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Slide 1

CONTENTS
 Introduction to Friction Stir Welding and Processing
 Literature Review
 Process Variables
 Tool geometry
 Material flow in FSW
 Weld micro structure and mechanical property
 Dissimilar FSW
 Defects in FSW
 Multi pass FSW
 Objectives
 Experimental work
 Results and discussion
 Conclusions
 Future work
 References




Slide 2

INTRODUCTION
 Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process.
 Invented at The Welding Institute (TWI) of Cambridge, UK in
1991.
 Utilizes a non consumable rotating tool consisting of a concentric
threaded tool pin and tool shoulder.
 Transforms the metal from a solid state into a “Plastic like” state
and the mechanically stir the materials together under pressure
to form a welded joint.




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Fig. 1: Schematic representation of FSW [4]
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION




Slide 4

Fig. 2: Contact of the pin produces friction and deformational
heating. Contact of shoulder to the work piece increases the work
piece heating and expands the zone of softened material and
constrained the deformed material. [5]




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SCHEMATIC CROSS-SECTION OF A FSW WELD
Fig. 3:
A. Unaffected material, B. Heat affected zone (HAZ), C.
Thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), D. Weld
nugget (Part of thermo-mechanically affected zone) [6]




Slide 6

APPLICATIONS
 Aerospace
 Ship building
 Railway industries
 Automobiles
 Some of the parts are-
 Fuel tank for space launch vehicles
 Roofing for railway carriages.
 Bodies and floors for coaches, buses.
 Wings and fuselage panels of aircraft.
 Wheel assemblies.
 Connectors.
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ADVANTAGES OF FSW OVER OTHER
WELDING PROCESS
 Retain near-parent material properties across the weld.
 Join similar and dissimilar material, difficult by conventional
processes.
 Weld quality is excellent (no porosity).
 No melting of material.
 Low residual stresses.
 No fumes, no filler material, no shielding gases.
 Easily automated on simple milling machine-low setup cost
and less training.




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FRICTION STIR PROCESSING




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LITERATURE REVIEW
Table 1: PROCESS VARIABLES IN FSW
Machine variable Tool variable Other variable
Welding speed
Spindle speed
Plunge force
Tool tilt angle
Tool material
Pin and shoulder diameter
Pin length
Thread pitch
Shoulder and tool feat
Joint design
Material Type and size
Property of work piece
material
Type of fixture material




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Author Year Findings
Sato et al. 2002 Significant rise of temperature with rise of rotational speed.
Peel et al. 2006 Both torque and extent of material mixing in the SZ zone displays a
much stronger dependence on the rotational speed than the
traverse speed.
Meran et al. 2006 With const.rpm and varying welding speed finding out the
optimum parameter for defect-free joint
Kwon et al. 2009 Onion ring structure becomes wider as rpm increased. but grain
size decreased with increase in rpm.
Rodrigues et al. 2009 Hot welds obtained with maximum rpm and minimum traverse
speed have improved mechanical properties relative to cold weld.
Contd.




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Author Year Findings
Raja manickram et al. 2008 Temperature under the tool was strongly dependent on the tool
rotation rate than the welding speed.
Azizieh et al. 2011 With high rpm, higher heat input occur and simultaneously more
shattering effect of rotation cause better nano-particle distribution.
Lakshminarayanan et al. 2011 Quality weld depends on the weld pitch, i.e. tool advance per rev.
(welding speed / rpm) and can be increased by increasing the
welding speed at constant rpm or decreasing the rotation speed at
constant welding speed.
Contd.




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Contd.
Fig. 4: Schematic drawing of FSW tool [1]




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Table 2: A selection of tools designed at TWI [1]
Fig. 5: Tool shoulder geometries, viewed from
underneath the shoulder [6]




