
I
I
19
LIQUID
FLOW
IN PIPES
0 V\:V>"tf
(}'> .._;t>1\
f'\
u\ (CAr"
Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter you should be able to:
19.1
INTRODU
CTION
Fluid flow in circular pipes bas wide engineering applications. In
city water distribution systems and industrial hydraulic systems liquids
are generally transported from one point tO another by forcing them
through pipes or tubes. The aim or this cha pter is to analyse and
estimate the friction and shock losses as liquids flow through pipes and
fittings.
Only steadyflow situations are discussed in this chapter. In a
steady flow, the velocity, pressure, density, etc., of the fluid at any specified
point do not change with time.
The theory of fluid flow rests on three main principles; namely, the
conservation of mass. the conser:ation of energy and the constrvotion of
momentum. In Sections 3.5 and 3.6 conservation of mus and conservation
of energy were discussed in det il. In the case of liquids (incompressible
fluids) the analysis becomes simple as the liquid density is practically
constant. In this chapter we will appl y the conservation of mass and the
conservation of energy to liquid now problems.
19.2 CONTINUITY
EQUATION
The water entering one end of a garden hose is expected to flow out from
the other end. This assumption,deduby our common sense.can be
expressed as a law of conservation.
5
7
3
Chapt<r 19
574
G)
Crosssedat
C Ill
<D
I P,
' I!
I
8

cl
m,
I
dl
CtOHsec:don at
"
Mass
entering
section
per second,
Mass leaving
section
per =ond,
Under steady
state
or
{19.1)
where
p 1, p 1
s density
of fluid at
V volume
A,.C,V
flow rate,ml/s
Both Equations 19.1 and 19.2 are known as the Cominuity Equotions.
(19.2)
..

575
E
x
a
m
p
l
e
1
9
.
1
Sea water flows through a pipe reducer as
shown in Figure 19.2. 1be
diameters at
sections I and 2 are 50 em and 25 em
respectively.If the average velocity of the fluid at
section I is 0.5 m/s, find its velocity at section 2.
c, I
'' c,
<?>
<D
Figure 19.2 Liquid flow through a reducer
d Da a;
= 0.5 m:
Solution:
A,. =lt
lI
On simplification,
576
Cloapur /9
Conclusion:
The smaller lhe pipe lhe greater lhe velocity.
Note: In most liquid now problems lhe change in the internal energy is negligible and
hence is omiuein lhe analysis.
Thus, tlte total energy possessed by a moving fluid is
c,
Nm
pv + gZ+2
Replacing the specific volume,v, by
kg
+gZ+
c,
Nm
kg
c,
Nm s
 s m
kg rn
*= pressure head
Z =potential head
c,
 = velocity head
2g
m
m
rm
s m
In fluid mecha nics the sum of these three terms is known as t he toto/ htad . It
represents !he total energy per unit weight (I N) of the fluid as an equivalent form of
potential energy stored at an imaginary height equal to lhe total head.
577
Erampk/9.
2
ln the piping system shown in Figure 19.3 calculate the total head of the oil at point
2, where the absolute pressure and the average velocity of the Ouid are 2 bar and 1.5
m/s respectively.Take the density of oil as 850 kgtml.
7m
,..
\.......,...
<D
Datum
Pressu re
head
a
2x lOs
850x9.81
= 24 m
Potential head,
Velocity head,
Z=7m
=
28
1.52
2x9.81
= 0.1146 m
Cloaptu/9
\,
24 + 7 + 0.1146 =
31.11m
C
o
l
!
C
l
u
s
i
o
n
:
I
n
t
h
i
s
c
a
s
e
t
h
e
v
e
l
o
c
n
:
y
h
e
a
d
i
s
19
.4
BE
RN
OU
L
U'
S
EQ
UA
TI
O
N
In fluid flow problems the pressure. elevation and
+
Z
+
=
co
n
st
an
t
pg
2
g
...
pg
=
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
h
e
a
= pressure head, m
cl
d,
=velocity
head,
2g
A
p
p
l
y
i
n
g
t
h
e
a
b
o
v
e
c
o
n
c
e
p
t
t
o
t
h
e
f
l
o
w
s
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
i
l
l
u
s
t
r
a
t
Figu re 19.4
To define the
Bernoulli
Equation
519
P a C,
P2 C2
+ +Z = ++Z,
I pg
pg 2g
2g
(19.3)
as Btrnoulli'stquotion.
