Q 1: Explain the concept and use of North Truss.

Ans 1:
A standard W truss or similar but with a small extension to one top chord to provide for a window.

One of the oldest and economical of method of covering large areas is the North light and lattice girder (or saw tooth roof) system. This is sometimes objected to because the lighting is directed from one side only and so there is a tendency for shadows to be created at the working plane. This roof consists of a series of trusses fixed to girders. The short vertical (or near vertical) side of trusses is glazed so that when the roof is used in the northern hemisphere the glazed portion faces north for the light; when used in the southern hemisphere the glazing would face south for the same reason. The arrangement is shown at D, where the lattice girders span 30 m ; at right angles to them and connected to each vertical of the girder, a North light truss of 11m span is fixed. A diagram of the girder, showing the centre lines of the members is drawn at A, it is divided into 3.75 m intervals and the trusses are connected to it at these centres. A pair of the trusses is shown in diagram form at B, And a table is given to show the sizes of all the members. Detail G at D is shown at C and illustrates the construction at the lower portion of the glazing and the connection of the truss to the bottom of the girder. The fibre- cement or steel gutter is slung from the angle rail and purlin and lead flashings seal the joints between the glazing and the gutter and between the roof and the gutter. Detail J at the apex of the north light truss is drawn at E and shows the top connection of the two main components. The patent glazing is attached to a 75 mm by 50 mm by 8 mm angle which is welded to a larger angle round which the flashing is dressed and to which the wing of one of the ridge cappings is attached. The glazing bars should be fixed through slotted holes in the angle ( to permit movement) so that when the girders deflects, damage to the glass is avoided. The glazing bars are in two lengths, being attached midway to another angle rail. The roof covering is of fibre-cement sheeting which could be insulated with fibre- spray on the underside.

Q2. Explain the structural concept of The Bird’s Nest, Beijing.

Ans 2:
Located at the southern part of the Olympic Green in Beijing, the National Stadium was the main stadium of the 29th Olympiad in 2008. Occupying an area of 21 hectares, it has a floor space of 258,000 square meters. Its seating capacity amounts to 91,000, including 11,000 temporary seats. The venue hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympics Games, the track and field competitions, and the football finals. After the Olympics, the stadium became a large-scale sports and entertainment facility for the residents of Beijing -- an architectural landmark and Olympic legacy.

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The main body of the National Stadium has a design life of 100 years. Its fire resistance capability is first-rate, and it can withstand an eight-magnitude earthquake. The water-resistance capability of its underground project is also first-rate. The main body of the National Stadium is a colossal saddle-shaped elliptic steel structure weighing 42,000 tons. It is 333 meters long from north to south, 294 meters wide from east to west, and 69 meters tall. The main body's elements support each other and converge into a grid formation With a total length of 600 linear meters, the whole structure had four welding seams and 128 joints. Being a seven-story shear wall system, the stadium's stand has a concrete framework. The upper part of the stand and the stadium's steel structure are separated from each other, but both are based on a joint footing.

The roof of the National Stadium is covered by a double-layer membrane structure, with a transparent ETFE membrane fixed on the upper part of the roofing structure and a translucent PTFE membrane fixed on its lower part. A PTFE acoustic ceiling is attached to the side walls of the inner ring.

The fracture surface of the largest truss column -- the major load-bearing component of the roof structure -- measures 25m x 20m, with a height of 67m.

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The maximum weight of a single column is 500 tons. The main truss is 12m tall. The maximum span between and through the two columns amounts to 145.577+112.788m, and the maximum span between the two trusses stands at 102.39m.

Because the structural elements in the project are box-typed, many elements intersect spatially among the steel parts. Besides, the complex nature of secondary structures has resulted in the diversity of nodal joints of the main structures, requiring accurate and sophisticated manufacturing and installation.

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A red concrete seating bowl and the outer steel frame around it, standing 50 feet apart. Twenty-four trussed columns encase the inner bowl, each one weighing 1,000 tons. It consumed a total of 2,000kg of welding rods.

Q3. Discuss the application of geodesic dome. Ans 3:
A geodesic dome is a spherical or partial-spherical shell structure or lattice shell based on a network of great circles (geodesics) lying on the surface of a sphere. The geodesics intersect to form triangular elements that have local triangular rigidity and also distribute the stress across the entire structure. When completed to form a complete sphere, it is known as a geodesic sphere.

Typically the design of a geodesic dome begins with an icosahedron inscribed in a sphere, tiling each triangular face with smaller triangles, then projecting the vertices of each tile to the sphere. The endpoints of the links of the completed sphere would then be the projected endpoints on the sphere's surface. If this is done exactly, each of the edges of the sub-triangles is slightly different lengths, so it would require a very large number of links of different sizes. To minimize the number of different sizes of links, various simplifications are made. The result is a compromise consisting of a pattern of triangles with their vertices lying approximately on the surface of the sphere. The edges of the triangles form approximate geodesic paths over the surface of the dome that distribute its weight. Geodesic designs can be used to form any curved, enclosed space. Oddly-shaped designs would require calculating for and custom building of each individual strut, vertex or panel—resulting in potentially expensive construction. Because of the expense and complexity of design and fabrication of any geodesic dome, builders have tended to standardize using a few basic designs. Geodesic domes provide an enclosed space free of structural supports. The basic structure can be erected quickly from lightweight pieces by a small crew. Domes as large as 50 meters have been constructed in the wilderness from rough materials without a crane. The dome is also aerodynamic, so it withstands considerable wind loads, such as those created by hurricanes. Solar heating is possible by placing an arc of windows across the dome: the more heating needed, the wider the arc should be, to encompass more of the year.

Q4. State the various types and the application of Pneumatic Structures. Ans 4 :
The principle of pneumatic structures lies in the relatively thin membrane supported by a pressure difference.In other words,the pressure of the enclosed space is higher than the atmospheric pressure.This pressure difference generates tension in the membrane.The membrane can be stable only under tension.Any compression induced by external forces must be overcome by an increase in internal pressure or by the membrane adjusting its shape,if it is sufficiently flexible. Any stresses generated in the membrane must be below the allowable limit for that particular membrane There are two types of pneumatic structures: 1. 2. Air supported Air inflated The Air supported structure uses a low positive pressure to support a membrane over a given area.Air must be supplied constantly because of the continuous leakage, primarily through

the building entries. Air-supported dome used as a sports and recreation venue The Air inflated structure forms conventional structural elements( walls, beams, columns, arches). Rigidity of the members is generated through high air pressure contained in the membrane form. Two types of air-inflated structures presently exist: the dual wall and the inflated rib system. To date , the air supported structures have been used most often because of their relatively low cost, their simplicity of design and fabrication , and the availibilty of a suitable membrane. These structures have the greatest potential for high rise building application, however, because they have not only the ability for self support but the potential to support an attached structure. Membrane structure that is stabilized by the pressure of compressed air. Air-supported structures are supported by internal air pressure. A network of cables stiffens the fabric, and the assembly is supported by a rigid ring at the edge. The air pressure within this bubble is increased slightly above normal atmospheric pressure and maintained by compressors or fans. Air locks are required at entrances to prevent loss of internal air pressure. Air-supported membranes were first devised by Walter Bird in the late 1940s and were soon put to use as covers for swimming pools, temporary warehouses, and exhibition buildings. Air-inflated structures are supported by pressurized air within inflated building elements that are shaped to carry loads in a traditional manner. Pneumatic structures are perhaps the most cost-effective type of building for very long spans.

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