You are on page 1of 20

1

CS2302-COMPUTER NETWORKS UNIT 1
Network architecture – layers – Physical links – Channel access on links –
Hybrid multiple access techniques - Issues in the data link layer - Framing –
Error correction and detection – Link-level Flow Control
I. Introduction

a. Connectivity

PART A

1. Expectations of a network based on user perspective.
2. What do you mean Links and nodes?
3. What are the types of line configurations?
4. What do you mean by point to point and multipoint links?
5. Compare circuit switching and packet switching networks
6. What is a packet?
7. What is the work of (switch, router, hub, repeater, gateway)?
8. What is routing?

PART B

1. Write in detail about connectivity in a network.

b. Cost effective Resource sharing

PART A

1. What do you mean by multiplexing?Give example
2. What do you mean by demultiplexing?Give Example
3. What do you mean by STDM?
4. What do you mean by FDM?
5. Limitations of STDM and FDM.
6. What do you mean by statistical multiplexing?


2
7. How does a switch multiplexes a packet from multiple
sources onto one shared link?

PART B

1. How cost effective resource sharing is achieved in a network?.

c. Support for common services.

PART A

1. What is a need for a common service?
2. What are the works of a client and server?
3. What do you mean by request reply channel?
4. What do you mean by message stream channel?
5. What are the three classes of that network designers have to
worry about?(2/6mark)

II. Network architecture – layers

a. Layering and Protocols

PART A

1. What is the idea behind abstraction?
2. Abstractions naturally lead to layering – Account on it
3. What are the features that are provided by layering?
4. What do you mean by multiple abstractions?Give example
5. What do you mean by protocols?
6. What are the two interfaces that protocols provide?
7. What do you mean by service interface? Figure it
8. What do you mean by peer interface?Figure it
9. What do you mean by protocol graph?Give example
10.What do you mean by header?
11.What do you mean by trailer?


3
12.What do you mean by payload?
13.What is encapsulation?
14.What is the need of demux key?

PART B

1. Explain in detail about layering and protocols.(16)
2. Explain the process of encapsulation

b. OSI Architecture

PART A

1. What are the layers present in the OSI model?
2. Group the OSI layers by function
3. What are header and trailers and how do they get added and
removed?
4. What is the job of the physical layer?
5. What are the services of physical layer?
6. What is the job of the Data link layer?
7. What are the services of Data link layer?
8. What are the functions of Network layer?
9. What do you mean by IP?
10.What are the functions of the Transport layer?
11.What do you mean by TCP?
12.What do you mean by UDP?
13.What are the functions of Session layer?
14.What are the functions of Presentation layer?
15.What are the services of Application layer?
16.List out various names of the data as it passes various layers.

PART B

1. Explain the ISO OSI architecture model with a neat
diagram.(16)



4
c. Internet Architecture or TCP/IP architecture

PART A

1. Write about the evolution of internet architecture.
2. Draw the diagram of internet architecture?
3. What does the lowest level of internet architecture
represent?
4. What does the IP layer of the Internet architecture does?
5. What does the third layer (TCP/UDP) of the Internet
architecture does?
6. Write about the top level application protocol layer of
Internet architecture.
7. The internet architecture does not imply strict layering –
account on it.
8. Write about the hour glass shaped feature of the internet
architecture.
9. What has to be done to include a new protocol in the internet
architecture?

PART B

1. Explain in detail about the internet architecture.(16)

d. Network Tolopogies

PART A

1. Advantages and disadvantages of all the topologies.
2. For n devices in a network, what is the number of cable links
required for a mesh and ring topology? Mesh topology =n (n-1)/2 , Ring
topology = n
3. What is the difference between a passive and an active hub.
4. Assume 6 devices are arranged in a mesh topology. How
many cables are needed? How many ports are needed for
each device? Number of cables=n (n-1)/2 , Number of ports per device=n-1


