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1he lmpacL of varled Þrofesslonal Learnlng

Lxperlences on Þrlnclpal Self-Lmcacy
LllzabeLh M. Curry
Summer Leadershlp Conference
!uly 29, 2014

A dlsserLauon submlued Lo Lhe
Cardner-Webb School of Lducauon
ln Þarual lulñllmenL of Lhe 8equlremenLs
for Lhe uegree of uocLor of Lducauon on
!anuary 13, 2014
School leadershlp has a sLausucally slgnlñcanL
relauonshlp wlLh sLudenL achlevemenL
(Marzano eL. al., 2003).

1he consLrucL of self-emcacy ls relaLed Lo
prlnclpal eñecuveness (LelLhwood & !anLzl,
Þurpose of Lhe SLudy
• Lo conLrlbuLe Lo a llmlLed, buL growlng body of
research on Lhe causes and conLrlbuung
facLors Lo prlnclpal self-emcacy

• Lo explore Lhe exlsLence of a relauonshlp
beLween prlnclpals' self-emcacy and Lhelr
professlonal learnlng experlences
8esearch Cuesuons
• WhaL ls Lhe relauonshlp beLween a prlnclpal's
percepuon of Lhe quallLy of Lhelr preparauon
program and subsequenL professlonal learnlng
experlences and Lhelr self-emcacy?
• WhaL Lypes of professlonal learnlng experlences do
prlnclpals percelve as valuable ln bulldlng Lhelr
1heoreucal lramework
• Lmcacy 1heory
• 1ralLs of eñecuve prlnclpals
• Þrlnclpal preparauon
• Þrofesslonal learnlng experlences of
prlnclpals ln relauonshlp Lo adulL
learnlng Lheory
Slgnlñcance of Lhe SLudy

1hls sLudy wlll lnform Lhe body of llLeraLure on prlnclpal
preparauon, lnducuon and supporL for conunued learnlng.

1he researcher hopes Lhls sLudy wlll serve as a framework or
resource for unlverslues and dlsLrlcLs ln developlng learnlng
experlences LhaL supporL prlnclpal self-emcacy.

Lmcacy 1heory

8andura (1977) conceptua||zed se|f-emcacy a|ong three
Comp|ex|ty-Lasks are ordered from slmple Lo dlmculL, people's
emcacy may be llmlLed Lo very slmple Lasks or exLend Lo Lhe
mosL dlmculL
Genera||ty-may be focused on very speclñc Lasks or be more
broadly concelved.
Strength- ºCne may also hold emcacy bellefs weakly or sLrongly,
weakly held bellefs belng easlly exungulshed ln Lhe face of
dlmculLy" (LelLhwood & !anLzl, 2008, p. 301).
AnLecedenLs Lo Lmcacy
• Lnacuve MasLery
• vlcarlous Lxperlence
• verbal Þersuaslon
• Lmouonal Arousal
1he LñecLs of Þrlnclpal-Lmcacy
Leadershlp emcacy ls posluvely correlaLed wlLh
sLudenL achlevemenL ln readlng and maLh.

(ulmmock & Pame, 1996, LelLhwood & McCall, 2008, SmlLh eL.
al., 2003, 1schannen-Moran & Carels, 2003, Lehman, 2007).
• Plghly emcaclous prlnclpals are prlmarlly concerned wlLh
lmprovlng lnsLrucuon for all sLudenLs and can maneuver Lhe
mlcro-pollucal consLrucLs ln a manner where supporL ls
galned for Lhelr lnluauves (8andura, 1997).
• Low-emcacy prlnclpals focus on managemenL, compllance
and dlsclpllne (8andura, 1997).
• ºCharacLerlsucs of hlghly emcaclous prlnclpals LranslaLe lnLo
posluve eñecLs for sLañ and sLudenLs" (vlrga, 2009).
• When faced wlLh challenge, low-emcacy prlnclpals glve up buL
hlgh-emcacy prlnclpals work harder, ñnd anoLher way and
perslsL ln Lhelr eñorLs (8andura, 2000).
Þrlnclpal Learnlng Lxperlences
• Leadershlp Þreparauon Þrogram 1ypes
– unlverslLy based programs
– dlsLrlcL lnluaLed programs
– programs run by Lhlrd parues
– programs run Lhrough parLnershlps of Lhe unlverslues, school dlsLrlcLs,
and Lhlrd parues
• AdulL Learnlng 1heory
• Þrofesslonal Learnlng Lxperlences
– Supporung Lhe lndlvldual educaLor
– Þersonal and Þrofesslonal ulrecL Servlce Models
– Collaborauve/Cooperauve models
– Currlcular and lnsLrucuonal lnluauves
– 1he Workshop Way of Learnlng
• Sequenual mlxed meLhods approach

