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Project report on

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree o f
Submitted By
2!"#$AY %&&P'&A()B*+
.nder t/e Guid0nce o1
%A11i2i0ted to $030/0r202 Ne/ru Tec/no2o4ic02 .ni5er6ity Hyder0b0d+
Aushapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), R.R.Dist-501301
Depa!"e#! $% E&e'!$#(') & C$""*#('a!($# E#+(#ee(#+
T/i6 i6 to certi1y t/0t t/e project report entit2ed ,HEALTH MONITORING OF
A MISSILE- bein4 6ubmitted by b6unny pr05een %Ro22 No&&P'&A()A,+ in p0rti02
1u21i22ment o1 t/e re7uirement6 1or t/e 030rd o1 t/e B0c/e2or 8e4ree in E2ectronic6 0nd
Communic0tion En4ineerin4 to t/e $NT. Co22e4e o1 En4ineerin49 Hyder0b0d i6 0
bon01ide 3or: c0rried out by /im under my 4uid0nce 0nd 6uper5i6ion
T/e re6u2t embodied in t/i6 report /06 not been 6ubmitted to 0ny ot/er .ni5er6ity
or #n6titution 1or t/e 030rd o1 0ny de4ree or dip2om0
He0d o1 t/e 8ep0rtment; Project Guide;
Pro1 BBr0/m0 Reddy N0me o1 t/e Guide
8ep0rtment o1 ECE 8e6i4n0tion O1 Guide

-e9 Na"e $% !/e )!*0e#!) 6tudent6 o1 "i4n0n0 B/0r0t/i #n6titute o1 Tec/no2o4y9
G/0t:e60r in 1a'/e&$ $% Te'/#$&$+23 3it/ 6peci02i<0tion in E&e'!$#(') &
C$""*#('a!($# E#+(#ee(#+3 0n ori4in02 3or: c0rried out by u69 050i2in4 t/e 4uid0nce
o1 t/e project 4uide G*(0e Na"e3 8e6i4n0tion9 dep0rtment o1 ECE9 "B#T9 G/0t:e60r To
t/e be6t o1 our :no32ed4e 0nd be2ie19 t/i6 project be0r6 no re6emb20nce 3it/ 0ny report
6ubmitted to $NT.H or 0ny ot/er .ni5er6ity 1or t/e 030rd o1 0ny de4ree or dip2om0
Na"e $% !/e S!*0e#!)(R$&&. N$.)

Te0m 6pirit 0nd comr0de6/ip 0re t/e b06ic in4redient6 1or t/e 6ucce66 o1 0ny t06:
Be it in educ0tion9 6port6 0ren09 b0tt2e1ie2d or e5en in our 2i5e69 6imi20r2y t/i6 project i6
t/e re6u2t o1 contribution 1rom t/e 6tudent6 0nd 6t011 -/i2e doin4 t/i6 project m0ny
di11icu2tie6 c0me in bet3een but 1in022y comp2eted it 3it/ t/e 4uid0nce 0nd 6u44e6tion6
1rom t/e 1o22o3in4 inte22i4ent6i0 3/o 405e t/eir time 0nd e=perti6e 4enerou62y
-e 3i6/ to e=pre66 our deep 6en6e o1 4r0titude to my 4uide G*(0e Na"e3
De)(+#a!($#3 ECE Depa!"e#!9 1or /er in502u0b2e 4uid0nce 0nd per6pic0ciou6
0n02ytic02 6u44e6tion6 t/rou4/out t/i6 project
-e 0re 4r0te1u2 to P$%. 1. 1a/"a Re0023 Hea0 $% !/e Depa!"e#! $%
E&e'!$#(') a#0 C$""*#('a!($# E#+(#ee(#+9 1or /i6 t/ou4/t pro5o:in4 6u44e6tion6
0nd con6t0nt encour04ement t/0t 2ed u6 to 0 ro0rin4 6ucce66
-e 0re /i4/2y indebted to our P(#'(pa& D. J.S.N.M*!/29 3/o i6 inde10ti40b2e9
m04n0nimou69 3/o con6t0nt2y encour04ed 0nd nurtured me
-e 0re etern022y 4r0te1u2 to my Pae#!) 1or t/eir 011ection0te cooper0tion 0nd
b2e66in46 1or t/i6 4re0t 0c/ie5ement
Fin022y9 3e pr0y t/e A&"(+/!23 1or our co22e4e to 4ro3 1rom 6tren4t/ to 6tren4t/
0nd 2et t/e 6tudent69 6t011 0nd 3/oe5er /e2ped u6 be e=emp20ry 3it/ m04ni1icent /e02t/9
/0ppine66 0nd 2on4 2i1e

Na"e O% T/e S!*0e#!)

