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26 branches of botany

1. Morphology (Morphe=form, logos=science) : Under this branch we study the form and
structure of plants. That branch of morphology which is based upon the external form and
structure of plant is called External Morphology.
2. Anatomy : The study of internal structure of the plants with the help of section cutting, is
called Internal Morphology or Anatomy.
3. Histology : The study of cells and tissues with the help of microscope is called histology,
4. Cytology : Detailed study of the cells is called cytology. It includes structure, function of
different cell organelles, nucleus and cell inclusions. Different types of cell divisions are included
in this branch. The study of this branch has become possible only with the help of electron
5. Plant Physiology : This branch includes the study of various vital activities of the plant. All
chemical and physical changes taking place in the cell and any exchange of substances between
the cell and its environment are called vital activities of the cell, e.g., photosynthesis,
respiration etc.
6. Taxonomy : In this branch the plants are classified according to their characteristics and
interrelationship. With the help of plant taxonomy we are able to identify the plants and know
their characters.
7. Ecology (Oikos = house; logos = science) : This branch deals with the study of environment of
plants and their communities and vice-versa. Included in this branch are the studies of
adaptations of plants with reference to their environment. This branch also includes the studies
of soil erosion, soil conservation and pollution.
8. Plant geography : This branch deals with the distribution of plants on the earth and reasons
9. Genetics : Is the study of heredity and variations. What are the Laws of inheritance and why
the offspring resembles or differs from the parent are studied under this branch.
10. Plant breeding : Branch of botany dealing with the development of improved varieties of
11. Embryology : The male and female gametes of a plant fuse to form the zygote. Zygote
develops into an embryo (in embryophyta) with plumule, cotyledons and radicle. When
germination of seed takes place, the entire plant develops from these organs. We study all
these developments in embryology.
12. Paleobotany : Paleobotany is the study of fossil plants. Plants which flourished and lived on
the surface of globe several million year ago but are not living now and are found as rocks. In
which rocks and parts of the world they are found, what is their structure and how they are
interrelated to the plants of the present day.
13. Economic Botany : In this branch of Botany we study the plants with reference to their
products. Which plants produce medicines, gums, oils, fibers, fuel, wood etc., are studied under
this branch.
14. Plant Pathology : This branch includes different types of disease of plants, their symptoms,
causal agent and methods of control.
15. Organic evolution : This is the branch of Botany in which we study the evolution of complex
organisms from simple ones and the principles involved in it. Some new aspects of Botany
based on modern technology are as follows.
16. Biochemistry (Phytochemistry) : Study of chemistry of plants.
17. Biophysics : Study of plant activities on the basis of principles of physics.
18. Microbiology : Study of microorganisms. It includes the study of viruses, bacteria,
microfungi, microalgae and protozoa in relation to plants.
19. Molecular biology : Study of biochemistry at molecular level.
20. Palynology : Study of pollen grains in relation to taxonomy and evolution etc.
21. Biometrics : Statistical analysis of different results of biological experiments.
22. Genetic Engineering : Adding, removing or repairing part of genetic material, thereby
changing the phenotype of organism as desired.
Branches allied to Botany :
23. Agronomy : Is the science which deals with the crop plants.
24. Horticulture : Is the science which deals with the study of flowering and fruiting plants.
25. Pharmacognosy : Is the branch of science dealing with the medicinal plants.
26. Pedology : Is the science dealing with the study of soils.

Ella Gonzales

What is religion?
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate
humanity to an order of existence. It is also the practice of religious beliefs; ritual observance of
faith. The origin of the word religion lies in the Latin word ligare, to bind.