5
III. Physical links
a. Links

PART A
1. List out some of the physical medias.
2. Define signals.
3. What is modulation?
4. Draw the diagram of electromagnetic spectrum.
5. Define half duplex communication.
6. Define full duplex communication.
7. List out some of the common types of cables and fibres
available for the local links.
8. List out some of the common bandwidths available from the
carriers.
9. What do you mean by Leased line link.
10.List out the some of the Leased Line Links services and
bandwidth.
11.What do you mean by Last mile link.
12.What do you mean by ISDN?
13.Discuss about the two new technologies that overtook ISDN.
14.What do you mean by ADSL?
15.What is a local loop in ADSL? Represent diagrammatically.
16.What do you mean by VDSL? Represent diagrammatically.
17.Write about cable modems.
18.Write some of the electromagnetic signals available.
19.How attenuation of signal is done?
20.What do you mean by frequency hopping spread spectrum?
21.What do you mean by direct sequence spread spectrum?
22.What is n-bit chipping code? Give example





PART B
1. Explain in detail about physical links (16)




6
IV. Channel access on links

PART A
1. What do you mean by FDMA?
2. What do you mean by TDMA?
3. What do you mean by CDMA?

PART B

1. Explain various channel access schemes (FDMA TDMA CDMA)
(8/10)
2. Explain hybrid multiple access. (8/6)

V. Issues in data link layer

PART A
1. What are the functions of data link layer?
2. What are the design issues of data link layer?

a. Encoding.

PART A
1. What is a network adaptor? What is the use of signalling
component ?
2. Write about NRZ encoding with example.
3. What is the problem with NRZ encoding?
4. Write about the situation baseline wanderer in NRZ.
5. Write about the situation clock recovery in NRZ.
6. What is the need for NRZi?
7. Write about NRZi encoding with example.
8. What is the need for Manchester encoding?
9. Write about Manchester encoding.
10.What do you mean by Differential Manchester?


7
11.Compare NRZ and NRZi
12.Compare Manchester and Differential Manchester
13.Write about 4B/5B encoding.

PART B
1. Write about various encoding schemes (16).

b. Framing.

PART A
1. How frames are exchanged between two nodes?
2. What do you mean by byte oriented approach?
3. Draw the frame format of BISYNC and PPP frame format.
4. What are sentinel characters?
5. What do you mean by character stuffing?
6. What is start of text character for?
7. What is the use of LCP?
8. Draw the DDCMP frame format.
9. What is the use of COUNT field in DDCMP?
10.What is framing error in DDCMP?
11.Draw the HDLC frame format.
12.What is meant by bit stuffing?
13.What do you meant by clock based framing?
14.What are the problems that are addressed by SONET?
15.How does receiver know that where frame starts and ends?
16.Draw and discuss the frame format of STS-1.
17.How multiplexing works in SONET?
18.Write about formation of STSn frame.
19.Discuss the scenario when two SONET frames are out of
order.
PART B
1. Explain the Byte oriented protocols (8/10)
2. Explain the Bit-Oriented Protocols (8/10)
3. Explain Clock Based framing in detail (8/12)


8

c. Error detection.

PART A
1. What are the types of errors that occurs during data
transmission?
2. What do you mean by error detection?
3. What are the various error detection methods available?
4. What are the two approaches that can be taken when a
recipient detects error?
5. List out the two common error detection mechanisms?
6. What are the various error detection methods available?
7. What do you mean by parity check? What are its types?
8. What is VRC or Simple parity check? Give example
9. What is LRC or Two dimensional parity checks? Give example.
10.Write the procedure to odd parity check.
11.Write the procedure to even parity check.
12.Write down the procedure for 2D parity check.
13.Write down the routine for internet checksum algorithm.
14.What do you mean by CRC?
15.Write short notes on CRC generator and checker.
16.Write down the polynomial form for a 8-bit message of your
own.
17.What happens when a sender wishes to transmit a message
M(x)?What is the outcome?
18.How a message P(X) checked whether it has errors or not?
19.Write down the polynomial modulo2 arithmetic properties.
20.How a original message M(x) is sent and checked for errors
usig CRC?
21.Write down the stated properties for types of errors that can
be detected by C(x).
22.Write about the CRC calculation using shift register.

PART B
1. Explain parity checking in detail (8/10 )


9
2. Explain the internet checksum algorithm (8/10)
3. Explain the Cyclic redundancy Check in detail (8/10/16)

d. Error Correction.

PART A
1. What is meant by error correction?
2. What do you mean by error correction and error detection?
3. What are the techniques to adopt error correction?
4. Write about error correction by retransmission?
5. Write about Forward error correction.
6. What do you mean by Hamming code?
7. What are the steps to calculate r values?