Li6t o1 Fi4ure6 i
Li6t o1 T0b2e6 ii
C/0pter; & #ntroduction (&
&&+ Brie1 #ntroduction 0bout t/e project (&
&2+ B0c: Ground (&
&,+ !oti50tion (,
&)+ Objecti5e o1 t/e project ()
&>+ Or40ni<0tion o1 T/e6i6 (>

C/0pter; 2 "i6u02 Crypto4r0p/y ('
2&+ #ntroduction to Crypto4r0p/y ('
22+ Encryption 0nd 8ecryption (*
2,+ Ho3 doe6 crypto4r0p/y 3or:? (@
2)+ Type6 o1 crypto4r0p/y 024orit/m6 (@
2>+ -/y t/ree Encryption Tec/ni7ue6 &*
2'+ #ntroduction to "i6u02 crypto4r0p/y &A
2*+ Ho3 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 3or:6 22
2@+ T/e B06ic mode2 2)
2A+ B06ic 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 6c/eme6 2A

C/0pter; , #mpro5ed "i6u02 Crypto4r0p/y Sc/eme6 ,'
,&+ C/0n49 T S0i 0nd C/enB6 Sc/eme ,'
,2+ Hidin4 A24orit/m ,'
,,+ Reco5erin4 A24orit/m ,A
,)+ C/0n4 et 02 024orit/m )2
,>+ A uni1orm 2 out o1 2 con6truction ),
,'+ Hidin4 A24orit/m ))
,*+ Reco5erin4 A24orit/m )'
,@+ A uni1orm n out o1 n con6truction )@
,A+ Security 0n02y6i6 o1 t/e uni1orm con6truction >&
,&(+ Ad50nt04e6 >&
,&&+ App2ic0tion6 o1 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y >2

C/0pter; ) Re6u2t6 >>
)&+ #ntroduction >>
)2+ C/0n49 T S0i C C/enB6 024orit/m re6u2t6 >'
),+ C/0n4 et 02 024orit/m re6u2t6 >*
))+ Comp0ri6on6 >A

C/0pter; > Conc2u6ion6 0nd Future 3or: '(
>&+ Conc2u6ion6 '(
>2+ Future 3or:
C/0pter; ' Re1erence6 '&
Figure1: Block Diagram 05
Figure 2; (a) 10-!ar" #o$ri"r !"c%r$m 0&
Figure 2; (') %im" (omai) ig)al o* l")g%+ 300 ,i%+ 30 am!l" 0&
Figure 2; (c) r"co)%r$c%io) -ia ./-mi)imi0a%io) 0&
Figure 2; () "1ac% r"co)%r$c%io) -ia .1-mi)imi0a%io) 0&
Figure 32 (a) Sam!li)g (a%a o* %+" N3R imag" i) %+" #o$ri"r (omai) ,+ic+
corr"!o)( %o o)l4 0.115 o* all am!l" 06
Figure 32 (') R"co)%r$c%io) '4 'ack !ro7"c%io) 06
Figure 32 (c) 8)%"rm"(ia%" i%"ra%io) o* a) "ffici")% algori%+m *or larg"
cal" %o%al -aria%io)mi)imi0a%io) 06
Figure 32 (() 9+" *i)al r"co)%r$c%io) i "1ac% 06
Figure42 :ra!+ical r"!r"")%a%io) o* com!r"i)g a +ig+-(im")io)al
-"c%orx %o a lo, (im")io)al -"c%or v /6
Figure 52Pro'a'ili%4 (i%ri'$%io) /&
Figure 6: #i)(i)g %+" $m o* %+" r"c%a)gl" ar"a 30
Figure 7: %"1%$r" "1am!l" /6
Figure : i)%"gral imag" 30
Figure !2(a) 8)%"gral imag" 30
Figure !2 (')8mag" 30
Figure 1"2 A) "1am!l" 31
Figure 112 a;';c;( !oi)% 31
Figure 122 Val$" o* ( 3/
Figure13 2a<' 3/
Figure 15: (-('<c) 33
Figure 16: Val$" o* a 33
Figure 17: 8)%"gral %a'l" 33
Figure 1: 8ll$%ra%io) o* ro'$%)" o* o$r algori%+m %o am'ig$i%4 i) ("%"c%io) 45
