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You are on page 1of 4

**Determination of Ethanol Content in Gasoline
**

Anagha Kunte and Savita Kulkarni

Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, MAEER's Maharashtra Institute of

Technology, Pune (India)

Abstract - The proposed nondestructive method is used

for the accurate detection of complex permittivity and

adulteration in petroleum liquid. The microstrip straight

resonator is used to record the resonant frequency shift

and Quality factor change for different percentages of

ethanol in gasoline. The instrument prototype with the

necessary GPIB interface and the network analyzer is used

for the efficient and accurate measurements of these

parameters. The attempt has been made to present the

characteristics study of lossy dielectric liquids like petrol

and ethanol around the resonant frequency shift and

Quality factor, Dielectric losses and dissipation factor.

Index Term -- Complex Permittivity, Lorentzian fitting,

Planar Resonator Sensor, Q Unloaded

I. INTRODUCTION

Standard gasoline is a dielectric liquid with about

30 different hydrocarbons. The dielectric constant of

such liquids is a function of dielectric constant of its

components. On this line the Powerful measurement

technique such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Gas

Chromatography although very accurate however as far

as the portability of the setup and slow pace parameter

measurements is concerned the use of the proposed

alternative method is suggested. In view of this the

proposed setup in frequency domain can be used as

inspection tool for detecting the ethanol content in

Gasoline. As per the Indian oil and natural gas

regulatory norms the Gasoline should have 5% ethanol

content. Ethanol is a polar liquid, and its complex

permittivity presents a Debye relaxation response.

Transmission coefficient method is used to determine

ethanol concentration in gasoline.

The gasoline is being adulterated by adding a higher

concentration of ethanol, or using hydrated ethanol, or

adding solvents like naphtha, kerosene etc. In this paper

the method deployed for the measurement of these

adulterations is based on microstrip straight 1J2

resonator sensor. The typical resonators 1.5GHz,

1.8GHz, 2GHz, and 2.3 GHz has been designed with

RT/Duroid 5880 substrate with a dielectric constant of

2.2 and a loss tangent 0.0009. The length of resonator

varies in mm as designed frequency varies. Coupling

gap is taken as 0.8mm and is critically coupled.3dB

bandwidth varies approximately 60MHz and return loss

of up to -60dB. [6] The dielectric constant of gasoline is

expected to vary slightly in the RF range (up to 3 GHz);

on the other hand the dielectric constant of ethanol

varies drastically in the aforesaid range as ethanol is

polar liquid.

978-1-4244-2690-4444/08/$25.00©2008 IEEE

171

II. MICROSTRIP RESONATOR SENSOR

This method reports an accurate and fast complex

permittivity measurement using a microstrip resonator.

The resonant frequency and the quality factor Q of

microstrip resonator are measured. The change in the

effective permittivity [I] of the microstrip resonator is

given by following first equation.

2 2

10 / Is = £ effs / £ effo (I )

Where "fo" and "Eeffo" indicate resonant frequency

and effective Permittivity without sample, while "fs"

and "Eeffs" indicate resonant frequency and effective

Permittivity with sample.

/o=/(£eff') (2)

L1Q = /(Eeff' ,Eeff") (3)

Second and third equation shows functional

dependence of frequency on permittivity, where Eeff* is

the complex permittivity of the sample. Eeff' and E eff"

indicate real and imaginary parts of the complex

permittivity.

Eeff' of the material under test (MUT) is determined

with the help of spectral domain analysis . To verify Eeff'

of complex permittivity fourth equation is used.

£eff =QMUT.£'MUT+QSUB.£'SUB+l-qMUT -QSUB (4)

In the quasi-static approximation, [2] the effective

permittivity can be expressed as a linear combination of

the permittivity of the air (E

r

= I), the substrate (E'SUB)

and the MUT (E' MUT) as shown in equation fourth. qMUT

(filling factor q of ethanol mixed with gasoline) and

qSUB (filling factor of RT-Duroid) being the

corresponding filling factors. They are obtained by

calculating the fractions of the total energy stored in the

three regions (MUT, Substrate and Air). MUT filling

factor qMUT depends not only on the structure geometry

but also on the MUT dielectric constant, while qSUB is

independent of the MUT. Using real part of fourth

equation effective permittivity is verified.

A careful fabrication procedure for half wavelength

straight resonator, one can make the input and output air

gaps equal to each other, so that coupling coefficient kl

from input side and k2 from output side proves equation

kl =k2. For such symmetrical coupling [3][4] one can

obtain fifth equation for unloaded Qu.

Qu = QL (5)

1-S

21

( /0)

III. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

1 __ ~

___ 3 ~

~ 13%

'I

111%

~

D

i 9%

~

#.