• ÞrlorlLy was glven Lo Lhe quallLauve daLa gaLhered as Lhe
quanuLauve daLa was prlmarlly used Lo ldenufy Lhe
paruclpanLs for Lhe sLudy.

• 1he daLa from Lhe lnLervlews was sLudled lnducuvely and Lhe
researcher auended Lo emerglng Lhemes ln Lhe reporLed
eñecuveness of dlñerenL professlonal learnlng experlences.
• 1wenLy-Lwo prlnclpals from a rural nC School ulsLrlcL
• School Level
– llve hlgh school
– lour mlddle school
– 1hlrLeen elemenLary school
• CrlLerla for selecung prlnclpals for Lhe lnLervlews
– Mlnlmum of Lwo years experlence
– Self-emcacy scores ln Lhe Lop slxLy -percenL
– AL leasL four secondary prlnclpals and four elemenLary school
• 12 candldaLes meL Lhe crlLerla, eleven were lnLervlewed
• llve elemenLary, Lwo mlddle, Lhree hlgh school prlnclpals
were lnLervlewed
• 8 WhlLe, 1 Launo, 1 Afrlcan Amerlcan and 1 Amerlcan lndlan
Þrlnclpal were lnLervlewed
Ma|e Iema|e Wh|te Afr|can
Lanno Amer|can
8 14 18 2 1 1
• Þrlnclpal Sense of Lmcacy Scale (ÞSLS) developed by
1schannen-Moran and Carels (2004)

• uemographlc Survey

• lnLervlew Cuesuons

Þrocedures & uaLa Analysls
• ConLacLed Lhe SuperlnLendenL Lo dlscuss proLocol for survey
dlssemlnauon and lnLervlew schedule
• Þermlsslon for paruclpauon was recelved and surveys were
admlnlsLered ln a group semng
• Surveys were collecLed and daLa analyzed Lo choose
paruclpanLs for Lhe lnLervlew
• ConLacLed Lhe paruclpanLs selecLed for Lhe quallLauve daLa
collecuons, secured verbal permlsslon for paruclpauon,
scheduled lnLervlews
• lnLervlewed Lhe paruclpanLs over a perlod of ñve days
• lnLervlew sesslons Lranscrlbed

uaLa Analysls
• 1he resulLs from Lhe ÞSLS were analyzed Lo rank order Lhe
emcacy scores of prlnclpal accordlng Lo school level.
• 1he resulLs from Lhe ÞSLS and demographlc survey were used
Lo generaLe a llsL of paruclpanLs for Lhe lnLervlew phase of
Lhe research.
• Þrlnclpals selecLed were nouñed by emall and lnLervlews
were scheduled and conducLed over a perlod of ñve days.
• 1he quallLauve daLa was audlo recorded and Lranscrlbed.
uaLa Analysls Conunued
• 1he researcher read Lhrough Lhe Lranscrlbed daLa one ume Lo geL a
general sense of poLenual pauerns.
• 1he researcher read Lhrough Lhe daLa a second ume and began
make noLauons ln Lhe marglns of sLaLemenLs deemed as slgnlñcanL
ln answerlng Lhe research quesuons.
• 1he daLa from Lhe audlo recordlng was coded by hand and analyzed
by Lhemauc analysls, a process LhaL lnvolved codlng and Lhen
segregaung Lhe daLa by codes lnLo daLa clumps for furLher analysls
and descrlpuon" (Clesne, 2006, 147).
• 1he researcher organlzed Lhe daLa by emerglng Lhemes and around
Lhe dlñerenL Lypes of professlonal learnlng experlences prlnclpals
descrlbe as belng mosL lmpacuul ln conLrlbuung Lo Lhelr emcacy.
llndlngs-Lmerglng 1hemes
Coded 1op|cs 1hemes