Figure1!; Scr"")+o% o* om" am!l"( %racki)g r"$l% 54
#a$le 1:S$cc" Ra%" 4&
#a$le2; =")%"r >oca%io) Error 50
1.1 I#!$0*'!($#6
#n t/i6 project 3e di6cu66ed t3o 6ecret 6/0rin4 6c/eme6 b06ed on crypto4r0p/y T/o6e 0re
C/0n49 T 60i 0nd C/enB6 024orit/m 0nd C/0n4B6 et 02 024orit/m
"i6u02 crypto4r0p/y DN0orA>E i6 0 :ind o1 crypto4r0p/y t/0t c0n be decoded
direct2y by t/e /um0n 5i6u02 6y6tem 3it/out 0ny 6peci02 c02cu20tion6 1or decryption
T/e 1ormer 6c/eme C/0n49 T60i 0nd C/enB6 6c/eme D,E i6 0 co2ored 6ecret 6/0rin4 0nd
/idin4 6c/eme b06ed on "i6u02 Crypto4r0p/y 6c/eme6 %"CS+ 3/ere t/e tr0dition02
6t0c:in4 oper0tion o1 6ubpi=e26 0nd ro36 interre20tion6 i6 modi1ied D>E T/i6 tec/ni7ue
doe6 not re7uire tr0n6p0rencie6 6t0c:in4 0nd /ence9 it i6 more con5enient to u6e in re02
0pp2ic0tion6 To /ide 0 6ecret co2or im04e9 0 de02er c/oo6e6 0rbitr0ri2y t3o 6i4ni1ic0nt
co2or im04e6 06 co5er im04e6 0t 1ir6t9 3/ic/ 6/0re t/e 60me 6i<e 06 t/e 6ecret co2or im04e
T/en 0ccordin4 to t/e6e co5er im04e6 0nd 0 prede1ined Co2or #nde= T0b2e %C#T+9 t/e
6ecret co2or im04e 3i22 be /idden into t3o 6/0re6 c022ed c0mou1204e im04e6 A6 1or
reco5erin49 6t0c: t/e t3o c0mou1204e im04e69 0nd t/rou4/ in5erted 2oo:Fup o1 C#T9 t/e
6ecret im04e 3i22 return e06e
T/e ne=t 6c/eme C/0n4 et 02 024orit/m i6 0 ne3 6ecret co2or im04e 6/0rin4
6c/eme D&E b06ed on modi1ied 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y T/e propo6ed 0ppro0c/ u6e6
me0nin41u2 6/0re6 %co5er im04e6+ to /ide t/e co2ored 6ecret im04e 0nd t/e reco5ery
proce66 i6 2o662e66 T/e 6c/eme de1ine6 0 ne3 6t0c:in4 oper0tion %GOR+ 0nd re7uire6 0
6e7uence o1 r0ndom bit6 to be 4ener0ted 1or e0c/ pi=e2 C/0n4B6 6c/eme c0n be
4ener02i<ed to 0n ) out o1 ) 0ppro0c/ 06 oppo6ed to C/0n4 T60iB6 6c/eme
1.2 1a'7 G$*#06
"i6u02 crypto4r0p/y9 introduced by N0or 0nd S/0mir in &AA> D2E9 i6 0 ne3
crypto4r0p/ic 6c/eme 3/ere t/e cip/erte=t i6 decoded by t/e /um0n 5i6u02 6y6tem
Hence9 t/ere i6 no need to 0ny comp2e= crypto4r0p/ic comput0tion 1or decryption T/e
ide0 i6 to /ide 0 6ecret me6604e %te=t9 /0nd3ritin49 picture9 etcH+ in di11erent im04e6
c022ed 6/0re6 or co5er im04e6 -/en t/e 6/0re6 %tr0n6p0rencie6+ 0re 6t0c:ed to4et/er in
order to 02i4n t/e 6ubpi=e269 t/e 6ecret me6604e c0n be reco5ered T/e 6imp2e6t c06e i6 t/e
2 out o1 2 6c/eme 3/ere t/e 6ecret me6604e i6 /idden in 2 6/0re69 bot/ needed 1or 0
6ucce661u2 decryption D2E T/i6 c0n be 1urt/er e=tended to t/e : out o1 n 6c/eme 3/ere 0
