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Dasmarinas City, Cavite

ARCH500- Architecture Comprehensive Course
History of Architecture – Part 1
(Lifted from History of Architecture, 18
Edition by Sir Bannister Fletcher)

PART 1. The Beginnings of Architecture
1. Introduction
- History of Architecture- a record of man’s effort to build beautifully. It traces the origin,
growth and decline of architectural styles which have prevailed lands and ages
- Influencing Factors
o Geographical
o Geological
o Climatic
o Religion
o Historical
o Social and Political (Sociopolitical)
- Examples of Pre-historic Architecture
o Hut
o Caves
o Sceilings
o Tents
o Beehive hut
2. Megalithic Architecture
- Most common megalithic structures
o Dolmen- consist of several large stones set on one end with a large-covering slab
o Passage grave (tumuli)
o Menhirs (monoliths)
3. Primitive Dwellings
- Mudhif
- American Cabin
- Indian House
- Kickapoo
- Sumatran House
- Igloo
- Nigerian House
- Cornish Cottage
- Annamese wooden house
- Brazilian Indian Hut

PART 2. Egyptian Architecture
1. Influences
- Geographical – consist of narrow strip of fertile alluvial soil along banks of Nile, flanked by
shelves of barren land and rugged cliffs, beyond which lie arid desert plateau.
- Geological – stone such as granite, sandstone, limestone and alabaster are abundant;
source of metal is poor; little source of timber but rich in indigenous palms; mud or clay
which is used in making bricks is abundant
- Climatic – has two seasons (spring and summer); climate is warn and snow is unknown; rain
is rare
- Historical and Social- social and industrial conditions in Egypt were largely determined by
the inflexible rule of an omnipotent government; craftsmanship was highly developed
especially in pottery, weaving, glass blowing, metal working, musical instruments making,
jewelry and furniture; kings in Egypt are known as pharaohs which are silhouetted against
the mysterious desert background, sometimes they appear as gods and demi-gods, often as
mystery priests, generally as builders, but rarely as fathers of their people
2. Architectural Characters (please be familiar with the following)
- Egyptian Gorge
- Batter
- Hieroglyphics
- Egyptian columns
- Columnar and trabeated
- Egyptian Temples
- Egyptian Ornaments
3. Examples
- Tomb Architecture (take note of parts and various examples)
o Mastaba – rectangular, flat-topped funerary mound with battered sides covering a
burial chamber below ground
 Mastaba of Thi
 Mastaba at Beit Khallaf
o Royal Pyramids
 Step pyramid of Zoser
 Great Pyramid of Cheops
 Pyramid of Chephren
 Pyramid of Mykerinos
o Rock Hewn Tombs
 Tomb Of Beni Hasan
 Tomb of King Thebes
 Tomb of Rameses IX
- Temples (take notes of different types, examples and parts)
o Mortuary Temples
o Cult Temples
 Temple of Ammon, Karnak, Thebes
 Great Temple of Abu-Simbel
 Temple of Khons
- Obelisks (take note of parts and examples)
- Dwellings (take note of character of plan and forms)
- Fortresses (take note of examples)

PART 3. Architecture in the Ancient Near East
1. Influences
- Geographical (three broad zones- deserted to grasslands)
o The greater part of Arabian Peninsula Desert extending to Syria
o Great arc extending from the Mediterranean coastal plain of Palestine, through
North Syria to the head of the Persian Gulf stretches the zones of grasslands,
steppes, piedmont country and alluvial river plains (the fertile crescent)
o Chain of mountains and plateau
- Geological
o Clay is abundant (universal material)
o Timber (imported) and stone are limited on lowlands
o Stone, alabaster and limestone are transported from the uplands
- Climatic
o Except for the humid Black Sea and Caspian Littorals, most of the Near East is
subject to extreme temperature between winter and summer.
o On highlands, winter is longer than summer
- Historical, Social and Religious (take a glimpse and be familiar with the areas)
o Mesopotamia – Sumerians (Asianic)
o Anatolia (the Levant and Iran)
o The Persian Empire
2. Architectural Characters (please take note of the character of each three broad geographical zones)
- Arcuated
- Universally made of bricks; there are instance of doubled mud bricks
- Flat Roof

3. Different “times” of the Architecture in Ancient Near East (take note of the character of each
overlapping period)
- Early Mesopotamian (5
to 2
millennium BC)
- Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian (1859-539 BC)
- Early Anatolian and Hittite (3250 – 1170 BC)
- Canaanite, Phoenician and Israelite (3250 -587 BC)
- Syro-Hittite (1170 – 745 BC)
- Utaitian (850 – 600 BC)
- Phrygian (750 – 650 BC)
- Median and Persian (750 – 350 BC)
- Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanian (312 BC – 641 AD)
4. Examples
- Megaron and portico (take note of parts and character)
- Ziggurats
o Ziggurat at Warka
o Ziggurat of Urnammu, Ur
o Ziggurat and Precinct of UR
- Palace of Persepolis (take note of characters, parts and ornaments)
- Palace of Sargon (take note of the characters and ornaments)

