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# SSB and DSB Noise Figure

## First look at the difference between SSB and DSB scenario

There are two assumptions made in calculating the SSB noise figure
Assumption 1 :- Image reject filter eliminates the image side band (i.e. the LSB shown in figure) but it
does not eliminate the noise level present on the image side.
When we calculate SNR for this assumption we get
S_out = S_desired*G_mixer
N_out = N_desired*G_mixer + N_image*G_mixer + N_mixer_desired*G_mixer +
N_mixer_image*G_mixer
Look carefully at the noise components
N_desired Noise level in the desired signal
N_image Noise level in the image signal
N_mixer_desired Noise generated by mixer in response to the desired signal
N_mixer_image Noise generated by mixer in response to the image signal
If we say that N_desired = N_image and N_mixer_desired = N_mixer_image then
SNR = S_out/N_out = S_desired/(2N_desired + 2N_mixer_desired) --------1
And SSB Noise figure is ratio of S_desired/N_desired to the equation above
And here you get NF_SSB1 = 2 + 2N_mixer_desired/N_desired
If I say that the mixer is ideal and it generates no noise on its own then it means N_mixer_desired = 0
or NF_SSB1 = 2 (or 3dB)
Assumption 2 :- If I assume that the image reject filter not only eliminates the image side band but
also eliminates the noise level in image side band then I can calculate the SNR as below
S_out = S_desired*G_mixer
N_out = N_desired*G_mixer + N_mixer_desired*G_mixer + N_mixer_image*G_mixer -------2
The noise level at image side band is gone (it is only an assumption and depends on the system
designer, which assumption he wants to make while calculating the SSB noise figure)
Use equation 2 to get the noise figure in this case and you will get
NF_SSB2 = 1 + 2N_mixer_desired/N_desired
In this case, if I have an ideal mixer (N_mixer_desired = 0) then the SSB noise figure will be
NF_SSB2 = 1 (0 dB)
In most cases the first assumption is used to calculate the SSB noise figure. The second SSB Noise
figure assumption is given by IEEE (I guess they just wanted to show that an ideal mixer has 0 dB
noise)

DSB Noise Figure
In this case the image side band and the noise level at image side band both are present.
S_out = S_desired*G_mixer + S_image*G_mixer
N_out = N_desired*G_mixer + N_image*G_mixer + N_mixer_desired*G_mixer +
N_mixer_image*G_mixer
Use the above equation to get noise figure and you will see
NF_DSB = 1 + N_mixer_desired/N_desired
Compare this with NF_SSB1 --------------the noise figures differ by 3 dB

So if you have heterodyne receiver, the image is eliminated by using image reject filter therefore use
either NF_SSB1 or NF_SSB2 depending on which assumption you want to make.
If you have direct conversion mixer then the desired and image frequency coincide therefore there is
no need to use image reject filter i.e. the image anyhow is present alongwith desired band and so
you use the DSB NF measurement.

SSB Noise Figure measurement Assumption 1

SSB Noise Figure measurement Assumption 2

LO
IF
Upper Sideband (USB)
Noise from image
the desired band
LO
IF
Upper Sideband (USB)
Noise
DSB Noise Figure measurement Assumption

LO
Upper Sideband (USB)
Lower Sideband (LSB)
Noise