6ecret me6604e i6 encrypted into n 6/0re6 but on2y k 6/0re6 0re needed 1or decryption
3/ere k? ) #1 kF& 6/0re6 0re pre6ented9 t/i6 3i22 4i5e no in1orm0tion 0bout t/e 6ecret
me6604e N0or 0nd S/0mir 0pp2ied t/i6 ide0 on b20c: 0nd 3/ite im04e6 on2y
.nti2 t/e ye0r &AA*9 02t/ou4/ t/e tr0n6p0rencie6 cou2d be 6t0c:ed to reco5er t/e 6ecret
im04e 3it/out 0ny comput0tion9 t/e re5e02ed 6ecret im04e6 % 06 in D&9 29
)9 'E+ 3ere 022 b20c: 0nd 3/ite #n D*E9 "er/eu2 0nd "0n Ti2bor4 u6ed t/e concept o1 arc
to con6truct 0 co2ored 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 6c/eme9 3/ere u6er6 cou2d 6/0re co2ored
6ecret im04e6 T/e :ey concept 1or 0 cFco2or1u2 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 6c/eme i6 to
tr0n61orm one pi=e2 to ' 6ubpi=e269 0nd e0c/ 6ubpi=e2 i6 di5ided into c co2or re4ion6 #n
e0c/ 6ubpi=e29 t/ere i6 e=0ct2y one co2or re4ion co2ored9 0nd 022 t/e ot/er co2or re4ion6
0re b20c: T/e co2or o1 one pi=e2 depend6 on t/e interre20tion6 bet3een t/e 6t0c:ed
6ubpi=e26 For e=0mp2e9 i1 3e 30nt to encrypt 0 pi=e2 o1 co2or ci9 3e co2or re4ion i 3it/
co2or ci on 022 6ubpi=e26 #1 022 6ubpi=e26 0re co2ored in t/e 60me 30y9 one 6ee6 co2or ci
3/en 2oo:in4 0t t/i6 pi=e2I ot/er3i6e one 6ee6 b20c:
A m0jor di60d50nt04e o1 t/i6 6c/eme i6 t/0t t/e number o1 co2or6 0nd t/e number
o1 6ubpi=e26 determine t/e re6o2ution o1 t/e re5e02ed 6ecret im04e #1 t/e number o1
co2or6 i6 20r4e9 co2orin4 t/e 6ubpi=e26 3i22 become 0 5ery di11icu2t t06:9 e5en t/ou4/ 3e
c0n u6e 0 6peci02 imag" "(i%i)g !ackag" to co2or t/e6e 6ubpi=e26 Ho3 to 6t0c: t/e6e
tr0n6p0rencie6 correct2y 0nd preci6e2y by /um0n bein46 i6 026o 0 di11icu2t prob2em
Anot/er prob2em i6 t/0t 3/en t/e number o1 6ubpi=e26 i6 '9 t/e 2o66 in re6o2ution 1rom t/e
ori4in02 6ecret im04e to t/e re5e02ed im04e become6 ' Recent2y9 Y0n4 0nd L0i/ propo6ed
0 ne3 co2ored 5i6u02 6ecret 6/0rin4 6c/eme D@E by u6in4 0 di11erent 6tructure o1 co2ored
6ubpi=e26 T/ey 4et better re6o2ution t/0n "er/eu2 0nd "0n Ti2bor4B6 6c/eme 3/i2e t/e
number o1 6ubpi=e26 i6 t/e 60me Ho3e5er9 t/eir 6c/eme 6ti22 /06 t/e 60me di60d50nt04e6
06 "er/eu2 0nd "0n Ti2bor4B6 6c/eme 3/en t/e 6ecret im04e cont0in6 0 4re0t de02 o1
di11erent co2or6
#n D>E9 H30n4 propo6ed 0 ne3 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 6c/eme 3/ic/ impro5ed t/e
5i6u02 e11ect o1 t/e 6/0re6 %t/e 6/0re6 in t/eir 6c/eme 3ere 6i4ni1ic0nt im04e6 3/i2e t/o6e
in t/e pre5iou6 6c/eme6 3ere me0nin42e66 im04e6+ H30n4B6 6c/eme i6 5ery u6e1u2 3/en