Support from Stañ ulsLrlcL SupporL
Lnab||ng D|str|ct Structures
Support from D|str|ct

Intr|ns|c 1ra|t Þersonal
Iam||y 8ackground
Lar|y Schoo| Lxper|ences

Mentors MenLors, 8ole Models, Coaches
ko|e Mode|s

Lxper|enna| Learn|ng Lxperlenual
Cn the Iob 1ra|n|ng
Ass|stant Þr|nc|pa| Lxper|ences

Workshop CLher Þrofesslonal Learnlng
Independent Study

Iorma| Þreparanon lormal Þreparauon

Learn|ng from Co||eagues]Co||aboranon Cooperauve/collaborauve
Þrofess|ona| Learn|ng Commun|nes
Cvervlew of 1oplcs and 1hemes
(1) MenLors, 8ole Models and Coaches
(2) CLher Þrofesslonal Learnlng
(3) Cooperauve/Collaborauve models
(4) ulsLrlcL SupporL
(3) Lxperlenual learnlng or !" $%& '() *+,-"-".
(6) lormal Þreparauon
(7) Þersonal
Cooperanve and Co||aboranve Mode|s
• 1yplcally focus on developlng synergy and shared purpose
and lnclude groups worklng wlLhln a communlLy Lo achleve
goals held by Lhe communlLy (!oyce & Calhoun, 2010).
• Collecuve synergy lncreases posluve añecL, lncreases learnlng
of selecLed knowledge and sklll, and lncreases
lmplemenLauon of knowledge and skllls (!oyce & Calhoun,
• 1hls Lheme was coded 102 umes ln Lhe daLa analysls,
represenung 24.82° of Lhe LoLal responses.
Lnab||ng D|str|ct Structure.
• Lnabllng ulsLrlcL SLrucLure (LuS)
– Lhe sLrucLure aL Lhe dlsLrlcL level LhaL supporLs prlnclpals and lncludes
a focus on quallLy, dlsLrlcL culLure, use of daLa, [ob-embedded
professlonal developmenL for Leachers, LargeLed lmprovemenL, and an
emphasls on Leam work ls a vlable and lnßuenual consLrucL relaLed Lo
prlnclpal emcacy (Land, 2013).
– 34 responses (13°) coded as slgnlñcanL
llndlngs-Collaborauve Models and LuS
Plgh quallLy professlonal learnlng ls susLalnable and bullL upon
shared knowledge and collaborauon (Speck & knlpe, 2003).
• nearly one-fourLh of Lhe overall responses abouL learnlng
experlences LhaL conLrlbuLed Lo prlnclpal eñecuveness were
aurlbuLed Lo Lhe ÞLC sLrucLures LhaL were elLher organlzed,
encouraged or supporLed Lhrough Lhe ulsLrlcL.
• 1he ÞLC's organlzed by Lhe dlsLrlcL are a posluve example of
• All eleven prlnclpals reporLed a hlghly collaborauve culLure,
wlLh hlgh levels of LrusL. 1here were 34 sLaLemenLs
referenclng speclñc supporL from leadershlp aL Lhe dlsLrlcL

Lxper|enna| Learn|ng
All of Lhe prlnclpals lnLervlewed dlscussed Lhe lmporLance of
experlence or (" $%& /() $+,-"-". ln bulldlng Lhelr emcacy.

ln 81 of Lhe 411 (19.7°)responses coded as slgnlñcanL, prlnclpals
referred Lo pasL experlences or on Lhe [ob Lralnlng as belng a
powerful Leachlng Lool.