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Author Year Findings
Scialpi et al. 2007 Used 3 different shoulder geometry (scroll with fillet, cavity with filet,
only fillet)and found that best joint has been welded by shoulder with
fillet.
Zhang et al. 2011 Tool with three spiral flute w/o pin gives better result than inner
concave flute and concentric circle flute.
Forcellese et al. 2012 Used two different tool configuration with different values of shoulder
diameter, both with and w/o pin.
Large shoulder diameter w/o pin gives strong beneficial effect on both
ductility and strength.
Forcellese et al. 2012 Investigated the plastic flow behavior and formability of FSWAZ31 thin
sheet using pin-less tool configuration.
Galvao et al. 2012 Used scrolled and conical shoulder tool. Found that different geometry
had completely different morphology and intermetallic content using
same process parameter.
Galvao et al. 2013 Further researched to see the influence of 3 different geometry (flat,
conical, scrolled) on 1 mm thick copper plate..
RELATED TO SHOULDER GEOMETRY AND PIN GEOMETRY




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MATERIAL FLOW IN FSW
FSW process can be defined as a metal working process of five
conventional metal working zones.
 Preheat
 Initial deformation
 Extrusion
 Forging
 Post heat / cool down




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Contd.
Fig. 6: (a) Metal flow pattern and (b) Metallurgical processing zones
developed during friction
stir welding [54]




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WELD MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES
 The microstructure and consequent property distribution
produced during FSW depends on following factors :
 Alloy composition
 Alloy temper
 Welding parameters
 Other geometric factors (Shoulder size, Plate gauge, etc)




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Author Year Findings
Guerra et al. 2003 Studied the flow of metal using faying surface tracer and a nib frozen in
place during welding. Material is moved around the nib by two processes
both having different thermo mechanical histories and properties.
Hamilton et al. 2008 Proposed a model of material flow during FSW. They observed that NZ
is the combination of interleaved layers of particle rich and particle poor
material.
Sato et al. 2002 Grain size in the nugget region is determined predominantly by the peak
temperature in the weld. Higher the peak temperature larger is the grain
size.




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DISSIMILAR FSW
Author Year Findings
Cavaleire et al. 2006 Studied the micro and mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW
between 2024 and 7075 Al alloy. Results showed the fatigue
behavior is reduced by FSW which proves to be an alternative
technology for large part of industrial application.
Somasekharan et al. 2004 Uneven distribution of micro hardness is observed in FSW
joints between Mg alloy and 6061-T6 alloy ,which is due to
complex intercalation structure.
Sato et al. 2004 Found that constitutional liquation is the main reason for the
formation of large volume of intermetallic compound with
higher hardness in nugget zone.




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Author Year Findings
Yan et al. 2005 Studied the complicated lamellar band formed due FSWbetween
1060 Al alloy with AZ31 Mg.
Yong et al. 2010 Studied the dissimilar joining of aluminum to magnesium with uneven
distribution of hardness with higher value than that of base metal.
Further tensile fracture locates at the AS side where hardness gradient
was sharpest.
Dehgani et al. 2013 Studied the effect of process parameters to control the amount of
intermetallic compound for the production of sound weld.
Tan et al. 2013 Found excellent bonding between 5A02 Al with pure copper by
lowering one of the process parameter i.e. traverse speed from 40
mm/min to 20 mm/min.




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Author Year Findings
Li et al. 2012 Studied the dissimilar welding through pin-offset technique of pure copper to
1350 Al sheet of 3 mm thickness. Complicated microstructure without
intermetallic compound were found in the nugget zone of welded structure
with higher hardness in the copper side.
Masyuki et
al.
2012 Investigated the effect of pure magnesium and alloying element of ZK60(Mg-
Zn-Zr) on the microstructure of dissimilar joint interface with titanium.
Bahrami et
al.
2014 Studied the effect of nano-sized particle as well as process parameter on the
friction stir welded aluminum metal matrix composite.both mechanical and
micro structural properties are enhanced by SiC particle.
Bazmouz et
al.
2011 Fabricated Cu-base Sic reinforced composite. They reported that grain size is
finer with the addition of Sic particles.
Hsu et al. 2005 Fabricted the in-situ composite by friction stir processing which helps to
distribute the Al2Cu particles homogeneously in the composite.