EXLlmp19.3
t?'
I
O.Sm
1
AOd
tank
2m
Oatum
3
z, = 2 m:C1 = 0 m/s
= ? : Z, = 2.5 m:
p1= p01..
, a
1 bar. Z, a 0; C3 =?
Solution:
(a) Applying Bernoulli's equation between poiniS I and 3:
c,2
P1
+  +Z =
pg
2g
pg
c
+ 3 +Z
2
2g
As p = p3 the pressure head terms on bolh sides of !he equation will be cancelled.
1
,..
Chllpt<r 19
580
0+2s
cl
3
2 x9.81
+0
C3 =6.26m/s
On simplification,
Rate of
V=A1
mil
=x6.26
discharge,
= 0.492 x 10"3
ml/s
= 0.492 V
s
(b) Applying Bernoulli's equation between points I and 2:
<; =
6.26 rn/s
= 1050 kg/m3
Substituting lhe values,
lxiO
1050x9.81
O
.,.. + 2 =
P1
+ 6.26 + 2.5
1050x9.81 2x 9.81
On simplification.
= 0.743 bar absolute
= 0.257 bar vacuum
lffi
Uquid flow in pi s
581
Conclusion:
At point 2 !he pressure bead is least, but Ibis is compensated for by an increase in
the potential head and velocity head.
E:xampk 19.4
In a village water supply system water is pumped to a storage tank on a small hill
as shown in Figure 19.6. The pressure gauges at points I and 2 read 3.5 bar and
O.S bar respectively. Neglecting all losses, determine lhe discharge lhrough !he pipeline. The diameter of pipe at points I and 2 are IOOmm and 50mm respectively.
= 0.1 m
= 0.05 m
Solwion:
Area of now at section I,
CluJpttr /9
581
Substituting !he values,
0.00785 X C1
0.00196 X C2
or
C, =4C1
Applying Bernoulli's equation between pointS I a.nd 2,
Total head at section I =Total head at section 2
2
1
p,
P1 cl
+ c,
+z =+
+
Zz
pg 2g
I
pg 2g
3.5 x 10'
=._:__....::,:',
On simplification,
C1 =0.87 m/s
v =A,c,
= 0.00785 x 0.87 m>
= 0.00683 ml/s
2m
Nor: The pump has to produce a large pressure head to pu.sh !he water up through !he pipe
line.
Bernoulli 's equation (19.3) is applicable onl y for an ideal fluid flow situation. It
assumes that !here is no loss or gain of energy as the fluid flows between sections 1
and 2. In !he case of a real fluid there is always some energy loss due to friction as the
fluid flows through pipes and fittings. On the other hand. when a fluid flows through
a pump. energy is added to !he fluid. Similarly. a fluid flowing through a IUrbine gives
away some of itS energy 10 rotate !he machine. All lhese situations may be taken into
account by modifying Bernoulli's equation.
:,
l.fquldflow ipi[MI
583
Genorator
Energy
input
P\Jmp
F1gure 19.7
Tant
An experimental apparatuS
Ct
P2
C2
 Th b = ++
 +  + Z + h.
pg 2g
I
'"
L
... pg
2g
l
I
(19.4)
Ezampl19.
5
24 littes/min of oil flows through the pipeline shown in Figure 19.8. The pressure
gauge at point I reads 4 bar. What is the pressure at point 2 ? The specific gravity of
oil is 0.82. The diameters at section I and 2 are 12 mm and 25 mm respectively.
The friction and other losses between pointS I and 2 add up to 2.3m of liquid column.
'
Clwptul9
584
...
30m
Oetum
0.012m:
p2 = ?:<1, = 0.02Sm:
=24Vmin
= 100024x 60= 0.0004 ml/s
c, 5L.,
A1
C 1=
0.0004
., 3537 m/s
(1.131x10_. )
0 0004
5L
= (4.909
A
xl 0_.)