Classifications of religion
There are more than four thousand religions in this world, however, most of them are not
commonly known to world. Famous religions have been divided into three types:

1. Abrahamic Religions
2. Indian Religions
3. Iranian Religions

What is Abrahamic Religion?
It refers to three sister monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) that claim
theprophet Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham ; Arabic: Ibrahim ) as their common
forefather.These are monotheism religions i.e. belief in the existence of one and only one GOD.
The main three Abrahamic religions are:

* Judaism
* Christianity
* Islam

Judaism is among the world's oldest monotheistic religions and the first of the three Abraham
religions. Around 12 million people in the world believe in Judaism. They are mostly in the
United States and Israel. The Torah, or Hebrew Bible, is the most important holy book of
Judaism. The primary custom of Judaism is practicing prayer, preferably communal prayer. Jews
attend synagogues for praying and religious events. Jews also follow Dietary Laws which require
believers to avoid certain foods. Belief of Judaism is belief in one GOD and must obey the Laws
of GOD. The Torah and the Oral Laws are important aspects of Judaism that must be studied.
Jews believe in Halakha, which is the Jewish way of life.

Christianity is founded on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth (1st century) as offered in
the New Testament. The Christian belief is vitally belief in Jesus as the Christ, the Son of GOD,
and as Savior and Lord.

Islam is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by
its adherents to be the verbatim word of God
and by the teachings and normative example
(called the Sunnah and composed of hadith) of Muhammad c. 570CE c. 8 June 632 CE,
considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of existence is to worship

Countries that are practicing abrahamic religions
Christianity is a widespread minority religion in Asia with more than 260 million
adherents constituting around 6.5% of the total population of Asia. Only five countries are
predominantly Christian, Cyprus which is predominantly Greek Orthodox, the Philippines, which
is the 3rd largest Roman Catholic nation in the world, East Timor, Armenia,
and Georgia. Christianity also accounts for 29.2% of South Korea's population (54.5% of its
religious population) and is now the predominant religion in South Korea, Christianity is also a
large minority religion in Lebanon accounting for 40% of its population.
Asian countries with large Christian populations are Philippines (84 million), China (40
million),India (24 million, concentrated especially in the North-Eastern and Southern parts of
the country), Indonesia (23 million), South Korea (15 million), Vietnam (7 million), Japan (2.5
million) and Malaysia (2.5 million).
There are still large ancient communities of Arab Christians in Lebanon, Iraq, Syris,
Jordan, Israel and Palestine numbering more than 3 million in West Asia.

Monotheistic religion - Belief in the existence of one god.

What is Theology?
Theology is the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious
truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious
studies, usually at a university, seminary or school of divinity.

Theology translates into English from the Greek theologia which derived from meaning "God,"
and -logia meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" (a word related to logos meaning
"word, discourse, account, or reasoning") which had passed into Latin as theologia and into
French as thologie.

Classifications of Theology
Systematic theology is an attempt to create a rational and orderly account of religion.
Systematic theology takes into account ancient texts which each religion may be based on but
also takes into account how a religion has grown over time and how it is has adapted to
contemporary times. This includes Calvinism and Arminianism, both of which attempt to order
the various faiths and beliefs of their religion to identify the source and power of their own
Liberal theology seeks to adapt religious ideas to modern society in such a way that it is not met
with disdain. Liberal theologists do not believe that God has shown himself to humans, even
through scripture. Therefore, liberal theology reinforces the elements of religion which they
consider to be universal and important, such as the moral code which religion provides and the
social context religion can place you in.
Feminist Theology reconsiders the scriptures and practices of many religions from a feminist
perspective. Feminist theology movements have arisen in many popular religions, including
Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam. Feminist theology is more active than most other
classifications of theology because it commits to action which it believes will result in better
treatment of women in any given religious community. They see God's laws as equally inclusive
of both men and women and do not tolerate inequality.
Dogmatic theology refers to the rules and practices of a religion that is recognized by a central
body. Examples of dogmatic theology can especially be seen in the Roman Catholic Church, in
which the Vatican determines the dogmatic law of Catholics around the world. Dogmatic
theologians will follow the word of this central body, as well as ancient texts, very carefully and
take this to be the truth.

Ella Gonzales