refers to languages that are not commonly taught, regardless whether they are official
languages of the LLP participating countries, 'regional' 'minority' or migrant languages, where
projects can help to improve the quality of the teaching of these languages, access to learning
opportunities in them, encourage the production, adaptation and exchange of learning materials
and to encourage the exchange of information and best practice in this field.
52 Lifelong Learning This refers to all general education, vocational education and training, non-formal education and
informal learning undertaken throughout life, resulting in an improvement in knowledge, skills
and competences within a personal, civic, social and/or employment-related perspective. It

94
includes the provision of counselling and guidance services.
53 Lifelong Learning
Committee
The LLP Committee assists the Commission in the implementation of the programme. It is
composed by representatives of Member States and gives opinions or is consulted on measures
that implement the LLP
54 Linguistic Preparation Linguistic preparation should take place before or during a stay abroad and could consist of extra
lessons in the language concerned and/or purchase of material for autonomous learning (CD-
ROMS, books, etc.)
55 Lisbon Strategy During the meeting of the European Council in Lisbon (March 2000), the Heads of State or
Government launched a "Lisbon Strategy" aimed at making the European Union (EU) the most
competitive economy in the world and achieving full employment by 2010. This strategy,
developed at subsequent meetings of the European Council, rests on three pillars:
An economic pillar preparing the ground for the transition to a competitive, dynamic, knowledge-
based economy. Emphasis is placed on the need to adapt constantly to changes in the information
society and to boost research and development.
A social pillar designed to modernise the European social model by investing in human resources
and combating social exclusion. The Member States are expected to invest in education and
training, and to conduct an active policy for employment, making it easier to move to a knowledge
economy.
An environmental pillar, which was added at the Gteborg European Council meeting in June 2001,
draws attention to the fact that economic growth must be decoupled from the use of natural
resources.
A list of targets has been drawn up with a view to attaining the goals set in 2000. Given that the
policies in question fall almost exclusively within the sphere of competence of the Member States,
an open method of coordination (OMC) entailing the development of national action plans has
been introduced. Besides the broad economic policy guidelines, the Lisbon Strategy provides for
the adaptation and strengthening of existing coordination mechanisms: the Luxembourg process
for employment, the Cardiff process for the functioning of markets (goods, services and capital)
and the Cologne process for macroeconomic dialogue.
The mid-term review held in 2005, for which a report was prepared under the guidance of Wim
Kok, former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, showed that the indicators used in the OMC had
caused the objectives to become muddled and that the results achieved had been unconvincing.
In order to give new impetus to the Lisbon Strategy, the Commission is proposing a simplified
process of coordination in tandem with consultation on the measures to be taken under the
national action plans.
This revised strategy is no longer based on all the targets set in 2000, and only the figure of 3 % of
GDP for research and development is being retained. The integrated guidelines for growth and
employment will henceforth be presented jointly with the guidelines for macroeconomic and
microeconomic policies, over a three-year period.
http://ec.europa.eu/growthandjobs/index_en.htm
56 Mainstreaming Mainstreaming is a process which enables activities to impact on policy and practice. This process
includes identifying lessons, clarifying the innovative element and approach that produced the
results, their dissemination, validation and transfer. More specifically, mainstreaming also defines
the phase of transfer and the way in which other actors take account of the elaborated results,
approaches and key elements
57 Mentoring Mentoring is when a role model, or mentor, offers support to another person. A mentor has
knowledge and experience in an area and shares it with the person being mentored. For example,
an experienced teacher might mentor a student teacher or a teacher starting in the profession.
58 Mobility Spending a period of time in another Member State in order to undertake study, work experience,
other learning or teaching activity or related administrative activity, supported as appropriate by
preparatory or refresher courses in the host language or working language
59 Monitoring Monitoring is the regular observation and recording of activities taking place in a project or
programme. It is a process of routinely gathering information on all aspects of the project. To
monitor is to check on how project activities are progressing. It is observation; systematic and
purposeful observation.
Monitoring also involves giving feedback about the progress of the project to the donors,
implementers and beneficiaries of the project.
Reporting enables the gathered information to be used in making decisions for improving project
performance.