2
0.8149 m/s
585
Pt
C1
P2
C:
+ +z1  D;.=  + +
pg 2g
pg 2g
Substituting the values,
Sx 10
820X9.81
3.
+ 537 + 0 2.3
2x9.81
P2
+ 0.8149
+ 30
..:..:..e ,
820x9.81
2x 9.81
and
other
losses
reduce
the
pressure
Jcampk 19.6
For a water treatment plant a pump is required to deliver 100m' of water per hottr.The
water pressure at the pump inlet and exit are 0.5 bar and 3.5 bar rupectively.
Neglecting thechanges in velocity and elevation, delermine the input power.
t
2
t
Flaure 19.9
586
Chaptu/9
Energy
at section I + added
Total enttgy
at sec.tion 2
!
Pt C1
P1 C,
+ +Z
+h .= + +Z,
I
"'
pg 2g
pg 2g
Cancelling the potentia.l and velocity heads on both sides.
+ h
....!.=pg
pg
0.5xi0 +h = 3.5xl0
1000x9.81
"' 1000x9.81
hin = 30.58 m
On simplification,
.n =pv
= 1000 X 0.0278
= 27.8 kg/s
Weight flow rate of water,
= rhg
= 27.8 X
9.81
= 272.5 N/s
w h,. = 272.5 x
30.se
= 8333 J/s = 8333 W
i.e.
kg m
57
N m
s
Nm
587
Conclusion:
The power input is proportional to the wau.r flow rate and thepressure difference across
the pump.
Figure 19.10
In the case of a real fluid there is always some internal friction or resistance to flow.
This inu.mal resistance to flow is due to what is known as viscosiry of the fluid. It is
a very important fluid property in fluid dynamics. In liquids the viscosity is caused
mainly because of the cohesion (anractive fon:oes) between the molecules.
The viscosity or a fluid is a measure of the internal resistance exhibited as one
layer of fluid moves relative to another layer as shown in Figure 19.11. The upper layer
of the fluid needs some fon:oe, F. to overcome the internal resistanCe. The viscosity of
a fluid is defined as the shear stress per unit velocity gradient.
Figure 19.11
_[7
\.
588
Chapterl9
Let thesliding area of the upper layer be A. Then theshear stressis ..Referring to
Figure
19.11, the velocity gtadient is. As per the definition, the viscosity
is
c r v
+=._XA
Y
A
C
also used.
I centiPoise= JOlNs/ml
In dealillg with problems in fluid now we shall frequently come across the ratio between
absolute viscosity and density; this ratio is called the kinematic viscosity and is denoted
by the symbol"f (greek letter n u).
Kinematic viscosity,
3
Ns m
m
=rm kg
s
(19..5)
Thus the unit for kinematic viscosity is m2/s. Sometimes the uniiS Stookr centiStoke
are also used.
I centiStoke= J06 m2/s
19.6 REYNOLDS NUMBER
In 1883 Osbourne Reynolds, an English scientist, classified the flow of fluids into two
categories, laminar flow and turbultnt flow, depending upon the characteristics of
the fluid now.
When the velocity in a pipe is small the fluid molecules move in an orderly fashion
as adjacent layers and there is no mixing. In flow through circular pipes the now
pauern constitutes a series of thin shells that are sliding over one another.This condition
is known as laminar flow.This is illustrated in Figure 19.12. At the centre of the pipe
the fluid velocity reaches iiS maximum whilst near the pipe wall the velocity is zero.
Figun 19.12
589
When the velocity is relatively high, eddies ate fonned and lhe mixing of fluid
particles occurs. This situation is known as turbu/t11t flow. The fluid panicles have a
random motion which is transverse to the main flow direction.. This IUibulence causes
the velocity of lhe fluid panicles to average out across the crosssection of the pipe.
This is illustrated in Figure 19.13.
..