3e need to m0n04e 0 2ot o1 tr0n6p0rencie6I ne5ert/e2e669 it c0n on2y be u6ed in b20c: 0nd
3/ite im04e6 For t/i6 re06on9 C/0n49 T60i 0nd C/en recent2y propo6ed 0 ne3 6ecret co2or
im04e 6/0rin4 6c/eme D,E b06ed on t/e mo(i*i"( -i$al cr4!%ogra!+4 #n t/0t 6c/eme9
t/rou4/ 0 prede1ined Co2or #nde= T0b2e %C#T+ 0nd 0 1e3 comput0tion6 t/ey c0n decode
t/e 6ecret im04e preci6e2y .6in4 t/e concept o1 modi1ied 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y9 t/e
reco5ered 6ecret im04e /06 t/e 60me re6o2ution 06 t/e ori4in02 6ecret im04e in t/eir
6c/eme Ho3e5er9 t/e number o1 6ubpi=e26 in t/eir 6c/eme i6 026o in proportion to t/e
number o1 co2or6 0ppe0rin4 in t/e 6ecret im04eI ie9 t/e more co2or6 t/e 6ecret im04e /069
t/e 20r4er t/e 6/0re6 3i22 become Anot/er di60d50nt04e i6 t/0t 0ddition02 6p0ce i6 needed
to 6tore t/e Co2or #nde= T0b2e %C#T+
#n 2((2 c/0n4 et 02 propo6ed 0 ne3 6ecret co2or im04e 6/0rin4 6c/eme b06ed on
modi1ied 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y By me0n6 o1 de1inin4 0 modi1ied 6t0c:in4 oper0tion9 our
6c/eme c0n /ide 0 4r0y im04e %2>'Fco2or6+ 0mon4 n 6/0re6 e06i2y 0nd /06 t/e 0bi2ity to
reco5er t/e /idden im04e c2e0r2y Our ne3 6c/eme doe6 not need 0ny prede1ined Co2or
#nde= T0b2e %C#T+9 0nd t/e 6i<e6 o1 6/0re6 0re t/e 60me 0nd 1i=ed Furt/ermore9 t/e 6/0re
6i<e i6 independent o1 t/e number o1 co2or6 0ppe0rin4 in t/e 6ecret im04e !oreo5er9 t/e
!i1"l "1!a)io) in our 6c/eme i6 on2y A9 3/ic/ i6 t/e 2e06t 0mon4 t/o6e in t/e pre5iou62y
propo6ed met/od6
1.8 M$!(9a!($#6
Since t/0t 4ener02 d0t0 /idin4 tec/no2o4y come6 6/ort o1 7u0ntity 0nd 6ecurity9 in
5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 10i26 to detect co2or contr06t 0nd to 6t0c: im04e6 3it/ preci6ion9 0nd
t/ereby 0 ne3 tec/ni7ue i6 propo6ed to 6/0re 0 6ecret co2or im04e impro5e6 d0t0 /idin4
0nd 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y to tr0n6mit 6ecret co2or im04e6 B06ic022y9 our 6c/eme i6 0t 1ir6t
to con5ert con1identi02 in1orm0tion into 0 co2or im04e Ne=t9 t3o 6i4ni1ic0nt co2or im04e6
0re 6e2ected 0t r0ndom 06 co5er im04e6 3/ic/ 6/0re t/e 60me 6i<e 06 t/e im04e 3it/
con1identi02 in1orm0tion Fin022y9 t/e 6ecret im04e 3it/ 022 t/e pi=e26 3i22 be /idden into
t3o co5er im04e69 c022ed c0mou1204e im04e6 An e6t0b2i6/ed C#T 3i22 /e2p to /ide t/e
6ecret im04e in t/e t3o c0mou1204e im04e6 A6 1or reco5erin49 6t0c: t/e t3o c0mou1204e
im04e69 0nd t/rou4/ in5erted 2oo:Fup o1 C#T9 t/e 6ecret im04e 3i22 return6 3it/ e06e
