UNIT # 1
It is complex of continuous co-ordinate activity which, any undertaking is conducted. These activities relate to the optimum use of human effort and material for the benefit of men and with the satisfaction to the participants. Management is important because every human organization requires effective management to be successful educational, institutions, Hospital, Industrial organization, religious organizations, armies and even families are required good management. The fabric of our life is held together by organization our society of organization. We are surrounded by them and dependent upon them. Managers and organization go together hand in hand. The need of manager arises as the organization exists. The skills which managers do their jobs affect the quality of our organization experiences. Thus the effectiveness of our organization should also lead to the consult for the effective management. Managers can be thought of crucial resource of organization. The success of organization lies in the decision made by a manager. The wise decision well in time decision taken by a manager is key to success for organization.
Industrial Management :
It is the effective and efficient utilization of human labor, money, machinery and raw materials in the industrial to achieve maximum production (out put).
Industrial engineering is a concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated (industrial) system of man, material, and equipment drawing upon speculated knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical and social sciences both with the principle co-ordinate methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the result to be obtained from such system. (Industrial engineering and management sciences by S.C Sharma pp1)
Functions of Management:
The organization whatever may be its size or nature whether it is commercial, industrial, educational, charitable_______, governmental or any other comes into existence when a group of person joint together for the attainment of some object. Manager activity consist of five elements or function. Planning Organizing Commanding Coordinating Controlling The function of management can also be divided into categories. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) For sighting Planning Organizing Commanding Coordinating Controlling An other people recognize investigation________ and communication as the important function of management. M.R R.C Davis recognized only three function of management 1) 2) 3) Planning Organizing Controlling
However planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling are most known function of management.
What is planning?
Planning is the mental process requires the use of intellectual function, imaginations, for-sight and sound judgment etc. It means deciding and advances what is to be done how and where it is to be done, who will do it and how results are to be evaluated. In other words planning is the determination of a force of action to achieve the desire result. It is the process of thinking before doing. Planning is the basic function of management. Proper planning is a must in a any business activity. The affair of any organizations are most lightly to be effected with out a well thought plan.
Who is Manager:A manager is a human being who utilizes the force in other human beings working under him for their benefit and for the benefit of the organization by fore-sighting planning, organizing, directing, controlling people and other resources. The manager decides what is to be done and then motivate people to do it. Therefore manager requires information and data to decisions but quiet often, he will have to take decisions on incomplete data thereby take risks. The various kinds of people in this world can be grouped as people who make things happen, and those who don’t know what is happening. Manager should be the first kind. Manager should not sit and wait for the environmental conditions to be favorable. He should not wait for the future rather he would make the future. Manager should not adjust to obstacles______ rather he should over come them. He should take creative action. Thus becomes a creator and not the creature of the economy. The job of manager is to create and environment conducive to the performance of people working under him to achieve the collective goal and goals of individual participating in the organization. Thus job of management involves taking communicating, coordinating, managing, organizing, motivating, and leading others. A good manager should know what he wants out of his sub-ordinate and when he wants them to do it. Manager should also delight responsibility to his subordinates with necessary authority to do their job. Manager must create a climate which brings in satisfaction and discipline among the people. Manager job is like design it consist of creative phase and communication phase.
Qualities of Good Manager
1. He must possess the ability of fore-casting, planning, organizing, directing, and controlling people. 2. A good manager should must decide what is to be done and motivate the people to do it. 3. The manager should be individual who make thing. 4. Manager should not sit in his room and write for the favorable situation. 5. He should be a person to make to future of organization. 6. He should not adjust to obstacles ________. 7. A good manager should know what he wants out of his subordinates and when he wants them to do it. 8. Good manager should delight responsibility to his subordinates with necessary authority to do their job.
9. A good Manager should create a climate which brings in satisfaction and discipline among the people. 10. The manager should be pragmatic. 11. He should be risks taker. 12. He should be the bureaucratic.
13. Techno crate: The manager should have studied management theory to solve the daily problems. 14. Expert and Specialist: The manger should be expert of his work for him and department. 15. Professional: The Management should be professional one in order to play a dynamic wealth creating and leadership to organization & employs.
Managerial Skills 1. Management:
Management is the process of utilizing material and human resources to achieve the some predetermined objective. Management is also taken as the agency to transform various inputs into desired outputs. The important function with which the management is concerned, involve, planning, organizing, controlling and coordinating. The management is the body of individual entrusted with the performing of their function to a accomplish there goals. The person comprising of management may be individual called as manager. In other words a manager is a person how performs the managerial function of the organization. He decides and identifies the goal of the organization and then put them into organization. The word manager is used in a variety of ways by different people to some the manager mean top executive of an organization. To others a manager is any person how supervises other employs. In this sense a person supervising the manager will also be called as a manager and he make even report to a manager. In industries , organizational structure contain a number of levels and each level may possess the designation of manager that is means there may be top management, middle management and lower management. A person occupies different position and different levels of management will be called as manager. A manager performs the management function of planning, organizing, controlling, motivating etc. towards the achievement of organizational goal. Any person how perform their functions can be taken to be the member of management.