ssssssssssssss
sss
(19.6)
We know
y=
then
NR =
Cd
(197. )
\
Cllapru19
590
In pipe flow, laminar flow exists when Nil is 2000 or less; turilulent flow exists
if Nil is 3000 or more. If Nil is between 2000 and 3000 the flow type can not be
determined and is called transient flow.In practice, pipe flow is generally turilulenL
Example19.7
In an oil rer111ery diesel oil flows through a 30 em diameter pipe at the rate of
700 ml/h. If the kinematic viscosity of the oil is 2.4 Jo5 m2/s, determine the nature
of the flow.
Data: d
700
= 0.3 m; V. = 3600
= 0.1944 mlfs: y = 2.4 10"l 2m /s
Solution.:
2
03
= lt X 4
C
= 0.07068 m2
m
m5 3m::y
s
v=
A
!!lms
2.751x0.3
i
2.4x 10
= 34 385
Conclusion:
Since NR is greater than 3000 the flow is turbulent.
19.7
FRICTION LOSS IN PIPE
FLOW
As we have seen, when a fluid flows through a pipe, the fluid panicles near the pipe wall
have a relatively low velocity and the ones near the cenlte (far from the surface) move
with relatively high velocity. Because of this relative motion and the viscosity of the
fluid, shear stresses are produced. This viscous action causes energy dissipation which
is usually referred to as pipe friction loss.
Based on experimental results, Henry Darcy in 1857 developed the following
591
"r=fL..
(19.8)
d 2g
E:rampu 19.8
Water flows in a 30 em diameter cast iron pipe roofeuglahtnievses 0.0008. If the water
flow rate is200litre/S findthe frictionhead loss per lOOm of pipe.Takelhe dynamicviscosity
of water as 1.49 x J0 3 Nslm2
.
200
3
Data: d = 0.3 m; V=200Us= =0.2m /s;
1000
2
3
L =lOOm; 11 = 1.49 .x 10 Nslm
Solmion:
ltd
A =4
C
0.2
== m/S
A  =
2.829
0.0707
p = I 000 kglm3
Density of water.
By Equation 19.6:
03
= 1t x = 0.07CJ7 m'
Cd
NR =p11
IOOOx2.829x0.3
(
Liquid flow in pipes
593
From Moody's chan (Figure 19.14) forNR = 5.69x lOS and relative roughness
ofO.OOO 8, the friction factor f = 0.019.
By Darcy's equation (19.8).
Lc
hr = fd 2g
2
0.019x l00X2.829
0.3x2x9.81
Note: The smaller the diameter of the pipe the greater the friction loss.
ho.2gc2 m
c2
h =K
.,
2g
(1 9.9)
where K, the constant of proponionali y, is known as the loss coefliciem and its value
has to be evaluated for each source of loss.

594
Chopteci9..
::JflvEddies
8
Crosssection
of smallor pipo

c, 
c,
p,;
"1:::::


t= "'
r
[').F=
I
<D
Crosssection
of larger pipe
c:
h = Km
2g
1
where !he loss coefficient K = (1 A ) and C1 = velocity in the smaller pipe.
(19.10)
19.8.2 Exitloss
When a pipe discharges into a large reservoir as shown in Figure 19.I 6a, some energy is
dissipated which can be evaluated using Equation 19.10.
C:

Figure 19.16
(i.e.K=l)
(19.11)
595
Thus all the kinetic energy is dissipated by mixing and rurbulence.Even if the discharge is
free as in Figure 19.16b, all the kinetic energy is still losl.
Note:When we say energy is lost. it is not lost in realit)'. It isconverted into thennal
Crude oil flows through a tOO mm diameter pipe at the rate of 40 litrels. lf the pipe
suddenly enlarges to 200 mm estimate the lossof head due to this abrupt change of
section.
c,
+_.,_.
., c)
nd2
A,==
4
C1
n x0.2
= 3 1 ..1 x 10''m 2
V
O.04
= 5.093 m/s
= A, = (7.854 X 10l)
By Equation
19.10: Loss
coc:fficient ,
2
= (  7.854 X 10) )
31.4xi O '
Chilptu19.
596
=0.5625
c>
h
2g =K L
1
0..562 Sx 5.093
2x9.81
A,
A,
In an experimentAl apparatus (Figure 19.18) to measure the sboclc losses due to sudden
expansion, the following observations were made:
d1 = 10mm; =20mm
l p
Figure 19.18 ExperimentAl apparatustmeasure the head loss due to sudden expansion
1
0 0 12
1td2
Data: A 1 =
= "x4
d =
A2 = !:2.