Lnacuve masLery experlences or performance accompllshmenLs
are Lhe mosL lnßuenual source of emcacy, repeaLed success
ralses Lhe expecLauon of fuLure success, whlle repeaLed fallures
lncrease Lhe expecLauon of more fallure (8andura, 1997).
Cther Þrofess|ona| Learn|ng.
• Cf Lhe 411 responses 38 sLaLemenLs (14.11°) regardlng
formal professlonal developmenL Lhrough Lhe workshop
model or lndependenL sLudy were ldenuñed as slgnlñcanL.
• ulsungulshed Leadershlp ln Þracuce (uLÞ) and nauonal
8oards were hlghllghLed as a valuable learnlng experlence by
Lhe candldaLes who had paruclpaLed.
• uLÞ was menuoned as belng eñecuve ln regards Lo ume spenL
ln collaborauon wlLh oLher prlnclpals, yeL one prlnclpal felL
LhaL Lhere were noL enough of Lhese opporLunlues.
Iorma| Þreparanon
Lach of Lhe LwenLy-Lwo recelved Lhelr MSA, advanced degrees
or add-on llcensure from unlverslues ln Lhe sLaLe of norLh
– 1wo were Þrlnclpal lellows
– Cne paruclpaLed ln an add-on program.
– 1he remalnlng elghL prlnclpals were enrolled ln Lradluonal unlverslLy
60 (14.6°) SLaLemenLs of slgnlñcance
– 40 (66°) of Lhose sLaLemenLs were coded as belng facLors LhaL had a
posluve lmpacL on emcacy
– lour (1.6°) sLaLemenLs were coded as neuLral
– 16 (26.6°) of Lhe sLaLemenLs were coded as noL beneñclal Lo Lhe
growLh ln emcacy.
Mentors, Coaches and ko|e Mode|s.
Cnly Lhree prlnclpals reporLed havlng an asslgned menLor
31 (7.3°) of sLaLemenLs coded as slgnlñcanL Lo prlnclpal learnlng were relaLed
Lo Lhls Lheme
• 27 of Lhe responses from prlnclpals descrlbed Lhelr relauonshlps wlLh
menLors, role models or coaches as slgnlñcanL ln bulldlng prlnclpal
• All eleven prlnclpals had menLors, buL Lhe menLor was only formally
asslgned as parL of a dlsLrlcL sLrucLure ln Lhe experlence of Lhree
– Cf Lhese Lhree, Lwo prlnclpals were neuLral regardlng Lhelr experlence and one felL
lL had no lmpacL on her performance.
• 1en of Lhe eleven paruclpanLs Lalked abouL havlng lnformal or self-
selecLed menLors and were very posluve abouL Lhe relauonshlps wlLh Lhelr
self-selecLed menLor.
• 1en of Lhe eleven prlnclpals lndlcaLed LhaL Lhelr menLor was a prlnclpal
wlLh whom Lhey served as an asslsLanL prlnclpal and LhaL Lhe relauonshlp
had endured.