PART B
1. Explain in detail about error correcting schemes with
example.(10m/12m)

VI. Flow Control

a. Stop and wait.

PART A
1. Differentiate error control and flow control.
2. What is an acknowledgement?
3. What is piggybacking?
4. What do you mean by ARQ?
5. What is the idea behind stop and wait ARQ?
6. Draw the timeline diagram for various stop and wait
scenarios.
7. What is the need for sequence numbers?
8. Draw the timeline diagram for ACK with 1-bit sequence
number.
9. What is the short coming of stop and wait algorithm?


10
10.Keeping the pipe full – Discuss about it.

PART B
1. Explain stop and wait protocol with necessary timeline
diagrams (8/10 ).

b. Sliding window Protocol.

PART A
1. Draw the timeline for Sliding window?
2. What are the three variables maintained by the sender?
3. What are the three variables maintained by the receiver?
4. Draw the window format on sender side.
5. Draw the window format on receiver side.
6. Write down the window size invariants maintained by sender
and receiver.
7. Write down the condition for accepting and discarding the
frame based on sequence number.
8. What is meant by selective acknowledgement?
9. Write down the criteria’s for selecting sender window size
and receiver window size.
10.Draw the time line for selective repeat ARQ.
11.Draw the timeline for GO Back N ARQ.
PART B

1. Explain the concepts of Sliding window Protocol .(16)
2. Explain Selective repeat and GO Back N ARQ of Sliding
window Protocol.(8)








11
CS2302-COMPUTER NETWORKS UNIT - 2
Medium access – CSMA – Ethernet – Token ring – FDDI - Wireless LAN –
Bridges and Switches

I. Medium access – CSMA
PART A
1. What do you mean by CSMA?
2. What do you mean by CSMA/CD?
3. Write about 1-persistent CSMA.
4. Write about Non-persistent CSMA.
5. Write about p-persistent CSMA.

PART B
1. Explain CSMA? How does collision detection works in case of
CSMA/CD?(12)

II. Medium access – 802.3 Ethernet

PART A
1. Draw and Write about transceiver and adaptor.
2. What is the use of a repeater in Ethernet?
3. What is the use of terminators in Ethernet?
4. What type of Encoding is used by the Ethernet?
5. List out and discuss about various Ethernet cables?
6. 10Base (2/5/T) – What does each term stands for?
7. What is the use of hub in Ethernet?
8. Draw the Frame format of Ethernet.
9. In 802.3 what is the use of Preamble field? What is its size?
10.In 802.3 What is its size of source and dest address?
11.In 802.3 what is the use Type field? What is its size?
12.In 802.3 what is the use of CRC field? What is its size?
13.Ethernet address does not belong to the host –Justify
14.Write down the format of the Ethernet address.


12
15.Compare unicast, multicast and broadcast of Ethernet
addresses.
16.What are the types of frames accepted by Ethernet adaptor?
17.What is the idea behind transmitter algorithm?
18.Compare 1 persistent, p persistent and Non persistent
algorithms of Ethernet.
19.What does the adaptor does when it senses collision?
20.What do you mean by runt frame?
21.What does the Ethernet does in a worst case to know that the
frames did not collide?
22.What do you mean by exponential back off?

PART B
1. Explain the physical properties of Ethernet.(8)
2. Explain the Frame format and Address of Ethernet.(8)
3. Explain the transmitter algorithm in detail.(8)
4. Explain 802.3 in detail (16)

III. Medium access – 802.5 Token Ring

PART A
1. Compare Ring with Ethernet.
2. What are the two features that ring network share with
Ethernet?
3. What is the idea behind token ring?
4. What happens when a link or node fails in a token ring? How
to overcome it?
5. What are multi station access units (MSAU)?
6. Write down the steps to transmit and receive a packet in a
token ring.
7. Write about Token Holding Time (THT).
8. What is the need for priority field? Discuss about it.
9. How reliable delivery is achieved in token ring?
10.Write about early vs. delayed release.


13
11.What is the role of a monitor?
12.What is the procedure for a node to become a monitor? (or)
How monitor node is elected?
13.How monitor keeps track of missing token?
14.What is an orphaned frame? How monitor controls it?
15.How dead stations are detected by monitor?
16.Draw the frame format of 802.5.