00
'
It X
=7.854xl()Sm2
2
z = 31.4 X
1OS m2
5
=8.333 x IO's m/'s
v = 1000x60
597
Solution:
c
,
=

A,
8.333
xto"
$
7.854
xlO
=
1.06
1
m/S
cl = v
At
5
8.333x 10"
;:;
3
31.4xl
0
=
0.26
53m/
s
Applying Bernoulli's equation
between points I and 2:
c;
c;
P
o
P
t
+
+
Z
h
+
pg
2g
pg
2g
K
1
R
e
a
r
r
a
n
g
i
n
g
,
(
p
z,
p
)
(
C
l
C
l
)
I l
+ Il
+
( 7)
..
pg
2g
=.02 + 1.0617
=
=
0
.
0
3
3
7
Substituting
values.
m
o
f
w
a
l
e
r
c
o
l
u
m
n
,02
..
2g
0.033
,.. ..
...
S98
Ch.Dpur/9
w
h
ic
h
g
i
v
"
K =0.589
'
"
>
"
'
!
1
_
c
,
7
.
c
,
8
5
<
D
t
o
A
,
3
1
.
4
x
l
o
s
=
0
.
5
6
2
5
<
VA
,
A
,
F
i
g
u
r
e
1
9
.
1
9
Conclusion:
The experimental value is very close to the
theoretical value and the difference could
be due toexperimental errors.
F
l
o
w
Let usconsider an
abrupt contraction
of a pipe from area
A 1toas shown in
Figure 19.19. The
Dow converges up
to the vena
contracta(sectioo
with the least Dow
area)at xx and
then
expands to the pipe area
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
n
a
a
b
r
u
p
t
p
i
p
e
c
o
n
l
!
a
c
t
i
o
n
It is possible to measure A, which can be
expressed as a function of
t
h
e
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
w
h
e
r
i
e
n
t
o
c
,
i
s
c
o
n
k
n
o
w
n
l
n
l
c
t
i
B
or
y
t
h
e
e
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
i
c
.
=
c
,
c
,
Uquid flo"' in pi s
599
It is generally assumed that all of the energy loss occurs when the jet expands from
A, to Az By Equation 19.10,the head loss is
h
"'
=( ),c!
A2
h =
"'
=
2g
(c, cS
2g
,c,
_1
) 2g
1 1
( c,
c;
where K =(cl, I
=K2g
C, =velocity
(19.12)
c, =0.62 + 0.38(::
A,
A,
(19.13)
Entrance
A poorly designed inlet to a pipe can cause an appreciable head loss. For various
common inlet conditions the values of K are shown in Figure 19.20. It can be seen that
a slight rounding off will reduce the loss drastically.
 L 

i
K OB
L
_Fo
Figure 19.20
Chapta19
600
For a sharp entrance, provided the pipe does not prouude into the reservoir.
h.,=0.5
(19.14}
2g
E;uunpld9.II
Lubricating oil flows through a 10 mm diameter rube. If the flow passage suddenly
reduces 10 aS mm diameter.find tlie shock loss.The oil flow rate is 10 litre/min.
c, t
114"' C,
a>
<D
Figure 19.21 A reducer
1
5 2
ltd,
0.01
Data: A = = nx =7.854xl0" m
1
ltd
= = nx 4
V=
Solution:
0.005
2
 = 1.964x IO"'m
4
10
16.7 x 10"5 m'Js
1000X60
_,
.
C, == 16.7xl0 l = 8.48
m/s
A2
1.964x 10
_,)2
IO
7.854 X 10l
= 0.62 + 0.024
601
:0.644
By Equation 19.12, the loss coefficient,
1
(  1) :0.305
0.644
0.305
2x9.81
8 48
Nott: The shock Joss due 10 conraelion is always smallu compared 10 the loss due to
a corresponding enlargemenL
19.8.5 Losses in pipefittings
Invariably a pumping sys1em will have connections which change the size and direction
of the pipe. Pipefillings such as valves and elbows which constric,t the flow passages
or change the direction of flow cause additional energy losses. It is often convenient
to exptess these losses as equivalent 10 the friction loss in a specific lengili of straight
pipe of the same diameler. TI1e eq uivalent lengths exptessed as a ratio to the pipe
diameler for typical finings are given in Table 19.1.