Manager can also act as the controller because he always guides the activities of his subordinate and keep them under to his control.
Planning involves looking ahead to future setting goals objectives and formulation of policies, procedures and methods for accomplishing these goals.
Organizing consist of the breaking down of the total work to be done into small part and dividing them among different people.
By motivation, we stimulate the people to do work for the achievement of goals for this purpose. A manager has to direct and lead to his subordinate. The manager job is very complex. It requires some qualities of head and heart and can be performed by every body. Any person, who is to be given a manager job, must have the capacities to meet the challenges of a manager job. It should be noted that a foreman is a manager like a top executive in the organization but contents of work and skills he possess or different from those of a top executive.
The little manager is not like middle awarded in the recognition of past services. The job of manager demands continually increasingly skills, whether, it be management of a business, an educational institution, a hospital or club. A manager said to be successful when he is able to make a smooth functioning steam of people with different skills required for the running of the organization. Manager’s most important function is to reconcile, to coordinate, to compromise and to appraise the various viewpoints and talents of the people working under him towards the organizational goals. A manager can perform his functions well if he has got the required skills.
What is skill?
Skill may be defined as the ability to transform experience and knowledge into action. It can also apply to mental activity used in directing the people at work. From the above discussion, we are in a position that skills needed by a manager are of the three types. 1. Technical skills 2. Human skills 3. Conceptual skills
1. Technical skills
Technical skill refers to an understand of and proficiency in handling methods, processes of a particular kind of activity. Of these three skills, technical skill is perhaps most popular because it has the most concrete and in the modern era______ of specialization, it is the skill required of the greatest number of people. Most of the vocational and on the job training programs are largely concerned with developed the specialized technical skill. Technical skill is responsible for the great advance of modern industry. It is indispensable _________ to efficient performance of technical jobs. Every manager should have some technical skill. The need for technical skill is more for the managers or executives at the lower or lower-middle level. As a manager moves up in the organization, the need for the technical skill becomes less important provided he has skilled subordinates and can help them to solve their problems.
2. Human Skill
Human skill means a manager’s ability to work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort within the team he leads. Human skill is primarily________ concerned with working with people. This skill is demonstrated________ in the way the individual perceives _________ his superiors, equals and subordinates, and in the way he behaves subsequently______.
3. Conceptual Skills:
It involves the ability to see the organization as a whole. It includes recognizing how the various functions of the organization depend on one another and how changes in any one part affect all the others, and it extends_____ to visualizing________ the relationship of the individual business to the industry, and the political, social and economic forces of the nation as a whole. The success of any decision depends upon the conceptual, skill of the people who
make the decision and those who put it into action. For example, changes in the marketing policy will have effect upon production personnel and finance functions. The people involved will also be affected. The attitudes of the top executives color the whole character of the organization’s response the determine its personality which distinguishes________ it from other. Conceptual skill is also referred to as creative ability. The essential aspect______ of the managerial process is the sensing of the organization as a whole and the total environments relevant to it. Company’s overall success is dependent upon its manager’s conceptual skill in taking and carrying out policy decisions. This skill is the unifying and coordinating ingredient _______ of the administrative process. The conceptual skill embodies _______ both the technical and human aspects of the organization.
The above diagram shows that the importance of technical skill is more at the lower of management, whereas at the top level the requirement of technical skill is less, but the requirement of conceptual skill is greatest. The human skill is required at every level more or less in equal degrees.
Modern Management System:
Modern management regards systems as powerful management tools. The system approach is found to be more effective achieving organizational goals than piecemeal l______ decision-marking. The system approach, therefore, finds favor with management in almost all
areas of activities of the organization. There seems______ to be, however, hardly any application of the systems approach to the needs of the human and social sector of organization. Manpower planning, recruitment________, training induction_______, wages___, promotion policies industrial relations and grievance_______ procedure, retirement plans an so on, should be taken as in the total systems approach with a view to optimize_______ the satisfaction of the physical social and psychological needs the people along with technical, commercial and administrative goals of the organization. The responsibility of bringing about such a change in the social climate in organizations rest on the top management as the culture of the organize action is highly initiative_______ to top. The adoption of an open, out going style by the senior executive in their interaction at all levels hierarchy____________ both in their formal and informal relation, showing equal regard and concern for the dignity________ and self respect of all persons regardless of their rank, can lead to a more open and free climate of human relations to promote the happiness of its people. Some disparities_______ in authority and rewards are perhaps unavoidable in any organization, even if it is anticipatively ___________ managed once.