PART B
1. Explain the physical properties of Token Ring(6)
2. Explain Token Ring Media Access Control (8)
3. Explain about the maintenance of Token Ring(8)
4. Explain Token Ring 802.5 in detail (16)

IV. Medium access – FDDI

PART A
1. Draw and write about the physical structure of FDDI.
2. What are SAS and DAS? What is their use?
3. Write about the r physical characteristics of the FDDI based
on length of cable.
4. What type of encoding is used in FDDI?
5. What is Target Token Rotation Time (TTRT)?
6. What is measured TTRT?
7. How TTRT and measured TTRT influence the transmission?
8. How FDDI handles synchronous and asynchronous traffic?
9. How all nodes on an FDDI ring monitor the ring to be sure
that the token has not been lost?
10.How the claim frames in FDDI differ from those in 802.5?
11.What happens when a node receives a claim frame?
12.Draw the frame format of FDDI.
13.Compare the frame format of FDDI and Token Ring.
PART B


14
1. Explain the physical properties of FDDI (8)
2. Explain Time Token Algorithm of FDDI (8)
3. Explain about the token maintenance of FDDI(8)


V. Medium access – Wireless 802.15.1, 802.11, 802.16

PART A
1. Compare by wireless mesh network and adhoc network.
2. Discuss about the physical properties of 802.15.1.
3. Write about Bluetooth piconets.
4. What is a parked state in Bluetooth?
5. Write about ZigBee technology.
6. What are the various 802.11 standards?
7. What are three different physical media that 802.11 was
designed to run over?
8. What is the idea behind spread spectrum?
9. Write about OFDM.
10.Write about frequency hopping spread spectrum.
11.Write about direct sequence spread spectrum.
12.What is n-bit chipping code?
13.Write about 802.11 based on infrared signals.
14.What is hidden node problem? Represent diagrammatically.
15.What is Exposed node problem? Represent diagrammatically.
16.How 802.11 addresses the Hidden node and Exposed node
problem.
17.What so you mean by RTS and CTS?
18.What is a distribution system?
19.What do you mean by access points?
20.What is scanning? Write down the steps involved in it.
21.Compare active scanning and passive scanning.
22.Draw the frame format of 802.11.
23.What are the subfields of control field?
24.Write about the address fields in the 802.11 frame format.



15
PART B
1. Explain in detail about 802.15.1(8)
2. Explain in detail about 802.11 physical properties(8)
3. Explain in detail about 802.11 collision avoidance
mechanisms. (8)
4. Explain in detail about 802.11 distribution systems(8)
5. Explain in detail about 802.11(16)
6. Explain in detail about WiMax(8)

VI. Bridges and LAN switches

PART A
1. Why bridge is is preferred as an alternative to repeater?
2. Define Bridge.
3. How does a bridge come to learn on which port the various
hosts reside?
4. What are the fields in the forwarding table maintained by the
bridge?
5. What is the need of spanning tree algorithm?
6. Write down the steps in spanning tree algorithm.
7. What is a designated bridge?
8. What are the three pieces of information that configuration
messages contain?
9. How broadcast and Multicast are done in bridges?
10.How does a given bridge learn whether it should forward a
multicast frame over a given port?
11.What are the limitations of Bridges?

PART B
1. Explain how Bridges learn to send to specific ports?(8)
2. Explain the spanning tree algorithm in detail.(16)
3. How broadcast and Multicast are done in bridges?(8)
4. Discuss the limitations of Bridges?(8)




16
CS2302-COMPUTER NETWORKS UNIT - 5
Email (SMTP, MIME, IMAP, POP3) – HTTP – DNS – SNMP – Telnet – FTP –
Security – PGP – SSH

I. Email (SMTP, MIME, IMAP, POP3)

PART A
1. Differentiate application programs from application
protocols.
2. What are the two parts of RFC 822 messages?
3. What do you mean by CRLF?
4. What do you mean by MIME?
5. What are the three pieces that MIME includes?
6. What are the contents of the header line?
7. Write about the definitions for content types in MIME.
8. What is a multipart type in MIME?
9. Write about encoding in MIME.
10.What is the idea behind base64 encoding?
11.Define SMTP.
12.Write down the steps carried out to send and receive mail
using SMTP.
13.What is the need of mail gateways?
14.What do you mean by IMAP?
15.Draw the state diagram of IMAP
16.What do you mean by POP3?
17.What are the states that POP3 undergoes after connection is
established?
18.What are the different modes in POP3?