PART 4. Pre-Columbian Architecture in America
1. Central America
- Influences
o Geographical and Climatic
 Central Mexico including parts of the Gulf Mexico, Oaxaca Region, Yucatan
Peninsula, Southern Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala
 These areas have little in common, the dry high plains of the northern
portion and the tropical impenetrable rain forests of the south.
o Geological
 Almost all parts have excellent building stones
 In Yucatan, limestone could be easily worked or burnt for lime
 In Mexico, volcanic rock is abundant (including “tezentli”, a porous stone
ranging in color from black to crimson) which is much favored by Aztec
 Throughout central/ middle America, adobe brick made of sun dried clay
was widely used
 The forest of the southeast provided hardwood
o Historical, Social and Religious (being familiar with the following is “enough” for this
 Olmec (the earliest civilization) – origin of great Mayan Culture of the
Yucatan region (early 600 BC)
 Pre-classic Maya (until 100 AD); Classic Maya (100-900 AD) and
Post-classic Maya (900-1525 AD)
 Teotihuacan Civilization (100 BC) came into being in Mexican Plateau; its
peak was in 150 – 350 AD
 Toltec founded Tula and extended through Central Mexico and into Maya
 Tula was overthrown in 1170 and was subjected to a series of invasions until
the arrival of Aztec people in the 14
Century and founded the twin capitals
of Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco (present day Mexico City)
 Throughout the region the most important God were those representing
natural phenomena, the sun, moon, rain and corn.
 The Toltecs worshipped Quetzalcoatl, the plumed serpent; Toltecs likewise
introduced human sacrificed which later characterized the Aztec religion
 The structure of Middle American societies were based on powerful ruling
of priesthood, supported by a large peasant slave or population, and in
essentials similar to that of Ancient Egypt.
 Aztec Society was relatively complex and organized in number of distinct
and separate classes- priests, warriors, merchants’ craftsmen and serfs;
Aztecs are ruled by priest-King with absolute power, elected from the royal
family by a council of priests and warriors.
- Architectural Characters
o Most important building is the Temple Pyramid (please be familiar with character and
o For all buildings, stone was employed either finely dressed or carved as laid through
dressed rubble.
o In course works, little attention was paid to the staggering of vertical joints.
o Stone facing panels, carved with formalized representations of jaguars, coyotes and
eagles occur in Toltec Work.
o Geometric Patterns formed by projecting stones are found in Mitla suggestive of
woven designs and characteristics of the Mixtec-Zapotec culture.
o Roofs were flat, windows were not used, and doorways were square-headed.
o The true arch was known, but Maya worked the principle of corbel
o Corbelled openings and vaults were common in Maya
o Interior walls could be decorated with mural paintings in the Aztec and Mayan
- Examples (please take note of the character and parts)
o Pyramid of the Sun
o Citadel, Teotihuacan (you may use the world wide web to check on this)
o Temple of the Giant Jaguar, Tikal
o Temple of the Warrior, Chichen Itza
o Palace of the Governors
o Buildings of Tenochtitlan
o The Ballcourt, Chichar Itza, Mexico
2. Peru
- Influences
o Geographical, Geologic and Climatic
 Consist of two geographic regions such as great mountain range of the
Andes and the narrow coastal strip between Andes and the Pacific
 Adobe is rich in the coastal region; adobe brick was the basic building
 Three types of stones were generally used for important buildings (black
andesite, yucay limestone and diorite porphyry)
o Historical, Social and Religious (this information may be “enough” as a review guide)
 Influenced by Tiahuanaco
 There was a sense of political and religious unity in the area until it
collapsed in the 11
 Relatively advanced civilization
 The Inca people of the central highlands settled in the Cuzco basin, where
they founded their capital.
 The Inca waged war against neighboring tribes until superiority was
conclusively established in the 15
 Inca invaded the coastal region and conquered the powerful Chimues and
eventually extended their empire into central Chile to the South and
Columbia to the North.
- Architectural Characters (this may be enough as a reviewer)
o Coastal Area
 Adobe brick was the prime material
 Roofs were sometimes gabled
 Opening was kept to a minimum
 Generally, the architecture was strong and simple forms
 Adobe bricks were made in a variety of shapes at different periods and
included conical, hemispherical and cubic forms
 Houses has generally one room, entered by a single door without windows
 Several houses belonging to different members of the family were grouped
around a central courtyard
 A typical village was made up of a number of houses grouped around
central court
o Andes Mountain Range
 Simple buildings were made of rubble. Sometimes bonded with clay
 Public buildings and fortress were made of dressed stones in a variety of
forms, including smooth ashlars, polygonal masonry of large irregular stone,
and walling where edges of stones were beveled and their faces dressed
into a cushion-like form
 In all cases, stones were fitted together with great precision, their abutting
faces probably being ground together with sand
 In course work, little attention was given was paid to the staggering of
vertical points
 Rich external decoration was lacking in buildings in the highlands with
exception at Tiahuanaco where decoration is found cut into the great
andesite lintel of the Gate of the Sun
 Roofs even in public buildings were covered with thatch but in some parts
of highlands, corbelled roofs were sometimes used
- Examples (please take note of the character and parts)
o Temple of the Sun, Tiahuanaco
o Machu Picchu
o Sacsahuaman