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DEFECTS IN FSW WELDS
Formation of defects are mainly due to improper material flow or due
to geometric factors.
 Lack of penetration
 Lack of fusion
 Surface grooves
 Excessive flash
 Tunnels
 Voids
 Kissing bonds




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DEFECTS FROM TOO COLD WELD
 Too cold welding condition results in work hardening of the
material.
 Causes dry slip between the tool and work piece.
 Lack of surface fills/ voids, channel defects are the main defects due
to insufficient heat generation.
 The insufficient heat generation causes improper material mixing and
thus responsible for non-bonding.
Author Year Findings
Kim et al. 2006 Evaluate that at lower rotational speed and high welding speed
insufficient heat input is generated resulting in cavity/ groove like
defects




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MULTI-PASS FSW
 FSW is capable of producing welds with less defects but still
complete elimination of process upset is not possible.
 Much researchers has been devoted to understand the effect of
process parameters on defect formation in order to optimize the
process parameters for FSW. Still optimization of process
parameters is mostly done by trial and error.
 In the past few decades, there has been research going on in the
field of MP FSW/ FSP where it is more desirable to repair the
defective portion of the weld than to throw as a scrap.
 One of the technique is to repair the defects is simply
RE-WELDING using nominal process parameter.




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MULTI-PASS FSP/FSW
Author Year Findings
Brown et al. 2009 Significant reduction in feed force when welding is done over the
previous weld. Grain size,hardness,temperature remains unaffected
with passes. Gradual reduction of residual stress with increasing pass
number.
Nataka et al. 2006 Reported an improvement in mechanical properties of Al die casting
alloy of MP FSP compared to as-cast BM.
Ma et al. 2006 No effect of overlapping passes on size, aspect ratio or distribution of
Sic particle while performed five pass with 50% overlap FSP on cast
A356.
Leal et al. 2008 Used two different alloy. Quality and strength is not just a function of
parameters but also depend on type of material and condition of
treatment.
Surekha et al. 2008 Investigated that MP FSP showed better corrosion resistance compared
to base metal irrespective of process parameters.




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 As FSP is one of the technique for grain refinement,
removing flaws,defects,many researchers used MP FSP to
improve the properties of as-cast material.
Author Year Findings
Johannes et al. 2007 Create large area of super plastic materials with properties using MP
FSP. Grain boundary sliding is the most important mechanism to
achieve super plastic deformation.
Ma et al. 2009 Two pass FSP resulted in an enhancement in super plastic elongation
with a optimum rate in the nugget zone of the second pass and a
shift to higher temperature in both central of second pass as well as
transitional zone between passes.
Jana et al. 2010 All single pass runs showed some extent of abnormal grain growth
which was removed with multi-pass.
Higher rotational speed was found to be beneficial for controlling
AGG.




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Author Year Findings
Barmouz et al. 2011 Found that MP FSP reduces the Sic particle size, improve dispersion
and separation of Sic particle by severe stirring action in the NZ.
Ni et al. 2011 MP overlapping FSP transforms the coarse cast NiAl bronze alloy
(NAB) base metal to get defect free fine micro structure.
Izadi et al. 2012 Study the effect of MP FSP on distribution and stability of carbon
nano-tube and to fabricate a MMC based on Al 5059 and
MWCNTs.




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ADVANTAGES OF CONTRA-ROTATING FSW
TOOLS
 New variant technique of FSW/FSP.
 Requires less clamping and helps to work with high welding speed.
 Resultant force counters each other so require low securing force.
 Improves the weld integrity by disrupting and fragmenting the residual
oxide layer remaining within the first weld region by the follower tool.
 Weld over the first run produces further break-up and disposal of
oxides with no loss of mechanical properties.
 Second tool does not have to robust as the leading tool.
 Motion produced is similar to Re-stir ,but twin stir produces faster
travel speeds and in addition, efficiency of FSW can be further
improved with the use of two tools.




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OBJECTIVE
 To determine the effect of two contra-rotating FSW tool
(Tandem Twin-stir) on the friction stir processing/welding
region on different types of aluminium alloys.
 To study the effect of contra-rotating tool on mechanical
properties and microstructure.
 To see the effect of twin tool and single tool with single as well as
two pass and compare the results.
 To optimize the process parameters.