Fig. 3: Graph of linear relationship between % Ethanol

Concentration and 18

21

1 in (dB)

The response is sampled at discrete set of frequencies,

and then interpolated by Lorentzian curve fitting. This

allows the resonant frequency and the bandwidth (which

depend on MUT's complex permittivity) to be computed

in a fast and accurate way. Various samples of different

gas station are taken and change in resonant frequency

and loss in terms of S21 is captured by LabVIEW via

GPIB-USB-B cable byl600 points oftransmission curve

on VNA. The output in terms of complex permittivity of

MUT and adulteration is depicted in tablel.0n

transferring all losses [5] of above shown structure to its

equivalent single layer structure then the equivalent tana

can be calculated using the equation (7)

tan8= ~ u (7)

As conductor losses and radiation losses in

microstrip resonator with liquid dielectric is less than

0.1% complex effective permittivity so can be

calculated as eighth equation

Ceff *=ceff (1- j tan £5) (8)

Conductor losses have minor effects to the

determination of dissipation factor of a high loss

dielectric material. So these losses are neglected in

present scenario. With low loss material, conductor

losses might be dominating losses and determination of

the conductor losses have to be done as accurate as

possible. Tan b value differs only by 0.0004 for RT-

Duroid and for petrol by 0.0006.

As adulteration of ethanol is increased in the petrol

the following effects are noticed and recorded

appropriately. Resonant frequency decreases in step of

8MHz +/- 2%.

Bandwidth increases. Quality factor for loaded

resonator decreases almost 60%. Dissipation factor

increases and imaginary part of complex permittivity

increases linearly.

IV. MEASUREMENT RESULTS

Using regression analysis as well as polynomial

interpolation adulteration in gasoline in India i.e.

%ethanol in gasoline available on gas station can be

expressed as equation (9) with 200ml gasoline and

equation (10)with 300 ml gasoline sample for proposed

setup.

% ethanol = 0.3947 * IS211 (dB) - 1.87128 (9)

% ethanol = 1.03093 * IS211 (dB) - 14.51813 (10)

Agilent Vector

Network Analyser

8714(ET)

GPIB

PC with user

interface

developed in

LabVIEW

Fig. 2. Photograph of setup

The response of resonator is identified as power

transmitted through ports of VNA. (Agilent 8714ET).

Fig. 1. Block diagram of proposed system with 2 GHz

resonator sensor.

The loaded QL of the system is inversely

proportional to the difference between the 3-dB

frequencies fl and t2 at each side of the resonance given

in sixth equation.

QL=fr/BW=fr/f2-fl (6)

A. Complex Permittivity Measurement

Proposed system adopted two port measurement

procedure requires only two parameters for calculation,

namely the resonant frequency and the 3 dB bandwidth,

It is also observed that this simple set up succeeds

achieving a substantial reduction of cost and

computation time. Fig I describes functional block

diagram while

Fig.2 shows experimental setup for measurements.

Specially designed aluminum box structure with 2.3GHz

resonator is used for testing for (150ml, 200ml, 250ml,

and 300ml) samples of gasoline.

B. Measurement steps:

I. Setup Vector Network Analyser 8714ET.

2. Set frequency range as start and stop

frequency.

3. Set Number of points 1601.Use open, short, 50

ohm load and thru from calibration kit

(8714ET).

4. Connect straight resonator, Place MUT i.e.

gasoline adulterated with ethanol on resonator.

5. Measure Resonant frequency (MHz), Loss i.e.

S2I(dB) in transmission mode.

6. Perform online calculation for Complex

Permittivity, Q, BW, tan a, ethanol

concentration in mixture as % adulteration

172

Scattering parameter measurement is carried out

with Agilent 8714ET VNA. Measurement ofS

ll

and S21

in reflection and transmission mode is done. Fig 3 is

shows linear relationship between adulteration in

gasoline and insertion loss.

Table 1 depicts functional dependence between

Resonant frequency, adulteration and complex

240-r-----------------,

235

230

225

220

215

205 +--...---.-----r-----.-----.-----.----r--.---._

1 75 1 74 1 73 1 72 1 71 1 70 1 69 1 69 1 66 1 66 1 67

Resonantfrequencyfr In GHz

Fig. 5. Plot of tan 0 Vs Resonant frequency fr in GHz

0008.,--------------,

permIttIvIty

* Gasoline + Resonant Complex

% of Ethanol freq. (MHz) permittivity

only Petrol 1749.84 2.169 -jO.004533

1% 1739.85 2.194 -jO.005139

2% 1729.85 2.219 -jO.005615

3% 1722.04 2.239 -jO.006032

4% 1710.4 2.270 -jO.006358

50/0 1699.45 2.299 -jO.006705

6% 1686.38 2.335 -jO.007485

7% 1685.24 2.338 -jO.007712

8% 1684.5 2.340 -jO.006258

9% 1681.87 2.348 -jO.006475

100/0 1670.29 2.380 -jO.007334

Fig..4. Plot of Real part of effective permittivity Eeff'

Vs Resonant frequency fro

00034 .,----------------.