Þersona| Lxper|ences or Intr|ns|c Character

• 23 of Lhe 411 responses coded as slgnlñcanL
– all eleven of Lhe candldaLes lnLervlewed expressed famlllal upbrlnglng,
an early school experlence, an lnLrlnslc characLer LralL, or anoLher
personal background experlence as havlng a slgnlñcanL lmpacL on
Lhelr capaclLy Lo lead eñecuvely.
• Lxamples
– Cne prlnclpal Lalked abouL hls famlly's experlence ln Lhe servlce
lndusLry and how Lhls posluvely lmpacLed hls emcacy ln lnLeracung ln
Lhe publlc arena and bulldlng relauonshlps.
– AnoLher prlnclpal Lalked abouL her personal sLruggles as a sLudenL and
her deslre Lo posluvely lmpacL Lhe educauonal experlence for all
– A Lhlrd prlnclpal shared hls prlor experlences ln Lhe armed forces as a
conLrlbuung facLor ln hls capaclLy Lo lead.
Summary and Supporung 1heory
• School leadershlp ls a key Lo hlgh numbers of sLudenLs meeung
rlgorous academlc achlevemenL goals (1schannen-Moran, & Carels,
2003, neules and PerrlngLon, 2007, Marzano, 2003, LelLhwood, eL
al, 2008).
• ºLvldenLly, Lhe percelved quallLy of Lhe preparauon and Lralnlng
makes a dlñerence ln Lhe prlnclpals' sense of emcacy, suggesung
LhaL Lhe deslgn, conLenL and conunuous lmprovemenL of
educauonal leadershlp programs ls lmporLanL Lo Lhe
professlon" (1schannen-Moran & Carels, 2003, p. 24).
• Þrlnclpal self-emcacy bellefs can be developed Lhrough a varleLy of
professlonal learnlng experlences lncludlng preparauon programs,
Lradluonal professlonal developmenL experlences, and menLorlng
and coachlng experlences.
lnLerpreLauons of ñndlngs
• Lxperlenual Learnlng
• Collaborauve Learnlng
• 8eal-world Appllcauon
• Supporuve SLrucLure
Seven overall Lhemes were ldenuñed as havlng a slgnlñcanL lmpacL on
Lhe professlonal learnlng experlences of prlnclpals.
• 1wo of Lhe Lhemes ldenuñed represenLed nearly half of Lhe
responses coded as slgnlñcanL.
– professlonal learnlng experlences LhaL lncluded collaborauon or
cooperauon wlLh colleagues
– experlenual on Lhe [ob learnlng.
• lour of Lhe ñve remalnlng Lhemes were coded as posluve when
Lhey lnvolved collaborauon and lnLeracuon wlLh oLhers Lo some
degree or were relevanL Lo Lhe lmmedlaLe needs of Lhe [ob.
• Þerhaps Lhe only excepuon Lo Lhe slgnlñcance of collaborauon
would be Lhe lasL and remalnlng Lheme coded as 0&+1(",2,
lnvolvlng pasL school or llfe experlences and famlly background.
lmpllcauons for Þracuce
• ln order for prlnclpals Lo bulld Lhelr sense of emcacy, Lhey need Lo engage
ln experlences LhaL lnLenuonally supporL Lhe anLecedenLs Lo emcacy.
• Plgh quallLy professlonal learnlng ls susLalnable and bullL upon shared
knowledge and collaborauon (Speck & knlpe, 2003).
• ulsLrlcLs can deslgn professlonal learnlng experlences LhaL are relevanL Lo
Lhe learner by provldlng prlnclpals lnpuL lnLo Lhe conLenL of Lhe learnlng
– ulsLrlcLs should lnLenuonally deslgn Lhese experlences wlLh opporLunlues for
collaborauon and when posslble draw upon Lhe exlsung problems of prlnclpals ln a
case sLudy analysls.
– Þerhaps prlnclpals could brlng relevanL lssues Lo Lhe Lable and have opporLunlues
Lo collaborauvely problem solve and deep dlve Lhe consequences of posslble
responses Lo Lhe lssues aL hand.
• 1he lmporLance of a culLure of LrusL.