PART 5. Greek Architecture
1. Introduction
- Influences
o Geographical and Geological (this may be enough as reviewer)
 Includes island of Crete (great sea-power of the Mediterranean which
flourished ten thousand years before the Greek civilization reached its
peak); island of Sicily; present day Greece (Macedon, and Thessaly); and
areas across the Aegean Sea such as Mycia, Lydia, Caria and Lycia.
 Geography determined the fortunes of Aegean and Greek Cultures, for the
rugged nature of Greek peninsula and its islands, with mountainous
hinterlands which rendered internal communication difficult, made the sea
inevitable means of intercourse.
 The mountains of inland Greece separated the inhabitants into groups or
clans, thus arose the rivalry which characterized the Greek states, whether
in peace or war.
o Climatic (this may be enough as reviewer)
 Intermediate between rigorous cold and relaxing heat
 The clear atmosphere and intensity of light was conducive to the
development of that love of precise and exact form
 The administration of justice, dramatic representations, and most public
ceremonies took place in the open air, even in winter, and as a result, there
is limited variety of public buildings other than temples
 The hot summer sun and sudden winter showers, together with the Greek
love of conversation probably explain the porticoes and colonnades
o Historical and Social (this may be enough as reviewer)
 Aegean (earliest time to 1,100 BC) – embraces the civilization of Crete and
the mainland Greece. The civilization expanded, developing empire
protected by a naval power. Crafts, pottery and trade through coastal towns
produced unity of culture and economic stability. During 1,600 BC, the
whole Aegean culture achieved a power co-equal to Egyptian and
Mesopotamian civilization. Women took part in social life and participated
in most activities. There were no monumental class structures compared to
Egypt and Mesopotamia. Aegean civilization declined after 1,500 BC. In
about 1,450 to 1400 BC Knossos and other palace towns were destroyed
and the civilization they represented collapsed in ruin. The destruction was
widespread. Control of the sea thus passed to the mainland princes, who
now existed in a sort of federation linked by ties of varying strength.
 Mycenaean or Helladic Greece (1,400 -1,100 BC) –violence and conflicts
between towns led to the fortifications of Mycenae. The absorption of
Cretan ideas and the use of Cretan craftsmen produced continuity of
architectural character during Cretan supremacy and after its collapse.
Citadel palaces became centers of small but powerful empire. About 1,300
BC the wealth of Helladic Greece towns began to decline. The Trojan War
began and citadel palaces were destroyed. Some centers survived so that
certain continuity of traditions and standards obtained to give rise to slow
development through the age of Homer. Athens was one of such centers.
 Hellenic Greece (80 – 323 BC) – The city state (Polis) emerge as the basis of
Greek society. Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, the lack of political
unity was countered by sort of federal unity derived from common
language, custom and religion. The constricted setting of the city and its
government dissatisfaction among expanding population led to emigration
and eventually paved way to the rise of new cities which include Sicily and
South Italy. Freed from homeland conservatism, colonial cities developed
into remarkably developing and contributing unique expressions of Greek
ideas and produced brilliant outburst of building and architecture. By 600
BC, the cities of Greece have settled down to their several forms of
government- oligarchic, tyrannic and democratic. By the end of 6
BC, the tempo of events and ideas accelerated further. The disruption by
war and the collective victory of Greek cities against Persian Empire paved
way to the downfall of tyrannic governments and the development of
democratic regimes based on elections. The growth of democracy
synthesized the Greek achievement and eventually paved to the creation of
Rules of Pericles which further paved way to prosperity and eventually
resulted to tremendous outburst of building activity which expressed the
ultimate development of Hellenic art and architecture.
 Hellenistic Greece (323-30BC) – The fourth century saw sequence of
attempts by city-states to dominate Greece. This was resolved into a federal
system imposed by the Supremacy of Macedonia. In 359 to 336, under
Philip, the unification of Greece was accomplished, and firmly established
under his son Alexander the Great who then embarked on a national
crusade against Persia. Within five years, he completely destroyed Persian
Empire, annexing Egypt and penetrating Far East up to Punjab. The vast
territory became a Hellenistic Empire through which Greek Civilization was
extended. New and splendid city were founded of which Alexandria was to
be the largest and most famous. As a result, the center of Greece shifted to
east-politically, economically and artistically- the West declined in
o Religious (this may be enough as reviewer)
 The religion of the Aegeans was a nature worship which went through a
series of primitive stages. Mysteries of masculine force were represented by
a sacred bull, symbolized by “horns and consecration”. The supreme deity
was the fertility or mother-goddess, Rhea, priestesses rather than priests
conducted religious rituals. Worship centered on sacrificial altars, in open-
air enclosures, caves, small chapels or household shrines. The religious
ceremonies of the Aegeans included games and ritual dance.
 The Greek religion was also a worship of natural phenomena and highly
developed. The gods were personifications of particular elements, or were
deified heroes, and each town or district has its own local preferences,
ceremonies and traditions. There was no regular priesthood. Priest and
priestesses were not members of an exclusive class but led the normal
community life.
 Greek Deities (the 12 Olympians)
Zeus The supreme god; ruler of the sky
Hera Wife of Zeus, goddess of marriage
Apollo God of law and reason, art, music and poetry; founder of
Athena Goddess of wisdom and learning
Poseidon God of the sea
Dionysus God of wine; feasting and revelry
Demeter Goddess of earth and agriculture
Artemis Goddess of the chaste
Hermes Messenger of god
Aphrodite Goddess of commerce
Hephaestus God of fire, flame and forge god of handicrafts
Ares God of war
Heracles (Hercules) god of strength and labor pan, god of flocks

2. Aegean Architecture
- Architectural Character
o Island People
 Aegean people are Asiatic in origin thus the buildings has flat roof typical to
eastern countries
 Flat roof allowed buildings to be drawn together, in large blocks and in
multi-multi storey
 Light wells are used to admit natural light
 Spacious stairway were developed
 Flat roofs form part of serviceable accommodation
o Mainland people
 Low-pitched roof
 Single-storey
 Megaron (take note of the character and parts)
o Common or General Traits of Aegean Architecture
 Houses and palaces are the principal building types
 Underground tomb were also present
 Buildings were constructed of rubble or cut stone to dado height
 Upper parts of buildings have heavy double frame of timber, the panel
being filled with sun-dried bricks or stone rubble.
 The walls were coated with stucco outside, and either tinted, or painted
with patterns inspired by framed construction which lay behind
 Gypsum (plenty in Crete) also served to make hard, polished floor and roof
deckings carried on rounded logs, or was used in slabs for similar purposes
 Masonry techniques was developed, particularly comprised of great boulder
like stones, used in fortifications, to coarse or fine ashlar of heavy blocks
 Methods of walling (please research for the illustrations)
 Cyclopean
 Polygonal
 Rectangular
 Inclined Blocks
 No mortar was employed; clay sometimes served for bedding in rubble or
cyclopean works
 False arches of heavy blocks, or of corbels was introduced
 Corbel method was normal for vaults and pointed domes
 Square masonry pillar with bracket form of capital sometimes gave
intermediate support on lower floors, but distinctive column was of cypress
wood with a downward taper cylindrical shaft, a slight disc-like base and a
widely projecting capital with two main parts (a square abacus above and a
circular bulbous echinus (take note of the illustration and explanation about