Table 19.1
Typical equivalent length for some selected
finings
Equivalent length ratio
Finings
Globe valve (fully open)
Gate valve (fully open)
(onequarteropen)
Check valve (fully open)
Check valve (with strainer)
90 degree standard elbow
90 degree long radius elbow Standard
T (with flow through ru n) Standard T
(wi th flow through branch)
Lid
200
10
1000
ISO
400
30
20
20
60
Chapttr 19
602
EX{lltlple19.12
fully open gale valve and a standard 90" elbow are connecas shown in Figure 19.22.
Olivoil of specific gravity 0.92 has to be pumped at the rat of 4 titre/s. Take f
0.032. Find the total losses.
d3Smm
L =20 m
Valve
t
Figure 19.22 Details of the discharge pipe line
Data: d= 0.035m; L= 20m; V = 4 Vs
Solwion:
v = 4Vs
Aowrate,
4
= 1000
 = 0.004 m3/s
Velocity in the delivery pipe,
Total equivalent
length,
603
Friction losses,
Tolllllosses on delivery
side,
2x9.81
Note: The pump has to input enough energy (pressure) to overcome this loss in addition
It
entrance
lOS$ ll
,_

o..t.
Clwpter 19
(.E...
pg + Z)
is equal to the
elevation of the free surface. Then there is a sudden drop (a b) which is due to the
entrance loss. As the liquid flows along, the total energy decreases gradually due to
the pipe frictiCin toss.There is a stepped drop (cd) due to shock at the pipe contraction.
Then there is a gradual drop (with greater slope for smaller pipe diameter) due to
increased pipe friction.Finally there is a sudden drop due to the exit loss (e  f).
Another useful graph is the hydraulic gradient line which is the plot of thesum
(.E... + Z)
pg
along the pipe.This line is therefore parallel to the energy gradient line and located below
2
it at a venical distance equal to .._. Also, it is wonhwhile to note that the venical height
2g
of the hydraulic gradient line measured above any point on the centreline of the pipe
indicates the static pressure head
.E....
pg
==
r:=;:: #r' 
1
ti
1)
c,
L,
c,
Friction loss
in pipe I
+K
Friction loss
in pipe 2
2
r,L,c,
r2L2C2
C2
d12g +dl2g
2g
where C 1 =  and C, = A1
A2
+ Shock loss
at the contraction
605
E:mmple 19.13
Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe whose total length is 36 m. From the upper
reservoir the pipe is 250 ITUll in diameter for a length of 12 m and the remaining 24 m is
125 mm in diameter. The entrance and exit of the pipe are sharp and the change of
section is sudden. The difference in levels of the water in the two reservoirs is 10 m.
The friction coefficient f is 0.06 for both pipes, and for !he scdden contrllCtion, K= 0.3.
Find !he rate of now.
_l08
Figure 19.25 Pipes in series connecting two reservoirs
Data: Pipe 1:d 1 = 0.25m; L1 = 12m
Solwion:
By continuity of now,
A 1 C1 = A2 C2
ltd1'
Sim plifying,
xc I
0.252 X C1 = 0.1252 X C2
or
c,
c'1
0.5
2g
= 0.25 c,
=0.5
0 :2_5:C.2:..)
2x 9.81
.<:.
'
CIIIJptu19
606
Friction loss in the larger pipe,
L
1
C1
f
=0.06x l2x(0.2SC2)
0.25x2x9.81
dt 2g
c2
c;
=0.30x 2g
K2
2g
2A
xc;
ci  =0.06 X 0.125x2x9.8l
f
d2 2g
=0.5872C/
Head loss at exit,
ci =c
2x9.81
2g
=0.051
C2 = 3.88 mls
which gives
Then volume Oow rate,
nd4c
2
It X
0 125
4
2
X
3.88
Uquidflow in pipes
607
Note; All the potential energy of the water in the first reservoir is lost as it flows
19.11
PARALLEL
PIPES
IN
When two or more pipes are connected as shown in Figure 19.26 such that they
branch out from a single point and after equal or uneq ual lengths join at another
point, then the pipes are said to be in parallel. Tn practice a parallel pipe is added
to an existing pipe to increase the discharge.
g
..