95
60 Monitoring (at project
level)
The process involves continuous and systematic control of the projects progress. The intention is
manage and if necessary correct any deviation from the operational objectives and thus improve
the performance. Every project should be monitored throughout its duration in order to ensure its
success. Monitoring consists of supervision of activities, comparison with the work plan and using
the information obtained for the improvement of the project. During the monitoring process
dissemination and exploitation activities must be carefully checked, verified and, if necessary -
reoriented and adapted.
61 Multilateral Involving partners from at least three Member States. The Commission may regard associations or
other bodies with membership from three Member States or more as multilateral.
62 Naric The network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARICs), created at the
Commission's initiative in 1984, covers all EU and European Economic Area Member States and all
the associated countries in Central and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and Malta. These centres provide
authoritative advice and information on the academic recognition of diplomas and periods of study
undertaken abroad.
63 National Agency National Agencies are structures set up at national level for the coordinated management of the
implementation of the Lifelong Learning programme at Member State level. They play a key role in
the management of the decentralised parts of the programme, where they are responsible for the
evaluation, selection and management of projects.
64 Needs Analysis Ideally, this takes place at the planning stage, before starting a project (ex ante needs analysis). The
aim is to define the needs of a target group (future beneficiaries and users of the project results)
and to better orientate the projects activities, with the aim of effectively responding to these
needs. Needs analyses should be reviewed and updated during the course of the project, to ensure
the end results remain relevant to the intended users' needs
65 Network A formal or informal grouping of bodies active in a particular field, discipline or sector of lifelong
learning
66 Non-Governmental
Organisations (NGOs)
In its broadest sense, a non-governmental organization is one that is not directly part of the
structure of government. Many NGOs are also not-for-profit organisation. NGOs may be funded by
private donations, by international organisations, by government itself or by any combination of
these. Some NGOs remain strictly apolitical, while others exist solely in order to lobby government
in the interests of their own members.
67 Open and Distance
Learning
A type of education, typically college-level, where students work on their own at home or at the
office and communicate with the faculty and other students via e-mail, electronic for a,
videoconferencing, chat rooms, bulletin boards, instant messaging and other forms of computer-
based communication. Most distance learning programmes include a computer-based training
system and communications tools to produce a virtual classroom. Because the Internet and World
Wide Web are accessible from virtually all computer platforms, they serve as the foundation for
many distance learning systems.
68 'Open Educational
Resources (OER)
OER are digitized materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to
use and re-use for teaching, learning and research. OER include:
Learning Content: full courses content modules, learning objects, collections and journals.
Tools: software to support the development, use, re-use and delivery of learning content including
searching and organization of content, content and learning managements systems, content
development tools, and on-line learning communities.
Implementation resources: intellectual property licenses to promote open publishing of materials,
design principles of best practices, and localisation of content
69 Open Method of
Coordination (OMC)
The open method of coordination (OMC), created as part of employment policy and the
Luxembourg process, has been defined as an instrument of the Lisbon strategy (2000).
The OMC provides a new framework for cooperation between the Member States, whose national
policies can thus be directed towards certain common objectives. Under this intergovernmental
method, the Member States are evaluated by one another (peer pressure), with the Commission's
role being limited to surveillance. The European Parliament and the Court of Justice play virtually
no part in the OMC process.
The open method of coordination takes place in areas which fall within the competence of the
Member States, such as employment, social protection, social inclusion, education, youth and
training.
It is based principally on:
- jointly identifying and defining objectives to be achieved (adopted by the Council);

96
- jointly established measuring instruments (statistics, indicators, guidelines);
- benchmarking, i.e. comparison of the Member States' performance and exchange of best
practices (monitored by the Commission).
Depending on the areas concerned, the OMC involves so-called "soft law" measures which are
binding on the Member States in varying degrees but which never take the form of directives,
regulations or decisions. Thus, in the context of the Lisbon strategy, the OMC requires the Member
States to draw up national reform plans and to forward them to the Commission. However, youth
policy does not entail the setting of targets, and it is up to the Member States to decide on
objectives without the need for any European-level coordination of national action plans.
70 Partnership (bilateral
and multilateral)
A bilateral or multilateral agreement between a group of institutions or organisations in different
Member States to carry out European activities in lifelong learning.