00032

00030

00028

00026

U)

U)

..3 00024

00022

00020 +-----,---.-------.--....,.------r---.------I

175 174 173 172 1 71 1 70 169 169

Resonant frequency fr In GHz

*Ethanol concentration in Gasoline tested by Global Intertek

Laboratory, Mumbai.

It is observed that the value of resonant frequency is

decreased with increase in ethanol concentration in

Gasoline. On line determination of dielectric constant

using LabVIEW are recorded in the table 1.The

comparison between numerical results using filling

factor and experimental values shows good agreement to

some extent.

V. UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS

Effective permittivity of petrol increases in almost

linear fashion with impurity, while the quality factor

decreases with the impurity. Uncertainty factors are

definitely present since the data is taken for specific

samples at a certain temperature and frequency. The

sample under test obtained from the market can differ

very much from the sample tabulated. Especially any

kind of adulteration can lead to increase in the loss

tangent. There can be other sources of errors also like,

air bubbles in MUT, error in dielectric constant and loss

tangent of substrate and MUT, measurement ofQ factor.

The increased accuracy of complex permittivity is

possible in case the gasoline and ethanol is in the pure

form and this fact became essential so as to carry out the

real calibration.

As gasoline is highly temperature dependant, while

taking readings it is essential to measure temperature.

For particular temperature and fixed volume following

results in fig 4, fig 5 and fig 6 are found. Loss factor Tan

delta increases as fr decreases. As adulteration increases

resonant frequency decreases and €eff' , € er!' increases.

173

0007

0006

0005

o004 +-----,---.------.----.,.--_.-----.-------1

1 75 1 74 1 73 1 72 1 71 1 70 1 69 1 69

Resonant frequency fr In GHz

Fig. 6. Imaginary (effective permittivity) E err' Vs

Resonant frequency t;. in GHz

VI. CONCLUSIONS

Simple microstrip resonant technique has been

presented to detect ethanol from 0% to 20% in gasoline.

Dependence of resonant frequency and 3 dB bandwidth

on the real and imaginary part of the complex

permittivity has be shown A simple online detection of

the variation of the resonant frequency and Lorentzian

curve fitting corresponding to resonator response allows

an easy and fast monitoring of adulteration. Further

works are needed in view to increase measurement

accuracy as well as to focus the critical issues in

observing the losses in liquid dielectric with different

gasoline products.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to record their sincere

thanks to the parent organization MAEER's MIT, Pune

for providing the necessary kind support during the

experimentation. The authors would also like to

mention their thanks to Intertek-Colleb, Mumbai for

their valuable technical discussion. This work is

supported by University of Pune under the BCUD

program.

REFERENCES

[1] K.Joshi, R.D.Pollard, "Microstrip resonator technique for

non-destructive complex permittivity I moisture

measurement", Proc. IEEE MIT International

Microwave Symposium, Vo14, issue1999 June1999

page(s): 1863-1866

[2] Fratticcioli, E.; Dionigi, M.; Sorrentino, R," A Simple

and Low Cost Measurement System for the Complex

Permittivity Characterization of Materials", IEEE

Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol

53, No.4, August 2004

[3] Darko Kajfez ,"Q factor measurements, analog and

digital", University of Mississippi Dept. of Electrical

Engineering, www.ee.olemiss.eduldarko/rfqmeas2b.pdf

[4] APS Khanna, Y.Garault, "Determination of Loaded,

Unloaded, and External Quality Factors of a Dielectric

174

Resonator Coupled to a Microstrip Line", IEEE

Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques

Volume 83, Issue 3, Mar 1983 Page(s): 261- 264

[5] Verma, A.K.; Nasimuddin; Garg, R.K.; Omar,

A.S."Suspended Microstrip Patch Resonator Sensor for

Determination of Complex Dielectric Constant of Liquid

and Paste", Antennas and Propagation Society

International Symposium, 2003.IEEE Volume 4, Issue ,

22-27 June 2003 Page(s): 651 - 654

[6] Edval J.P., Santos, " Determination of ethanol content in

gasoline: theory and experiment" Microwave and

Optoelectronics Conference, 2003. IMOC 2003.

Proceedings of the 2003 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S

International Volume 1, Issue, 20-23 Sept. 2003 Page(s):

349 - 353 vol.l

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