I&
it,
Plpo 1
L,, d,
Appl ying Bernoulli's equation between points A and B (via pipe 1),
PA
Pe
C!
+ +Z h  + + Z8
pg
2g
A
(I
J g 2g
ApplyingBemoulli's equation between points A and B (via pipe 2).
c + +Z
pg
2g
PA
+Z,.
c;
Ps
 hn; + 
pg
2g

Clwpr<r 19
608
Example 19.14
A 300 mm diameter main is required for a town water supply. As pipes over 250 mm
diameter are not readily available, it was decided lO lay two parallel pipes of the same
diameter instead. Find thesiz.eofthe pipes to provide thesameflowrateand incur the same
head loss as the 300 mm pipe.
d 300nvn
c
(a) A sitlgle 300 mm pipe
..
c,
d,
iJ
c,
v,
d,
tb) Two parallel pipo$ of sttme $1le
Figure 19:27
Solwion:
Let
=
=
By conservation of mass.
2
0.3
ltX  
or
c s2 xn d2I
4
s.c
(A)
n..d ==fLC
2
h  
1
d2g  0.3x2g
/
Uquid flow in pipu
fLC
0.3x2g
or
d, = 0.3(0. 5
d
= 6.075 X 10"'
d1 =0.227m
Use rwo 227 nun diameter pipes in parallel.
Conclusion:
The rwo 227 mm pipes in parallel will provide the same flow rate as a 300 mm pipe and
incur the same frictional loss.
19.12 Sll'HON
A siphon is a closed conduit which conveys liquid witll a free surface from one level
to a lower level via an intermediate higher level as shown in Figure 19.28. This
arrangement can be used to convey water from a lake over a ridge witllout any external
source of power.
AB: \. .. \SO m
AC: L .a()O
M CO:
l
200m
d SOOmm
d SOOmm
d 700mm
r
Ciwpt<r/9
610
For a siphon to work, lhe pipe must be filled wilh water. Also the pressure at lhe
highest poin1 should not drop below !he vapour pressure.olherwise !here will be vapour
formation which will imerrupllhe now.
Example 19.15
Two reservoits.whose surface levels differ by 5 m.are connected by a pipeline which is
500 mm in diame.ter for the first400 m and 700mm in diameter for the remaining200
m.The pipeline crosses a ridge whosesummit is2m abovelhe level of and 150m distant
from lhe higher reservoir as shown in Figure19.28.Taking(=0.04 forbolh pipes and
neglecting minor losses, find lhe rate Of now and lhe pressure a11he highest point of lhe
pipeline.
= 0.5m; L
So/urion:
By conainui1y or now,
2
rtd
rtd1 xC = xC
2
Simplifying,
or
<; =0.51 c,
L1 C1
hn =f d1 2g 400xC2
= 0.04
_.:.,:_:...:.!1
O.Sx2x9.81
= 1.631 c,2
Friction loss in pipe 2,
t.,
hn =f 
d2 2g
200x(0.51C )
= 0.04 X .....,.....:_:...1:.._
0.7 x2
x9.81
=O.ISIS C12
,.
Liquid flow in pipes
611
5 < 1.631 c,
+ 0.1515 C2 1 ) =
0
which gives
C1 = 1.675 rn/s
1td2
1
x C1
2
= JtXO.S X 1.675
4
=0.329
m1/s
Applying Bernoulli's equation between points E and B.
2
PE
Po
C1
pg
pg
2g
h =0.04x 150xl.675
0.5x 2x9.81
= 1.716m
Substituting in Bernoulli'seq uation,
)
J .013x!O +0  1.7!6 = Po
+ 2 + 1.675
!000x9.81
t000x9.812x9.81
which gives the absolute pressu re,
p0 = 63440 N/m 2 = 0.634
bar
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