71 Peer Learning Peer learning is a process of cooperation at European level whereby policy makers and
practitioners from one country learn, through direct contact and practical cooperation, from the
experiences of their counterparts elsewhere in Europe in implementing reforms in areas of shared
interest and concern.
Peer learning activities should take place at two broad levels: at a policy level, addressing the
critical factors for policy change; and at a more practical level, addressing the opportunities and
constraints for policy implementation.
Peer learning activities should strengthen mutual learning and deepen the exchange of good
practice between countries sharing similar concerns in order to develop a common understanding
of success factors for the improvement of policy-making and the implementation of reform.
Peer learning activities should also contribute to policy-making at European level through
enhanced, practical cooperation, and by encouraging policy makers in participating countries to
take full account of existing EU instruments in the development of national education and training
policies and systems.
72 People in the Labour
Market
Workers, graduates, employed and unemployed, self-employed i.e. people available for
employment
73 Placement Spending a period of time in an enterprise or organisation in another Member State, supported as
appropriate by preparatory or refresher courses in the host language or working language, with a
view to helping individuals to adapt to the requirements of the Community-wide labour market, to
acquiring a specific skill and to improving understanding of the economic and social culture of the
country concerned in the context of acquiring work experience.
74 Pre-Accession Strategy The pre-accession strategy offers a "structured dialogue" between the candidate countries and the
Union institutions throughout the accession process, providing all the parties with a framework
and the necessary instruments. It is laid down for each candidate country individually.
The pre-accession strategy conforms to the characteristics specified at the Luxembourg European
Council of December 1997, at which an enhanced strategy was launched for the ten Central and
Eastern European candidate countries. It was essentially based on:
- bilateral agreements;
- the accession partnerships and national programmes for adoption of the acquis;
- participation in Community programmes, agencies and committees.
In addition to these main instruments, the pre-accession strategy may include others for individual
candidates, depending on their particular circumstances.
75 Pre-School Organised educational activity undertaken before the start of obligatory primary schooling
76 Project A cooperation activity with a defined outcome developed jointly by a formal or informal grouping
of organisations or institutions
77 Project Coordinator The organisation or institution in charge of the implementation of the project by the multilateral
grouping.
78 Pupil A person enrolled in a learning capacity at a school.
79 Quality Assurance Ensuring high standards in the provision of education
80 School All types of institutions providing general (pre-school, primary or secondary), vocational and
technical education and, exceptionally, in the case of measures to promote language learning, non
school institutions providing apprenticeship training.

97
81 School Education With regard to the Lifelong Learning Programme the term "school education" refers to formal
education from pre-primary up to upper secondary level (ISCED levels 0 to 3).
82 Selection Criteria The selection criteria make it possible to assess the applicants financial and operational capacity
to carry out the work programme, and to make sure that the applicant has sufficient and stable
financial sources to continue the activities throughout the project and to ensure its co-financing.
Selection criteria are specified within each relevant Call for Proposals.
83 Small and Medium-
Sized Enterprises
At Community level, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are defined by a set of criteria
concerning the workforce, turnover and independence of the business. In terms of the workforce
alone, a micro-enterprise has fewer than 10 employees, a small enterprise fewer than 50 and a
medium-sized enterprise fewer than 250.
84 Social Dialogue Social dialogue is the term used to describe the consultation procedures involving the European
social partners: the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE), the
European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation (CEEP) and the European Trade Union
Confederation (ETUC). It encompasses discussions, joint action and sometimes negotiations
between the European social partners, and discussions between the social partners and the
institutions of the European Union.
85 Social Partners At national level, these are employers and workers organisations in conformity with national laws
and/or practices and, at Community level, they are employers and workers organisations taking
part in the social dialogue at Community level.
86 Special Education
Needs
An educational alternative that focuses on the teaching of students with academic, behavioural,
health or physical needs that cannot sufficiently be met using traditional educational techniques.
87 Student A person registered in a higher education institution, whatever their field of study, in order to
follow higher education studies leading to a recognised degree or other recognised tertiary level
qualification, up to and including the level of doctorate.
88 Study Visit A short-term visit, made to study a particular aspect of lifelong learning in another Member State.
89 Subsidiarity The subsidiarity principle is intended to ensure that decisions are taken as closely as possible to
the citizen and that constant checks are made to ascertain whether action at Community level is
justified in the light of the possibilities available at national, regional or local level. Specifically, it is
the principle whereby the Union does not take action (except in the areas which fall within its
exclusive competence) unless such action is more effective than action taken at national, regional
or local level. It is closely bound up with the principles of proportionality and necessity, which
require that any action by the Union should not go beyond what is necessary to achieve the
objectives of the Treaty.