- Examples (take note of the illustrations and parts)
o Palace
 The Palace in Tiryns
 Lion Gate in Mycenae
o Tombs
 Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae
 Dromos
 Tholos
3. Greek Architecture
- Architectural Character
o Hellenic Period
 Temples are the chief building types; the earliest type resembled the
Aegean megaron (take note of the ways how the megaron characters were
 Temple enclosures had propylaea, colonnades appear- surrounding the
 The character was essentially columnar and trabeated
 Wooden roofs was untrussed, the rafters being supported by longitudinal
beam (research for illustrations)
 At first, Greek columns and their entablatures were entirely timber with
terra cotta decorations on the upper trabeation but were later converted
into stone
 On 600 BC, translation of timber forms imitated in marble was remarkably
successful thus, Greek architecture sometimes has been called a “carpentry
in marble”
 Also on 600 BC, the walls became wholly of stone, yet the tradition of dado
always survive in the special way the stones were arranged at the base of
the walls
 Ceilings are sometimes omitted
 Almost all kinds of stone walls were used from coursed rubble to ashlar,
well bounded but without mortar
 Stones were secured together by wrought iron cramps and dowels
protected by molten lead
 Optical Illusion were practice
 3Orders of architecture developed (Doric, Ionic and Corinthian)
o Hellenistic Period
 This period provide much of the decorative inspiration of some Roman
building types
 This period of architecture mostly had been of religious character
 Civic design developed space, and entire group of buildings were laid on
symmetrical lines in orderly schemes, often linked by colonnade porticoes
or stoas.
 Town planning became normal
 Trabeated architecture, but arches began to appear over wall openings
 Advent of roof trusses
 The original purity of form of the orders was lost.
 Corinthian order is now mostly used
 Parts were interchanges on Doric and Ionic
 Doric or Ionic were superimposed in tiers when colonnade buildings were 2
storeys high

- Examples (take note of the plan and form characters, and parts; also, take note of the definitions)
o Temples (take note of the types of temples as to number of columns on the entrance)
 Parthenon
 Temple of Apollo, Corinth
 Temple of Apollo, Delphi
 Temple of Zeus, Olympia
 Temple of Illissus, Athens
 Temple of Nike, Apteros, Athens
 Temples of Apollo Epicurius
o Monuments
 Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens
o Theaters
o Tombs
 Nereid Monuments
 Sarcophagus, Cnidos
 Mausoleum, Halicarnassus
o Domestic Buildings
o Public Buildings
 Agora (Agora at Athens)
 Stoa
 Prythaneion
 Bouleutarion
 Odeion
 Stadium
 Hippodrome
 Palaestra
 Naval Buildings
- Terminologies (please take time to understand the following terms)/ and significant
o Dado
o Echinus
o Coffers
o Entasis (take note of the methods and ways aside from the definition)
o Stoas
o Exedrae
o 5 Orders of Architecture (including “applications”, parts- terminologies and examples)
o Propylaea
o Temenos
o Pinacotheca
o Acropolis
o Crepidoma
o Pediment (take note of the parts)
o Mutules
o Pediment
o Acroterion
o Tympanum
o Cornice
o Frieze
o Architrave
o Capital
o Shaft
o Stylobate
o Triglyph
o Metope
o Tenia/ Taenia
o Guttae
o Regula
o Annulets
o Trachelion
o Hypotrachelion
o Entablature
o Antefixae
o Arris
o Flutes
o Abacus
o Architrave
o Atlantes and Telamones
o Plinth
o Fillets
o Dentils
o Cymatium
o Caryatid and Canephora
o Caucoli
o Ancones
o Modillion
o Greek Mouldings (take note of the types and cross sectional illustrations)
o Bas-relief
o Auditorium or Cavea (take note of the parts and sub-terminologies)
o Podium
PART 6. Roman Architecture
1. Influences
- Geographical
o Within the periphery or region of Mediterranean Sea
o Multi-geographical (parts of Europe, Asia and Africa)
- Geological
o Exploited the natural resources to the fullest
o Romans could procure terra-cotta and brick
o In neighborhood of Rome, Tufa (a type of building stone) was used
o Volcanic Stones from Mt. Albano was used
o Travertine from Tivoli was used
o Lava, sand and gravel was also used
o Concrete was introduced
- Climatic
o North Italy has the climate similar to that of other European Countries
o Central Italy is genial and sunny
o Southern portion is tropical
o The variety of climatic condition is sufficient to account for diversity of architectural
features and treatment in the Italian Peninsula
o Varying climate in Roman provinces produced local modifications in details although
Roman architecture was so pronounced and assertive as to leave little choice in
general design

