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© IMEKO, 1988

Paolo Cappa
Associate Researcher
Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica
Via Budossiana, 18 - 00184 Roma, Italy
Tbe results of an experimental study of the behaviour of seven wire strands are herewith
  This study is carried oùt by using strain gàges. First of all the behaviour of
undB111aged strands loaded both statically and quasi·-statically is studied, then the strains
during the severing of one external wire are measured. The results of these investigations
show different effects of' the hysteresis of' undamaged strands and a lower · capacity of' the
inter·rupted wire to share the load than suggested in the Italian regulations.
The theoretical study of' the strains and stresses in a seven wire strand subjected to
axial. tensile loads is quite difficult because the physics phenomenon is a nonlinear one due
to the presence of large deflections [I]. The solution is linearized by Velinsky [2] and
then applied both to strands and to aultilayered cables by Costello and Phillips [3,4]. In
all these theoretical approaches, the frictional effects are neglected. The results
obtalned reveal that the largest axial tensile stress occurs in the center wire.
St:ill other researchers have experimentally investigated the behaviour of seven wire
strar1ds statically loaded. These analyses are generally carried out with electrical
resie1tance strain gages. The resulls oblained with these studies [5-11] reveal an unequal
load sharing between nominally identica! wires. Moreover the relevant effects of the
twisting constraints are noticed [12,13].
·In a previous study (14] an experimental exWDination was mede of strains in seven wire
strar1ds subjected to static axial load both before and after the interruption of one of the
heli<:al wires. Significant differences were noted by comparing most accepted Italian
regullations on the strand which have one external wire severed. These differences are
[15,16] also when the strand is loaded quasi-statical1y.
I1: is the purpose of this paper to compare the effects caused by the strand hysteresis
when the strands are 1oaded statically and quasi-statically and to examine the behaviour of
the e1trands, loaded with a constant axial load, during the severing of one of the external
wireftl and, fina11y, to compare the strains measured with the Ita1ian regu1ations. The
ItaHan regulations suggest in 4 times the lay or 30 times the equivalent diameter the
1ength, measured from the end of the wire, in wich the wire behaves as an undBJDaged one.
un1ubricated strands of a seven wire constrJction were examined •. The sample strands
were cut from unused pieces, the wires were "bright" and the strands were unlubricated; the
charllcteristics are shown in Tab. l. It was chosen to test "bright" wires ·. because , by
doinlf eo; the distribution of the contact loads àeveloped among the wires was 110re unifor11.
It was decided to test un1ubricated strands because, as shown in literature [13,14],
ther1' are unsignificant differences in load sharing between undamaged strands lubricated and
unlmlricated ones.
The grips are conica! with 100 mm maximum diameter, 60 mm minimum diameter and 120 ..
length. This volume of the end grips reduces interference between the hooked enda of the
seven 1dres. The end wires were hooked with an angle equal to 180'. A zinc-based metallic
aedium used for its grip efficiency [17}.
Six 4'lectrical resistance strain gages were mounted one on each helical wire near the
middle of each sample strand, Fig. l. They were applied aligned with the axes of the
external wires. The precautions taken during the surface conditioning and neutralising lead
to the that the variations of the local coefficiente of friction caused by the
surface preparation solvente were negligible.
The distance of the longitudinal abscissa ex81lined experimentally from the grips allow to
conside1r the effects of the end grips on the behaviour of the wires not remarkable [10,13}.
The temperature of the laboratory was measured during the testa and the values obtained
were in the range of 20-25 •c. Then it was not necessary to correct the outputs of the
temperature-coapenaated strain gages becauae of Hinea effects (18-20].
The load applied was measured by using a load cell placed in aeries with the strandj the
maximua1 value of the interval of uncertainty is equal to 0.3 per cent:.
At beginning of each seriea of testa, the resistance between the gages and the ground
measured. The valuea measured were always greater than 20000 MQ and this value
highlighted the good mechanical properties of the adhesive.
Before be,inning the testa, the atrands were loaded and unloaded varioua timea, as
auggeated by Paolini and Bazzaro [6-9}. This initial preparation was given to the atranda
t:o obtain a more uniform behaviour of the wirea. The application of the atrains in cyclic
form over the working range also relieved the residual stresses in the ca.ent [21}.
The strain measura.ent system utilized for the static measureaents is baaed on a manual
measuring point aelector and a digitai strain meter. The atrain measurement ayatem used for
the quasi-stat:ic and dyn81lic meaaurements is made by a signal conditioner and a matnetic
tape recorder. The connections of the gages into the bridges are carried out with the three
lead wire syatem. The lead wires are identica! in length and twisted so that they each see
the aBile temperature environment. , ,
It   posaible to hypotheaize that the measurementa are subject to many uall aources of
random error and negligible .. aystematic errors. In that case, the Gauss distribution
functio'n describes the limiting distribution of the random errora quite well. It was
decidecll to report the reaults of all the testa carried out as: mean ± standard deviation
(Ex ± <h), The value of the standard deviation waa calculated. in· accordance with the
followi.n' conservative, Le. larger,. definition:
where ia the number of readinga and E1 ia the value of each readin,.
Bef(lre examining the tranaients caused by the severing of one helical wire, while the
strand is loaded with a constant load, the behaviour of the sample atranda when loaded
ataticlllly and quasi-atatically was atudied with the aim to analyze the atrand hyatereaia.
A 11tatic analyaia was carried out firat. The loading cyclas choaen for strand I and II
were e<1ual to 0-78.4-0 kN ànd 0-29.4-0 kN, reapectively. The aeasura.enta were taken at
every load change equal to 9.8 kN, atrand I, and 4.9 kN, strand II. The readinca for each
level 4)f load were made after an interval of 20 minutea. The testa were lO t iaea.
The valuea aeasured show a little interval of uncertainty; in fact a. ia alwaya lesa than
40 J.UD/11, strand I, and 25 atrand II. By comparing the es. obtained with the increaain(
loada thoae relative to the decreasing ones, for the se=e value of the load appliad, it
WBB noticed that the latter are always higher than the first.
The mean valuea relative to the increaaing loads, EMI, are shown in rtc. 2. It is
poasible to hypothize that tha loada and EHt are linearly relateà. in fact the probabiiity
that the variables, preaumed to be uncorrelated, could yield a coefficient of regression u
high the value calculated ia lesa than 0.6 per cent.
Kxwaination of Fig. 2 confirmea the unequal load eharing between no=inally identica!
wires. The wires, in fact, react to each other by meana of friction and the shearing forces
caw1e the wirea to alide. Thia phenomenon is particularly aenaitive to the local
condition of contact.
In order to visualize the atrands hystereaie, the differencea between EMI and EMd the
valujea relative to the decreaeing loads, are ahown in Fil. 3. fr011 the exBIIination of
thi1 appears a aimilar behaviour of every wire, with the exception of wire number 5
ot strand I. However it is neceaaary to note that the values of the difference between EHI
EMd are, except wire number 5 strend I, alwaya lower than the sua of tbc a. aasociated
to EMI and to EMd· Then 'the effecta of the strand hyateresis are unnoticeable. · Then: the
bebaviour of the aample atrende were examined when loaded quaai-atatically with the aa.e
cyclea choaen for the atatic testa,
Ten ap•plicationa of load were made; · the time necesaary tci coriplete each test
W81 alwaya lesa then 60 •• atrand r,·and 30 a, atrend II. ' ' '"'"
The at:andard deviation was alwaya lesa than 50 IIJII!m, strand I, end 30   atrand II.,i.
The linear relation between the loade applied and EMI wae confirmed. In fig. 4 ia given
aa a function of the load applied. By comparing the reaulta obtained with the atatic .
testa wHh thoae obtained with the quaei-static onea it ia posaible to note that in the
Iatter the unequal load ahari ng wae increaeed for strand I while i t waa almost constent ... for ,
1trand IL , '
In F:lg. 5 the difference of EMt and EMd as a function of the axial tensile load applied i
i• given. fra. the exaaination of thia emerges the fact that the behaviour of atrand
I loaded quasi-atatically ia aimilar to that observed with the static testa. Moreover a
different behaviour ia noted with strend II. In fact the EMI-ENd ia alwaya higher than tho
1um of the a. aasociated to the meen atrain valuea. Then with strand II, loaded
quaai-atatically, the atrand hyatereaia is remarkable; ,,
Then one helical wire was aevered near one of the end grips by using the simple device
ahown in Fig. 6. By using thia device it is poaaible to aever one external wire without
otherwille cauaing damage to the adjacent onea. The severings were carried out while the
s811ple o1trande were loaded w i t h a constant load equa l t o the maximUII values chosen for the
itatic and quaai-atatic testa that were 78.9 kN end 29.4 kN for atranda I and II
respecUvely. The wirea choaen for the aevering are those that appear the 110at atrained in
the previous teats, wire number 5 for atrand I and wire number 4 for atrand II.
Fi(. 7 is a graph of the atrain variations recorded during the breaking compared to the
atraina .aaaured immediately before the beginning of the damaging of the atrenda. In Fig. 8
the atrain valuea obtained with atatic and quaai-atatic testa and the atrains meaaured
iaedia·tely after the severing of · one heliéal wire are ahown. Bxuination of these figures
indicat•ea that the decreaee of the load sharing capability of the aevered wire ia evident.
Thia decrease is compensated by the other wirea, particularly by the wirea adjacent to the
interrupted one.
The differencea between the atrain sum obtained with undamaged, loaded atatically
and quaai-atatically, and damaged are reapectively equal to 3.3 per cent and 1.4 per cent,
tor atrand I, and 5.0 per cent and 4.5 . per cent, for strand II. It is possible to
hypothetaize that theae are due to the core wire; the atraina of thia wire are
not meeiSured in thia experimental atudy.
Sigraificent differencea are noted by comparing the reaults obtained with atranda da.aged
with t;he moat accepted Italien The Italien regulationa indicate in 30 timea
equivalent diameter or 4 timea the lay the length, meaàured from the aevered end of the
· wire, iln which the w ire w i 11 be ab le to · carry i ta appropriate share of load. The length.s of
the aemple atranda .allow to verify the first with both the types of strends
chosen, while the checking of the latter regulation can be done only with · atrand II. In
fact the diatance between the longitudinal abaciaaa of interruption and the abacissa where·
the (a.(ea are applied is equal to 40 ti•ea the equivalent di811eter or 2.8 timea the lay, for
atrand I, and 60 equivalent diameters or 4 laya, for strand II.
The values of the ratio of the atraina aeaeured after the aevering of one helical wire
with the mean valuea obtained by loading the uridamaged atrenda both atatically and
quesi-·etet!cally, are !n the range of 25-27 per cent. Theae values confirmed the reaulta
obtaillied with atatic and quasi-static teats carried out after the aevering of one external
w ire.
'l'ht!l behaviour shown by the severed wires indicate& the necessi ty "f :f'..1rther atudy for the
evaluation of the effects in load sharing caused by the contact loads developed among the
wires when the strands are lubricated.
  experimental results lead to the following conclusions.
(l) 'I'he static and the quasi-static tests, carried out with undamaged seven wire strands,
confirmed the unequnl load sharing between nominally idenllcal wires. Moreover
111oticeable strand hysteresis was observed only for one sample strand and only when
loaded quasi-statically.
(2) strains measured during the severing of one helical wire, while the strand is loaded
a constant load, showed a lower capacity to share the load than suggested in the
ltalian regulations.
[l] Costello G.A., Phillips J.W. "Contact stresses in thin twisted roda", ASMR Journal of
Applied Mechanics, 1973, pp. 629-630.
(2] Velinsky S.A. "Analysis of wire ropes with a complex cross sections", Ph.D Thesis,
University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Department of Theoretical and Applied
Mechanics, 1981, 87 pp.
[3) Costello G.A. "Stresses in multilayered cables", Journal of Bnergy Resources
Technology, September, Vol. 105, 1983, pp. 307-340.
[4] Phillips J.W., Costello G.A. "Analysis of wire ropes with internai wirerope cores",
ASMB Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 52, 1985, pp. 510-516.
[5) Rossetti U., Ochner M_. "Sul problema dell'analisi delle sollecitazioni nelle funi
metalliche", Disegno di Macchine, No. 4, 1973, pp. 245-248.
[6) Paolini G., Bazzaro B. "Studio sullo stato di cimento in fili di funi soggette a
trazione semplice", Elevatori, No. 3, 1974, pp. 59-62.
[7) Paolini G., Bazzaro B. "Experimental research on the stress state in. the wires of a
steel ropes under tensile loads", Proceedings of OITAF, Wien, 1975.
[8) Paolini G., Bazzaro B.
tensioni in una fune
pp. 39/1·-39/ll.
"Considcrazi oni interpretati ve sull'analisi sperimentale delle
sollecitata a trazione", III Convegno AIAS, Bologna, 1975,
[9] Paolini G., Bazzaro E. "A study on the deviation in the experimental results obtained
fro11 strain gauge tests carried out on· steel wire ropes under tensile loads",
proceedings of OITAF, Hlovec, 1978, pp. 155-166.
[lO) Branca F. P., Cappa P., Molinari G. "Indagine sperimentale sulle deformazioni dei fili
in un trefolo spiroidale semplice. Primi risultati", Elevatori, No. 5-6, 1985,
pp. 11-17.
(ll] Cappa P. "Analisi sperimentale delle deformazioni in un trefolo spiroidale semplice con
un filo periferico interrotto", Elevatori, No. 5, 1986, pp. 23-27.
[12] Bazzaro E. "Influenza del vincolo torsionale sul comportamento statico di una fune
soggetta a trazione semplice", R1evatori, No. 6, 1979, pp. 217-238.
[13] Utting W. S., Jones N. "Tensile testing of a wire ropes strand", Journal of Strain
Analysis, Vol. 20, 198!5, pp. 151·-164.
[14) Cappa P. "Effetto della interruzione di un filo esterno nella distribuzione delle
deformazioni in trefoli spiroidn1i semplici sottoposti ad uno sforzo di trazione
assiale. Analisi sperimentale", XIV Convegno AIAS, Catania, 1986, pp. 605-617.
[ 15]1 Molinari G. "Ricerca sperimentale sulla distribuzione delle deformazioni nei fili di un
trefolo spiroidale semplice soggetto a trazione durante la rottura di uno di essi",
K1evatori, No. 6, 1980, pp. 179-188.
[16] Cappa P. "An experimental analysis of the strain fields on steel wire ropes subjected
to tenaile loda", SRM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechnnics, Houston, 1987,
pp. 563-·569.
[17] Matanzo F., Metcalf J.T. "Efficiency of wire rope terminations used
industry", Journal of Engineerinlt Materials Technology ASME Transactiona,
1981, pp. 164 .. ·170.
in mining
Vol. 103,
[18] Hines F. "Effect of mounting surface curvature on the temperature coeffici ent on bonded
r·esistance strain gages", Ba1dwin-Lima-H8111i lton Corporation Bulletin, November, 1960.
[19] H'ines F. "Surface curvature effects on apparent strain", Proceedings Wcst. Reg. Stroin
Q'age Co•ittee, November, 1960.
[20] Hoffman K. "How to avoid or minimize errors in strain gauge measurements", Hottinger
Messetechnik, 1980.
[21] Stein P.K. "Adhesive, how they and li!nit strain gage performances",
• and Conventional Strain Oages, Academic Presa, 1962.
- Characteristics of the atrands exa.ined -
Strand I Strand II
Diameter of the external wires 5.0 111111 3.0 IDII
Diameter of the internai wire 5.2 111111 3.2 DIII
Kquivalent diameter 15.2 111111 9.2 mm
Lays length 223.5 111111 136.0 111111
Breaking load 198.0 kN 71.2 kN
Length of the steel strands examined 1400 111111 1250 111111
Figure l - Wire numbering.
.. wire 11
• 1111re 12
Q ltirt 13
.5 500-
.. tlirr U
... wlre 12
a rlrt Il
a •lrt 14
• •lrt 15
• •lrt 16
• vtre 14
• vlre 15
• wire 16
Figure 2 - Undamaged strands, static tests. EMt vs. 1oad.
• •lrÌ Il
.. 11lrt 11
.... w1r1 12
.. lllrt 12
• a olrt 13 150 D >Ire 13
• •Ire 14
• wlrt 14
• Mlrt 15
: ::
• wlrt Il
. s
" -
Figure 3 - Undallaged stram!a, static testa. Ditference of EMt an d ENd va.
.. •Ire 11
.. •Ire 12
a olrt"ll


.. •lrt 11
.. •lrt 12
a •lrt 13
• •lrt 14
• •lrt 15
• •lrt 16
• ttlrt fl
.. •lrt 12
a olrt 13
• •lrt 14
• •lrt 15
• llrt l&
Figure 5
• •lrt 14
• >Ire 15
• •lrt Il
Figure 4 - Undamaged strands, quasi-static testa. EMt vs. load.

• olro 11
.. •lrt 12
D •Ire 13
• •Ire 14
• •lrt 15
• •lrt l&
Lo ad
Undamaged stranda, quasi-static testa. Difference of EMt end EMd
vs. load.
'""''" ol
tllt lo.ld•ng
alternatlno current motor
_ .. -···  

control for
sk type mllting

! ·2000
Figure 6 - Sketch of the device utilized for aevering external wi.res.
JOOO ,--

! ·1000

45 50
figure 7 - Variationa of the atrains during the wire

frame of
the severlng

iii 1:m i. t•
- X'lttr fA, morlnt al rito 15
Figure 8 -
Nlre H!re
COIIIParisona of the resulta obtained when the atrends are loaded
with the 118Xi•UII axial load, that is equal to 78.4 klf .and 29.4 kM
for strand I and II respectively.