90 Sustainability Sustainability is the capacity of the project to continue to exist and function beyond the end of the
contract. The project results are used and exploited continuously. Sustainability of results means
use and exploitation of results in the long term.
91 Teachers/Educational
Staff
Persons who, through their duties, are involved directly in the education process in the Member
States
92 Thematic Monitoring Thematic Monitoring is a qualitative process put in place to increase the impact of the LLP
programme. The main elements are:
Clustering of projects into thematic groups to gain overview on specific contents and outcomes
Facilitating exchange of experience between project actors with a view to improving quality and
impact at individual project level
Facilitating the networking of projects, practitioners and decision makers with a view inter alia to
the future orientation of political priority and strategy
93 Trainee A person undergoing vocational training, either within a training institution or training
organisation or at the workplace.
94 Trainers Persons who, through their duties, are involved directly in the vocational education and training
process in the Member States
95 Training needs This term is used to address the needs which a specific target group will have for
education/training and upgrading their qualifications. Mapping of training needs for a specific
target group will often be one of the steps in project planning and implementation.

98
96 Transfer of innovation This involves the adaptation of innovative project results, their transfer, piloting and integration
into public and/or private systems and practices at local, regional, sectoral, national and/or
Community level in response to the needs of new target groups and users. The process for
transferring innovative content ideally includes the identification and analysis of targeted user
requirements; selection and analysis of innovative content to meet these requirements; adaptation
to the culture, needs and requirements of potential new users (updating the product, translations
etc); transfer and piloting in new contexts (target groups, sectors, etc.); and integration (or
certification) in regional, national, European and/or sectoral systems and practices.
97 Transferability Transferability is the relative capacity of a project's results to be adapted and used in new contexts.
Factors supporting the transferability of project results include availability in several languages;
use of generic terminology; clear descriptions and indexing of content; good dissemination
activities; use of accepted 'industry' standards, benchmarks etc; modular formatting; free access
and so on.
98 Tutoring Any activity of guidance, counselling or supervision of a learner by an experienced and competent
professional. The tutor will support the learner during the learning process.
99 Unilateral Involving a single institution
100 Validation of
Competences
The process of assessing and recognising educational and training content, knowledge, skills and
competences acquired during a specific learning and/or training experience.
101 Valorisation 'Valorisation' is the French term for dissemination and exploitation of results.
102 Virtual Campuses Cooperation between higher education institutions in the field of e-learning, regarding: design of
joint curricula development by several universities, including agreements for the evaluation,
validation and recognition of acquired competences, subject to national procedures; largescale
experiments of virtual mobility in addition to physical mobility and development of innovative
dual mode curricula, based on both traditional and on-line learning methods. This broad definition
involves many issues from partnerships between traditional and/or distance universities and HEI
with a view to offering joint certifications (for undergraduate and/or postgraduate levels) and
cooperation with learning support services. This might also include collaborative activities in
strategic areas of education or research through cooperation involving researchers, academics,
students, management, administrative and technical personnel. 'Virtual campuses' should not be
confused with e-learning platforms.
103 Virtual Mobility A complement, or as a substitute to physical mobility (Erasmus or similar) in addition to a type of
independent mobility which builds on the specific potentials of on-line learning and network
communication. It may prepare and extend physical mobility, and/or offer new opportunities for
students/academic staff who are unwilling or unable totake advantage of physical mobility. It
involves the development of virtual mobility for academic staff. It means that full academic
recognition is given to the students for studies and courses based on agreements for the
evaluation, validation and recognition of acquired competences via virtual mobility. In this context,
cooperation agreements are key to ensuring sustainable mobility schemes.
104 Vocational Training Any activity of guidance, counselling or supervision of a learner by an experienced and competent
professional. The tutor will support the learner during the learning process.

99
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TNAM is a simple and ready to use method to
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relevance of existing solutions and projects with
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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission
cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein - Project code: 531221-LLP-1-2012-1-IT-KA4-KA4MP