Slide 30

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
 Fixture design
Fig. 7: Pictorial view of fixture (a) Fixture installed over milling
machine bed (b) Welding plates clamped over fixture




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EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Fig. 8: Pictorial view of twin tool attachment
(a) Old one (b) New one
(c) (d)




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Fig.8(e) Inner assembly and (f) Inner isometric view




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Additional changes made against old attachment
 In the first attachment the main tool was tightened with the collet
bed or hanger of the vertical milling machine. The single tool collet
assembly is triangular push type, so when it is tightened from the
upper side of the bolt it directly pulled the first tool, for that reason
there was always a height difference between the two tool even
though they are identical to each other. This problem is resolved in
the newly fabricated attachment.
 In this case, the rotor plate of the attachment is directly tightened
with the movement unit of the milling machine. So there is no
contact with the collet assembly of the machine and no height
difference between the two tools.




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 In the first attachment two normal ball bearings was used near to
the collets of the two tools. But in new attachment four ZZ ball
bearings is used, two pushed upward inside to the pressure plate
and two to the upper side of the gear assembly. Two bearings
support the secondary tool which helps in rotating the tool very
smoothly and independently without any vibration.
 Distance between the two tools in the old attachment was 38.6 mm
which is more than the new attachment and is 36.8 mm.
 Collet length and hub unit is small as compared to the older one
which eliminates the slack and vibration while running.
Contd.




Slide 35

WORK MATERIAL
 Work piece material – commercially pure aluminium alloy
 Work piece size – 200 mm x 80 mm x 2.5 mm
Chemical composition (weight %) of work piece material
Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Zn Ti Ga Na Others, each
Remainder
Aluminium
0.7055 0.831 0.00505 0.013 0.00465 0.0031 0.0048 0.0118 0.00245 Max. 0.05% 98.7
Mechanical properties of base metal
Yield Strength in MPa Ultimate strength in MPa Elongation in % age
Hardness at 200 gmf load in
VHN
106.47 119.79 16.39 35-46 HV




Slide 36

TOOL MATERIAL
 Tool material – SS316
 Shoulder diameter – 16 mm
 Pin diameter – 5 mm
 Pin length – 2 mm
 D/d ratio of tool – 3.2
Chemical composition (weight %) of Tool Material
SS316
Si P Mn Cr Ni Mo Fe
2.13 0.27 8.95 16.29 0.2 0.14 72.01
Fig. 9: FSP/FSW tool dimensions




Slide 37

PROCESS PARAMETERS
 No of tools – 2
 Rotational speed – 4
 Welding speed - 3
 Total experiments - 36
Process parameters Values
Rotational speed (rpm) 900, 1120,1400,1800
Welding speed (mm/min) 16,31.5,63
D/d ratio of tool 3.2
Pin length (mm) 2
Tool shoulder, D (mm) 16
Pin diameter (mm) 5




Slide 38

MEASUREMENTS
 Metallographic Observations (Macrostructure Analysis)
Fig. 10: Optical microstructure
(LEICA DFC-295)
Fig. 11: Variable speed grinder
polisher




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 Micro hardness
Fig. 12: Vickers micro hardness testing apparatus




Slide 40

 Tensile test specimen
Fig. 13: Dimension of the tensile test specimen




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 Tensile properties
Fig. 14: (a): Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON) (b): Specimen
mounted over UTM




Slide 42

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Following weld joints properties were studied:
 Macrostructure analysis of welded samples
 Micro-hardness
 Ultimate tensile strength
 Yield strength
 % elongation
 Joint efficiency
 Macro and microscopic Study of fractured tensile test pieces using
optical microscope and SEM




Slide 43

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Sl.
No
Sample
parameter
TT ST-SP ST-DP
1 900-16
2
1120-16
3
1400-16
4
1800-16
Tunnel at middle
Tunnel with pinhole
Pin hole at middle
Tunnel at upper side
Table 6.1: Effect of TT, ST-SP, and ST-DP on macrostructure of the FSW zones




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Sl.
No
Sample
parameter
TwinTool Single Pass Multi Pass
5
900-31.5
6 1120-31.5
7 1400-31.5
8
1800-31.5
Elongated tunnel at middle
Small tunnel at middle
Tunnel at bottom
Tunnel defect
Worm hole at center
Contd.




Slide 45

Sl.
No
Sample
parameter
TwinTool Single Pass Multi Pass
5
900-63
6
1120-63
7
1400-63
8
1800-63
Defect free pinhole at bottom
Pinhole at bottom
Defect free
Tunnel at middle
Defect free
Contd.
Defect free
Defect free