- Historical and Social
o 753 BC, Rome was little more than significant hill town in South Etruria; it was under
Etruscan domination and ruled by Etruscan Kings
o The declaration and development of a constitutional republic and civil service are
indicative of Roman Character; they were great organizer, thrifty, patient farmer-
soldiers, dutiful to authority and the law, and concerned with efficiency and justice
o Romans began to conquer peoples outside Italy. The war had affected the Roman
personality and constitutional government. Eventually, it experienced social and
political concerns and people dissatisfaction. The acquisition of vast territory
produce social imbalance and overwhelmed the system of government devised for a
city state. These problems were further aggravated of maintaining large standing
armies serving a long campaign in distant territories. A citizen “soldiery” had to be
transformed into a professional army, the reform and control of which was
exasperated ineffective republican government and gave rise to a succession of
military dictatorship like the famous Julius Caesar.
o Social life of Romans is clearly revealed in their architecture- thermae for bathing
and games, circuses for races, amphitheaters for gladiatorial contests, theaters for
drama, basilica for lawsuits, state temples for religion, apartment house (domus) for
family life, and forum for public life and national commerce.
o Amidst the diversity, one constant traits of Roman life is the capacity for obedience
which was the basis alike to society and state
o Romans developed their capacity as lawmakers
o Roman women were held in high respect, family life was protected
- Religious
o Polytheistic and fusion of several cults
o Roman Gods acquired similar attributes to those of the Greeks
o Religious feelings was not so strong compared to Greeks
o Dissatisfaction on empire religion was visible in the introduction to Rome of alien
cults from Egypt and Near East
2. Architectural Characters
- Etruscan Architecture
o Etruscans, inhabitants of West-central Italy were great builders; their methods were
overtaken by the Romans.
o They made remarkable advances in the organization of large scale undertakings
such as construction of city walls, sewers, the draining of the marshes and the
control of rivers, and the cutting of channels to regulate water levels of lakes
o Introduced a new order of architecture, the Tuscan
o Towns were fortified with powerful stone walls (several feet thick)
o No mortar was used in stone works or walls
o City walls were largely partly burnt bricks lain in clay mortars
o Tombs were located outside the city walls on special necropolis sites. Tombs took
the form of great conical tumuli, with stone burial chambers concealed with
earthen mounds (majority were underground)
o Types of house are the “atrium”, made of sun-dried bricks, covered with terra-cotta
tiled wooden roofs.
o Columns were sheathed with terra-coat.
o Walls and columns were of stone throughout, as at all times were the high
platforms (podiums) or which the temples stood.
o Temples were invariably frontal and usually faced south
o Ordinary Burial and Cremation was practiced in Etruria. Sarcophagi of stone,
alabaster and terra-cotta were used in very large number

- Roman Architecture
o Adapted columnar and trabeated style of Greeks
o Developed arches and vaults from the beginnings made by the Etruscans
o Combined column, beam and arches is the keynote of the Roman style in its earliest
o In the collosseum piers was improved and faced by attached half columns that
support arches, which in their turn carry the entablature.
o In aqueducts, the arch was supported on piers without the facing column
o The orders of architecture were used by Romans as decorative features (unlike
Greeks which used it constructively)
o Added ”Composite” order to the Greek Orders of Architecture
o Architectural aims of Romans were utilitarian
o Romans introduced the “use” of several storeys on buildings which were frequently
ornamented as in the colosseum
o Used of concrete promoted building economy
o Roman walls, both of stone and concrete, are of special character (please take note of
the different types of walls such as opus quadratum, etc)
o Stone arch was developed
o Concrete vaults were also used (please take note of the process of construction and types)
o Three principal buttresses were used (please take note of the process of construction and
o The Pantheon at Rome, the finest of all illustrations of Roman construction,
embodies every form of Roman buttress (please conduct special “look” on Pantheon)
3. Examples
- Etruscan Architecture (please take note of the form, plan and parts)
o Etruscan Sarcophagi
o Atrium
o Great Conical Tomb
o Cloaca Maxima, Rome
o Arch of Augustus, Perugia
o Temple of Juno Sospita, Lanuvium
o Etruscan Tomb (Corneto-Tarquinia)
o Necropolis Cerveteri
- Roman Architecture (please take note of the form, plan and parts)
o Forums
 Forum Romanum
 Imperial Forums
 Rorum of Trajan
o Rectangular Temples
 Temple of Fortuna, Virilis, Rome
 Temple of Mars, Ultor Rome
 Temple of Concord, Rome
 Temple of Castor and Pollux, Rome
 Maison Carree,Nimes
 Temple of Diana, Nimes
 Temple of Antoninus and Faustina
 Temple of Saturn, Rome
 Temple of Jupiter, Baalbek
 Temple of Bacchus
 Temple of Vespasian, Rome
o Circular and Polygonal Temples
 Temple of Vesta, Rome
 Temple of Vesta, Tivoli
 Temple of Portunus, Rome
 Pantheon, Rome
o Basilicas
 Basilica of Trajan, Rome
o Thermae
 Thermae of Caracalla
o Circuses
o Tombs
 Monumental
 Mausoleum of Augustus
 Coemeteria
 Loculi
 Columbaria
o Triumphal Arches
 Arch of Titus, Rome
 Arch of Constantine, Rome
o Town Gateways and Archways
 Porte S. Andre
o Roman Houses
 Domus
 House of Augustus
 House of Pansa, Pompeii
 Villa
 Insula
o Aqueducts
 Segovia Aqueducts
 Pont du Gard, Nimes, France
 Bridge of Augustus, Rimini
4. Terminologies/ Significant sub-topic groupings
- Dais, nave, apse (parts of Basilica)
- Cella
- Velarium
- Mast
- Loculi
- Keystone
- Soffit
- Spandrel
- Quadriga
- Peristyle
- Atrium
- Complovium
- Prothyrum
- Impluvium
- Lean
- Tablinium
- Fauces
- Triclinium
- Cubiculum
- Oecus
- Mosaic
- Fresco