PART B
1. Explain in detail about message format of an Email(8/12).
2. Explain Message Transfer (or) SMTP in detail (16)
3. Explain Mail Reader or IMAP in detail (8/12).
4. Explain Email (SMTP, MIME, IMAP, POP3) in detail (16)


17

II. HTTP

PART A
1. What do you mean by URL?
2. “Following a link”-account on it.
3. Write down the general format of HTTP.
4. How HTTP similar to SMTP?
5. What are the two most common request operations? Discuss.
6. Write down various HTTP request operations and mention
their use.
7. Compare absolute and relative URL?
8. Tabulate various HTTP result codes.
9. What do you mean by URI?
10.Compare URI and URL.
11.Write about the connection establishment in HTTP(1.0)
12.Compare Non persistent and persistent connections?
13.Write down the procedural steps followed in Non persistent
connection.
14.Write down the advantages of persistent connections.
15.Compare HTTP (1.0) and HTTP (1.1).
16.What is the advantage of caching from users perspective?
17.What is a proxy?
18.Write down the steps for caching done using proxy server?

PART B
1. Write about the request and response messages of HTTP(8)
2. Explain various TCP connections in HTTP(6/8)
3. Discuss briefly about URI(4/6)
4. Write about the process of Caching in HTTP(6/8)
5. Explain HTTP in detail.





18
III. DNS

PART A
1. What do you mean by Domain Name Service?
2. How host names differ from host addresses?
3. What do you mean by domain? List out some domains.
4. What is a resource record?
5. Discuss about the five tuples in resource record.
6. What do you mean by name resolution?
7. How the client locates the root server in first place? (or) How
do you resolve the name of the server that knows how to
resolve names?

PART B

1. What do you mean by name service? How DNS implements
hierarchical namespaces for Internet objects?(8)
2. How resource record represent the information in domain
hierarchy? Explain with an example.(6/8)
3. Explain the types of name servers and the process of name
resolution with necessary examples(8)
4. Explain DNS in detail.(16)

IV. SNMP

PART A

1. What is SNMP? What are the request messages it support?
2. What is MIB?
3. List out 10 different groups that variables are organised in
MIB-II.
4. Write down the steps for working of network management.
5. Write about GET-NEXT operation.
PART B


19

1. Explain about the groups in MIB II (6/8)
2. What are the problems that still remain after having a list of
MIB variables (6/8).
3. Explain SNMP in detail.(8/10/16)

V. TELNET

PART A

1. What do you mean by TELNET?
2. What are the principles that TELNET is based on?
3. What do you mean by NVT?
4. What are the applications of TELNET?

PART B

1. Discuss in brief about the concept of NVT(8)
2. Explain in detail about TELNET (8/10)

VI. FTP

PART A

1. What do you mean by FTP?
2. What are the characteristics of FTP?
3. What are the FTP connections available?
4. What is control connection in FTP?
5. What is data connection in FTP?
6. Write down the steps for how FTP operates? What is the
work of user agent?
7. Write about FTP commands.
8. What are the two types of connections that are available in
FTP replies?


20
9. How communication over a controlled connection takes
place?
10.How communication over a data connection takes place?
11.Write about File type communication property.
12.Write about Data structure communication property.
13.Write about Transmission mode communication property.

PART B
1. Explain File transfer Protocol in detail.(16)

VII. PGP

PART A
1. What are the various cryptographic components?
2. What is public key or symmetric key cryptography?
3. What is secret/private key cryptography or asymmetric key
cryptography?
4. What is PGP? What is its use?
5. Write down the PGP steps to prepare a message for email
from A to B.
PART B
1. Explain PGP in detail (8/10)
VIII. SSH

PART A
1. What is SSH? What is its purpose?
2. What are the three protocols of SSH2?
3. What is the use of SSH TRANS protocol?
4. What do you mean by port forwarding?

PART B
1. Explain SSH in detail (8/10/16)