lmpllcauons-Þrofesslonal Learnlng Lxperlences
• CLher professlonal learnlng experlences of prlnclpals,
– Lxperlences should be carefully examlned prlor Lo engagemenL and
paruclpauon should be pursued lf Lhe professlonal learnlng experlence
provldes opporLunlues for experlenual learnlng, eñecuve pracuce and
collaborauon wlLh oLher colleagues.
– ulsLrlcLs mlghL evaluaLe Lhelr process for prlnclpals when engaglng ln
professlonal developmenL. An appllcauon process for professlonal
developmenL may provlde for assurance LhaL Lhe professlonal learnlng
meeLs Lhe crlLerla of eñecuve professlonal learnlng experlences. 1hls wlll
also esLabllsh relevancy.
• Þrlnclpal menLors, coaches or supervlsors could also deslgn and
oñer or presenL professlonal learnlng experlences Lo prlnclpals ln
Lhelr lndlvldual or collecuve areas of need. 1hls scenarlo would
also provlde for more dlñerenuauon based upon need and
lndlvldual learnlng sLyles of prlnclpals.
lmpllcauons-lormal Þreparauon
ºÞrogram conLenL should be dellvered Lhrough a varleLy of
meLhods Lo besL meeL Lhe needs of adulL learners and allow
prlnclpals and asplrlng prlnclpals Lo apply Lhe currlcular conLenL
ln auLhenuc semngs and Loward Lhe resoluuon of real-world
problems and dllemmas."
ºLvldence lndlcaLes LhaL eñecuve programs are research based,
have currlcular coherence, provlde experlence ln ln auLhenuc
conLexLs, use cohorL grouplngs and menLors, and are sLrucLured
Lo enable collaborauve acuvlLy beLween Lhe program and area
(uavls,, 2003, p. 9).
lmpllcauons-lormal Þreparauon
1he quallLauve daLa ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhls research, calllng for more
experlenual and auLhenuc experlences and Lhe prlnclpals' reporLed
posluve lmpacL of collaborauon and experlence.
– Auenuon Lo a balance of Lheory and pracucal experlence.
– More ume spenL ln lnLernshlp, case sLudles and scenarlos
– More engagemenL ln auLhenuc work and more ume spenL ln problem
solvlng wlLh pracuuoners.
– lnLernshlps, longer, varled, prlor Lo enrollmenL, ln Lhe conLexL of a
– ÞarLnershlps and lncreased cooperauon and collaborauon beLween
ulsLrlcLs and unlverslLy Þrogram AdmlnlsLraLors
– Lngage ln a rlgorous analysls and evaluauon of Lhe preparauon programs
and professlonal developmenL of prlnclpals Lo dellneaLe whaL works and
dlmlnlsh Lhose experlences deemed as lnadequaLe or lmpracucal ln Lhelr
conLrlbuuon Lo emcacy.
• A llmlLauon of Lhls sLudy would be Lhe degree Lo whlch Lhe needs
of prlnclpals ln small rural communlLy ln norLh Carollna are
conslsLenL wlLh Lhe needs of prlnclpals worklng ln dlñerenL
• AnoLher llmlLauon of Lhls sLudy ls LhaL lL ls llkely LhaL Lhe prlnclpals
ln Lhls dlsLrlcL have engaged ln slmllar professlonal learnlng
experlences, Lhereby llmlung Lhelr ablllLy Lo reporL on some
varlauons of professlonal learnlng experlences.
– Some models of professlonal learnlng, such as coachlng, were noL
experlenced by Lhe group aL large and were noL able Lo be Lhoroughly
• 1he resulLs are llmlLed Lo Lhe self-reporLed lndlcauons of emcacy.
• uue Lo Lhe small number of paruclpanLs, Lhe lnLervlewees may feel
Lhey were easlly ldenuñable desplLe every eñorL Lo proLecL Lhelr
ldenuLy. 1here was no way Lo guaranLee anonymlLy.
Suggesuons for lurLher 8esearch
• 1here ls a need Lo examlne prlnclpal emcacy prlor Lo enrollmenL ln
a program such and compare Lo Lhe emcacy of prlnclpals aûer
paruclpauon ln a professlonal learnlng experlence.
• 1hls sLudy was noL deslgned Lo lnvesugaLe Lhe lmpacL of famlly
background, pasL experlences of prlnclpals or Lhe lmpacL of lnLrlnslc
characLer LralLs on prlnclpal emcacy. 1hls was a Lheme LhaL
emerged and Lhls ls a Lheme LhaL warranLs furLher lnvesugauon.
• Lmcacy was self-reporLed Lhrough Lhe ÞSLS. lL would be
lnLeresung Lo see lf prlnclpal reporLs of self-emcacy are conslsLenL
wlLh dlsLrlcL leadershlp or Leacher percepuons of prlnclpal emcacy.
• llnally, Lhere ls a need Lo repllcaLe Lhls sLudy wlLh prlnclpals ln a
larger urban Lype semng Lo see lf Lhe ñndlngs are conslsLenL across