PART 7. Early Christian Architecture (313-800 BC)
1. Influences
- Geographical
o Christianity had its birth in Judea, an eastern province of the Roman Empire… and
was naturally carried by St. Peter, St. Paul and other missionaries to Rome, as the
center of the world-empire.
o In spite of opposition and persecution, the new religion took root and grew until it
became strong enough to become recognized universal religion of the whole Roman
o Early Christian architecture in Rome was influenced by existing Roman art.
- Geological (this may be enough as a reviewer)
o Geological influences maybe said to have acted indirectly rather than directly on
early Christian architecture, for the ruins of Roman buildings often provided quarry
where materials were obtained.
o The influenced style, both as a regards to construction and decoration, for columns
and other architectural features as well as fine sculptures and mosaics from older
buildings were worked into basilican churches of the new faith.
- Historical and Social (this may be enough as a reviewer)
o The early Christian period generally taken as lasting from Constantine coronation of
o Constantine changed the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium in 330
when the old Roman political system came to an end. The royal convert reigned as
an absolute monarch until his death in 337
o The series of emperors in the west came to an end in AD 476, and the eastern and
Western empires was nominally reunited by Zeno, who reined Constantinople.
o The emancipation of western Europe from direct imperial control resulted in the
development of Romano-teofeonic civilization which facilitated the growth of new
states and nationalities, gave a fresh impulse to Christianity, and eventually
strengthened the power of bishops
- Religious
o Christianity has inspired the building of some of the greatest architectural
o Unlike the temple of the old Greeks and Romans which were built to shelter the
statues of the gods, the purpose of the Christian Church was to shelter worshippers
who met for a prayer and praise to unseen deity
o During unsettled conditions at the beginnings of Christianity, various places were
adopted for this worship
o The individual worship during the Pagan times of Roman empire was suddenly
replaced with “congregational” worship; thus the old Roman temples were
abandoned and instead, the basilica which is originally a place for public gathering
were adapted as the new edifice for Christian worship.
2. Architectural Character (have a copy of a typical plan and form of basilica and note the following
- Roman craftsman continued the old Roman traditions
- Early Christian buildings hardly have the architectural value, simply because, during the time
of persecution, believers secretly used roman houses converted as place for worship (house
- But, when Christianity was accepted , the plan of a basilica was adopted
- Basilican churches are rendered impressive and dignified by the long perspective of columns
which carry the eye along the sanctuary; a treatment which, combined with the
comparatively low height of interiors, makes these churches appear longer than they really
- An “arch of triumph” figurative of the transition through death to eternal life gave entrance
to sanctuary with the high altar in the center standing free under its “baldachino” upheld by
marble columns
- The vista was rounded off by an apse lined with marble slabs and crowned with semi-dome
encrusted with glittering golden mosaics in which Christ appears surrounded by prophets,
saints and martyrs
- Timber roofs covered the central nave and only simple forms of constructions, such as king
and queen post trusses were employed
- The narrower side aisles were occasionally vaulted and the apse was usually domed
- Walls were still constructed according to Roman methods of using hand-laid marble-
concrete faced with brick or stone and sometimes plaster.
- Mosaic decoration was added internally and sometimes also externally on west facades;
through little regard was paid to external architectural effect (conduct further study on the
different examples of mosaics as applied in Christian Basilican Churches)
- Introduction of “color” with the use of glass mosaics gave richness and mystery to interiors

3. Examples (take note of the plan, form and parts or spaces)
- Christian Basilica
o Old St. Peter’s Basilican Church, Rome
o St. Paolo Fuori Le Mura, Rome
o St. Agnese Fuori Le Mura
o Basilica of St. Clemente, Rome
o Basilica of St. Apollinaire, Ravenna
- Baptisteries
o Baptistery of Constantine, Rome
- Tombs
o Tomb of Galla Pacidia, Rome

PART 8. Byzantine Architecture (330-1453)
1. Influences
- Geographical
o Byzantium, renamed Constantinople after Constantine the Great, and later Istanbul,
was also called the “New Rome” was inaugurated as the capital of the Roman
Empire in 330
o It stood at the junction of Bosphorus and the sea of Marmora, where Asia and
Europe are divided only by a narrow strip of water. This gave commanding and
central position for the government of the eastern and most valuable part of the
Roman Empire
o Byzantine art pervaded all parts of Eastern Roman Empire and was carried by
traders to Greece, Serbia, Russia, Asia Minor, North Africa and further west where it
found in Venice, Ravenna and Perigueux.
o Venice , by its situation, was connecting link between the Byzantine and Frankish
Empires, and a depot for merchandise from both east and west
- Geological
o Constantinople had no good building stone, and local materials such as clay for
brocks and rubble for concrete were employed. Other materials more monumental
in character had therefore be imported
o Marble was brought from quarries in the island along the shores of Eastern
Mediterranean to Constantinople, which was the chief marble-working center and
supplied all parts of Roman Empire
- Climatic
o Flat roofs for summer were combined with oriental domes, and these, with small
windows often high up otherwise unbroken walls, formed the chief features if the
style, and sheltering arcades surrounded the open courts
- Historical and Social
o Byzantium was founded as a Greek colony in 660 BC and in 330 AD became the
capital of Roman Empire. New imperial buildings were executed by Greek craftsmen
untrammeled by Roman traditions.
o On the death of Emperor Thedosius in 395 AD, the empire was finally divided and
Byzantium continued to be the capital of the Eastern Empire, and throughout the
middle ages was the bulwark of Christianity against the attacks of Slav barbarians on
the west and of Moslem on the east
o Byzantium them faced conflicts with various empires, races or groups such as
Persians, Moslems, Normans, Venetians, Turks, Ottoman Turks and others… as a
result the spirit of the empire had fallen especially in Russia and in the Balkans
o However, Constantinople has continues up to the present as seat of a Patriarch of
the Orthodox Church
- Religious
o In the year 313 AD, the Edict of Milan was issued which granted toleration of
Christians, and in 330 AD, Constantinople became the capital of the first Christian
Empire. It follows that the chief buildings erected in the new capital were churches
for the new Religion. At first, they were of the Basilican – Early Christian Type but
later, the dominical Byzantine Style was developed.
o Byzantine architecture, devoid of statues has always been and still remains the
official style of the Orthodox church of Greece and Eastern Europe which has
conserved unchanged its doctrines and rituals.
2. Architectural Character
- Development of dome to cover polygonal and square plans for churches, tombs and
- Centralized (compacted plan)
- Dome over pendentive (take note of the different dome designs)
- Initially hand-laid concrete but progressively became more likely regular brickwork
- Caprices in patterns and banding and internally it was suitable for covering with marble and
fresco decoration
- The general use of brickwork necessitated special care in making mortar, which was
composed of lime and sand with crushed pottery, tiles or bricks
- The decorative character of external façades dependent largely on the arrangement of the
facing brocks which are not laid horizontally, but sometimes obliquely, sometimes in form of
the meander fret, sometimes in chevron or herring-bone pattern (please check the illustrations
of these patterns)
- Fresco was likewise used
3. Examples (take note of the form, parts and plans)
- Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
- St. Mark Church in Venice
- Gracanica Church
- St. Sophia, Novgorod
4. Other important things/ terms to remember
- Piazza
- Centering
- Three types and sub-types of domes
- Fresco
- Monolith shafts
- Gymnaceum
- Iconostasis
- Atrium
- Mosaics
- cubiform
- dosseret block

NOTE: please take note of the power point presentation on Church Architecture to learn more about the
evolution of churches!

PART 9. Islamic Architecture
1. Influences (this may be enough as a reviewer)
- Geographical
o Muslim faith flourished principally in the countries of Southern Asia and North
o Spread of Islam has always been frequently associated with military conquest, racial
movements, and in some cases with the consequent displacement of established
o Most important movement is the Arab Expansion towards north and west to the
Arabian Peninsula, and the drive of the Turkish and Mongol groups south,
southwest out of Central Asia
o The resulting architecture very largely associated with religious civic complexes
- Geological
o Islam expanded into countries with rich building tradition and the important
techniques of exploitation of natural resources for building work and trade in
building materials had long been established.
o Bricks making and pise’ walling was the almost universal in alluvial plain
o In the stone bearing areas, the art of selecting and working stones were strong
o Marble was generally available as an article for trade
o Building stones occur in variety
o Long tradition of ceramic production, use of gypsum plasters, glass manufacture and
various forms of metalwork needed for building (except for Lebanon, Northern Iran,
the Balkans and parts of Asia Minor)
o Timber was of limited type and quality – in many areas, it was scarce
o Earthquake is prevalent necessitating specialized structural techniques
- Climatic
o Much of the territory historically dominated by Islam tends to be fertile by virtue of
irrigation, rather than direct rainfall
o The greater part of Moslem world lies in the grip of some form of continental
climate with extremes of temperature and modest rainfall
o Generally excessive sunshine has produced a tendency towards wide eaves and
sheltering arcades, while window openings are minimized and rainwater disposal is
o The cooling effect of the structures with very heavy walls and high rooms has been
widely exploited
o Unprotected circulation areas are common
- Historical
o The military “movement” of Mohammed to various places on what is now Moslem
world is the prime mover of Islamic religion intensification
o The Islamic “bearers” was able to established a cultural tie with its Arabian
heartland as a sacred duty to be annually renewed in the great pilgrimage to Mecca
o This cultural concentricity did much to unite the thought and architecture or the
Islamic people
- Social
o Arab groups were tribal and their behavior patterns and cultural attributes were
based on traditions of the desert
o As Moslem communities became stabilized over the succeeding centuries, clear
pattern emerged in which public life was reserved for men
o Women played secondary role, almost inevitably assuming a major share of the
domestic and sometimes agricultural burden
o Only among nomadic groups did the Moslem world accept any degree of equality
between sexes in public life; for the rest, women’s place was in the private part of
the house- the harem
o Men performed the significant public duties and controlled public affairs; and this
social structure had direct architectural consequences in the layout of domestic and
public buildings
- Religious
o Islam is the last of the three religions of the Middle East
o Its essence is contained in a simple sentence, which both the profession of faith and
the credo of its adherent
 There is only one God and his prophet is Mohammed
 The faith is held to be ultimate revelation of God’s will for creation
 It is a complete philosophy of life and government, and there is no
differentiation in Islamic thinking between religious and secular matters
o Consequently, Islamic precept apply equally to all behavior and all buildings
o Moslem thought is codified in three works
 The Koran is regarded as revelation through the medium of prophet
 The Hadith is a collection of his sayings or injunctions and is of lesser weight
 The law is extracted from prophet’s instructions, from traditions and
o The Islamic faith produced in successive generations of its followers a way of life and
a set of attitudes which had a great influence on their architecture
 An acceptance of the transitory nature of earthly life
 Personal humility
 An abhorrence of images worship
o The effect of these beliefs on Islamic Architecture can be seen in the following
 There is no essential differentiation techniques between buildings with a
directly religious connotation and other buildings
 That important architectural endeavor is normally expected on buildings
having a direct social or community purpose, including that of worship
 That decorations tend towards abstract, using geometric, calligraphic and
plant motifs, with preference for a uniform field of decoration rather than a
focal element
 That a basic conservatism discouraged innovations and favored established
2. Architectural Characters
- Islamic Architecture is a product of major historic event – the rapid conquest of diverse
territories by people with no architectural tradition and the conquest synthesis of styles
under one philosophy but in many circumstances
- The majority of Islamic buildings are fundamentally related to principal axis. This axis
frequently extended into a formal landscape which is an integral part of the design
- While the prime axis was the KIBLA, the general concept was derived from the line of
balance and symmetry implicit in the concept of perfect creation, as seen in gardens and
- Islamic Architecture is fundamentally centered upon God. At its heart is the Mosque and
inward-looking building whose prime purpose is contemplation and prayer. It is a space
removed from the impact or worldly affairs. In mosque, there is no positive object of
attention or adoration
- Mosque may serve many functions other than prayer. It may be a school, transactions may
be made inside and treasures may be stored too. Official notices could also be given inside a
- The earliest mosque consist of an open courts surrounded by arcades or by trabeated
timber colonnade with flat roofs. An early innovation was the minaret, a tower from whose
top the Muezzin gave the call to prayer
- The mosque is always conceived round an axis directly to Mecca, with the exceptions of the
earliest instances, this axis is terminated in the inner face of the Mosque by the Mihrab- a
niche where the leader of the congregation (the Imam) makes his prayers
- The courtyard which is so fundamental feature of the mosque is also in its several variations.
- Courtyard is also the principal element of the other building types, the college, the hostel,
the palace, and the house.
- Depending on function, the courtyard maybe cloistered or arcaded and the sides were
punctuated with gateways, prayer chambers or arched porches.
- The other important element of Islamic building is the “single building cell”. At one extreme,
this might be the simple kiosk used in isolation as a little ornamental pavilion, emphasizing a
roof or providing focus in a pleasure garden; it may take the form of a massive tomb, high
and domed, or it may be repeated to form a cloister, terrace or court. It is an almost
universal rule in Islamic building that each cell of a complex building is individually
expressed, in plan and in volume.
- Rarely, except in domestic examples, is a concealing envelope wrapped around a multi-
cellular construction
- All traditional construction techniques were employed, including baked and unbaked bricks,
timber framing with block or plaster infill, rubble and worked stone. A wide variety of
facings and castings were used.
- The technique of “Striated Masonry” (alternate bands of bricks and stone) was borrowed
from Byzantium.
- The most important form of opening is pointed arch which is principally two-and four-
centered and generally constructed as a true arch, though corbelled examples were
common in India. (take note of the ways of constructing arches)
- Arches were generally tied
- Window openings were frequently small and traditionally closed with wooden shutters, iron
bars, marble grilles or plaster light set with clear glass
- The construction of doors tended to be a complex for decorative reasons, and to depend
upon the skillful assembly of a large number of small components
- The relieving arch was frequently used, often in conjunction with a lintel, when the lunette
might be glazed or filled with a decorative panel.
- In Europe and Asia Minor, flat and pitched roof were normally constructed of timber
- Stone slab roofs were largely confined in India and parts of Syria
- Barrel vaulting or cross vaulting were widely used for minor spans, particularly for
caravanserais, bazaars, military works and cisterns
- Domes (mostly pointed) were widely used (take note of the different types of Domes)
- Persia, Mughal and Egypt used pointed domes while Turkish used hemispherical domes
- Pitched roofs covered with Roman tiles were used in Mediterranean countries, while domes
were sheathed in India, ceramic tiles in Persia and Iraq, and lead in Asia Minor.
- In Europe, flat roof were rendered, paved, sealed with bitumen or compacted clay
- Ancient Greek and Roman columns were often reused by Moslems, and become models of
new works
- Wide variety of mouldings and friezes were used (please conduct research on the different types
and examples - illustrations)
- Friezes and cresting are often associated with mouldings

- The following extensive decorations techniques were used:
o Arabesque
o Cresting to walls
o Stalactite moulding and corbelling
o Pointed arches (take note of the different forms such as pointed saracenic, horseshoe,
tudor, etc)
o Muquarnas
o Chamfering
o bas-relief
o carvings
3. Examples
- Arab Peninsula, Syria and Mesopotamia
o Kubbet-es Sakhra (The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem)
o The Great Mosque, Damascus
- Egypt, North Africa and Tunisia
o The DAR al-Irama and Mosque of IBN Tulun, Cairo
o Madrassah and Tomb of Sultan Hasan, Cairo
- Spain and Western Africa
o The Great Mosque,Kairouan, Tunisia
o The Great Mosque, Cordoba
o The Alhambra, Grenada
- Persia and Turkestan
o The Tomb of Ismail, the Samanid and Bukhara
o Minare Medrese, Konya
- Turkey
o The Chinli Kiosk, Istanbul
o The Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul
- India
o Tomb of Iltutmish
o Tomb of Humayun, Delhi
o The Tomb of Akbar, Sikandra, Agra
o The Taj-Majal, Agra (please take note of the parts)
- Islamic Vernacular Architecture
o Beehive village near Alleppo, Northern Syria
o Shibam, Hadramaut, Saudi Arabia
o Kasbah, Air Ben Haddon, Morocco
4. Terminologies
- Building Types
o Masjid (Persia, India) mosque
o Jami: mosque, principal place of worship, or use of the building for Friday prayers
o Masjid (Turkey): small prayer house
o Madrassah (Egypt)
o Medrese (Turkey): Religious college and mosque
o Saray, Serai: palace
- Building Components
o Nihrab: niche oriented towards Mecca
o Mimber: Raised platform for ceremonial announcements
o Iwan, Ivan (Persia): open-fronted vault facing on to a court
o Bab: gateway
o Sahn: courtyard of a mosque
o Minaret: tower from which call to prayer is made
o Selamlik: men’s or quest’s quarter
o Harem: women’s or private quarters of a house or palace
o Kibla, kibble: axis oriented towards Mecca
o Chttri (India): Kiosk
- Personnel
o Muenzzin: caller who summons the faithful to prayer
o Imam man who leads the congregation at prayer
o Calipin: successor to the prophet as military, judicial and spiritual leader of Islam
- Others
o Take note of the typical Mosque elevations and parts