Ho3e5er9 t/i6 6c/eme /06 to 6pend 6ome 0ddition02 6p0ce to 6tore t/e C#T 0nd 6p0re
6ome 0ddition02 time to 2oo:Fup t/e C#T Be6ide69 t/i6 6c/eme i6 on2y 0 2 out o1 2
To o5ercome t/e6e di60d50nt04e6 C/0n4 et 02 propo6ed in 2((2 0 ne3 co2or
im04e 6/0rin4 6c/eme D&E b06ed on modi1ied 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y T/e propo6ed 0ppro0c/
u6e6 me0nin41u2 6/0re6 %co5er im04e6+ to /ide t/e co2ored 6ecret im04e 0nd reco5ery
proce66 i6 2o662e66 T/e 6c/eme de1ine6 0 ne3 6t0c:in4 oper0tion %GOR+ 0nd re7uire6 0
6e7uence o1 r0ndom bit6 to be 4ener0ted 1or e0c/ pi=e2 C/0n4B6 6c/eme c0n be
4ener02i<ed to n out o1 n 0ppro0c/ 06 oppo6ed to C/0n4 T 60iB6 6c/eme
1.: O;<e'!(9e $% !/e p$<e'!6
Security i6 t/e m0jor prob2em to 6end t/e d0t09 im04e6 or 1in0nci02 document6
t/rou4/ t/e internet or eFm0i2 T/e object o1 t/e project i6 di6cu66in4 t/e t3o impro5ed
5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 6c/eme6 1or 6ecret /idin4 T/o6e 0re C/0n49 T S0i 0nd C/enB6
024orit/m 0nd C/0n4B6 et 02 024orit/m
#n C/0n49 T S0i 0nd C/enB6 6c/eme9 0 6ecret co2or im04e c0n be /idden in t3o
6i4ni1ic0nt co2or im04e6 by u6in4 0 prede1ined Co2or #nde= T0b2e %C#T+ A6 reco5erin49
by me0n6 o1 6t0c:in4 t3o c0mou1204e im04e6 0nd 2oo: up t/e C#T9 3e c0n reco5er t/e
ori4in02 im04e 3it/ e06e
#n C/0n4 et 02 024orit/m9 0 6ecret im04e c0n be /idden into t3o co2ored co5er
im04e6 3it/out Co2or #nde= T0b2e T/i6 6c/eme de1ine6 0 ne3 6t0c:in4 oper0tion %GOR+
0nd re7uire6 0 6e7uence o1 r0ndom bit6 to be 4ener0ted 1or e0c/ pi=e2
1.5 O+a#(=a!($# $% !/e T/e)()6
=+a!%"r 12 #n t/i6 c/0pter 3e di6cu66 0bout brie1 introduction o1 t/e project9
b0c:4round9 moti50tion 0nd object o1 t/e project
=+a!%"r /2 #n t/i6 c/0pter 3e di6cu66 introduction o1 crypto4r0p/y9 50riou6
crypto4r0p/y tec/ni7ue69 #ntroduction to 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y9 3or:in4 o1
5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 0nd b06ic mode26 o1 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 6c/eme6
=+a!%"r 32 #n t/i6 3e di6cu66 t/e impro5ed 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 6c/eme6
% C/0n49 T S0i 0nd C/enB6 024orit/m 0nd C/0n4B6 et 02 024orit/m+
Ad50nt04e6 0nd 0pp2ic0tion6 o1 5i6u02 crypto4r0p/y 0re 026o di6cu66ed
=+a!%"r 42 #n t/i6 3e di6cu66 t/e re6u2t6 o1 t3o 024orit/m6 0nd comp0ri6on6 bet3een
t/e t3o 024orit/m6
=+a!%"r 52 #n t/i6 c/0pter 3e di6cu66 t/e conc2u6ion 0nd 1uture 3or: