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7/11/2014 Ecosystem
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Ecosystem
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1. Ecosystem
Structure and function of ecosystem 1 20770 views
Ch 2 Carrera 5270 views
5 ecology and ecosystem 606 views
Ecosystem@ jitendra 864 views
Ecosystem 5178 views
The components of an ecosystem 1136 views
Ecosystem ppt 41606 views
History of Ecosystem
Ecosystem
by Rasel Chowdhury, Admin at Amazing fact s around t he world
on Nov 28, 2013
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Ecosystem
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Ecosystem
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2. History of Ecosystem The term ecosystem first appeared in a 1935 publication by the British
ecologist Arthur Tansley (1935). However, the term had been coined already in 1930 by Tansley's
colleague Roy Clapham. Tansley (1939) expanded on the term in his later work, adding the Ecotope
concept to define the spatial context of ecosystems
3. According to woodbury (1954) Ecosystem is a complex in which habitat, plants and animals are
considered as one interesting unit, the materials and energy of one passing in and out of the others.
According to E.P. Odum, the ecosystem is the basic functional unit of organisms and their environment
interaction with each other and with their own components. e.g. One square meter of grassland, a large
lake, a large tract of forest, balanced aquarium, a certain area of river and ocean. All the ecosystems of
the earth are connected to one another, like, river ecosystem is connected with the ecosystem of ocean,
and a small ecosystem of dead logs is a part of large ecosystem of a forest. A complete self-sufficient
ecosystem is rarely found in nature but situations approaching self-sufficiency may occur.
4. Structure of Ecosystem The structure of an ecosystem is basically a description of the organisms and
physical features of environment including the amount and distribution of nutrients in a particular habitat.
From the structure point of view, all ecosystems consist of the following basic components: 1. Abiotic
components 2. Biotic components
5. Abiotic Components: An ecosystem possesses both biotic (living) and abiotic non-living
components. The abiotic components include soil, water, light, inorganic nutrients and weather Biotic
Components: The biotic components of the ecosystem can be categorized as either producers or
consumers. Producers are autotrophic organisms with the capability of carrying out photosynthesis and
making food for themselves, and indirectly for the other organisms as well. In terrestrial ecosystems the
producers are predominantly green plants, while in freshwater and marine ecosystems the dominant
producers are various species of algae.
6. Biotic components The biotic components include all living organisms present in the environmental
system. From nutrition point of view, the biotic components can be grouped into three basic
components: 1. Producer 2. Consumers and 3. Decomposers or reducers and transformers
7. 1. Producers The producers are the autotrophic elements –chiefly green plants. They use radiant
energy of sun in photosynthetic process whereby carbon dioxide is assimilated and the light energy is
converted into chemical energy. The chemical energy is actually locked up in the energy rich carbon
compounds. Oxygen is evolved as byproduct in the photosynthesis. This is used in respiration by all
living things. Algae and other hydrophytes of a pond, grasses of the field, trees of the forests are
examples of producer. Chemosynthetic bacteria and carotenoid bearing purple bacteria that also assimilate
carbon-dioxide with the energy of sunlight but only in the presence of organic compounds also belong to
this category.
8. 2. Consumer Those living members of ecosystem which consume the food synthesized by producers
are called consumers. Under this category are included all kinds of animals that are found in an
ecosystem. There are different classes or categories of consumers that are discussed in following.
Primary consumers: Those are dependent on producers or green plants for their food called primary
consumers (purely herbivorous). e.g. Insects rodents rabbit, cow, goat for terrestrial ecosystem. On the
other hands crustaceans, molluscs etc. for aquatic habitat. According to Elton, 1939 primary
consumers are the “Key industry animals” in a particular ecosystem.
9. Secondary consumers: Those animals are adapted to consume herbivores as well as plants as their
food called secondary consumers. They are carnivores and omnivores. e.g. sparrow, crow, fox etc.
Tertiary consumers: These are the top carnivores which prey upon secondary consumers as well as
other carnivores, omnivores and herbivores. Lions, tigers hawk, vulture etc. are considered as tertiary or
top consumers. Parasites, scavengers and saprobes: They are consumers. The parasitic plants and
animals utilize the living tissues of different plants and animals. The scavengers and saprobes utilize dead
remains of animals and plants as their food.
10. 3. Decomposers and transformers Decomposers attack the dead remains of producers and
consumers and degrade the complex organic substances into simpler compounds. The simple organic
matters are then attacked by another kind of bacteria, the transformers which change these organic
compounds in to the inorganic forms that are suitable for reuse by producers of green plants. The
decomposers and transformers play very important role in maintaining the dynamic nature of
ecosystems.
11. Function of Ecosystem Action of biotic and abiotic components with the help of solar energy
through the ecosystem is called function of ecosystem. In any ecosystem we have the following
functional components; 1. Inorganic constituents (air, water and mineral salts) 2. Organisms (plants,
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animals and microbes) and 3. Energy input which enters from outside ( the sun)
12. The principal steps in the operation of ecosystem Thus the principal steps in the operation of
ecosystem are as follows: 1. Reception of radiant energy of sun. 2. Manufacture of organic materials
from inorganic ones by producers, 3. Consumption of producers by consumers and further elaboration
of consumed materials and 4. After the death of producers and consumers, complex organic compounds
are degraded and finally converted by decomposers and converters into such forms as are suitable for
reutilization by producers.
13. Solar energy producer primary consumers primary carnivores dead remains secondary carnivores
Raw materials decomposers Flow of energy at different levels of ecosystem.
14. SolarAenergy B producer primary consumers primary carnivores dead remains secondary C
carnivores Raw materials D decomposers Flow of energy at different levels of ecosystem.
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