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Corrosion Under Insulation: The Challenge

and Need for Insulation
By Johan Sentjens, June 30, 2014
Takeaway: With CUI, it's best to think about long-te! solutions an" !ini!i#ing $utue
$ailues% &his takes an e$$ot at all 'hases o$ the li$e (y(le, but it stats in the engineeing
Sou(e) Ssua'hoto*+ea!sti!e%(o!
When it (o!es to (oosion un"e insulation ,CUI-, I ten" to (all it a !ine$iel", an" $o !oe
than just one eason% It.s not only a hi""en 'heno!enon, but it's also one that (an eally (o!e
ba(k to bite (o!'anies /ho "on.t in0est in a goo" CUI !itigation stategy, be(ause soone o
late, those (o!'anies ae going to get thei na!es in the 'a'es "ue to un/ante" a((i"ents,
'o"u(tion loss an" en0ion!ental "a!ages%
But /hen the 'o0ebial hose has bolte", a lot o$ asset-o/nes /ant to (lose the stable "oos
by i!'le!enting igoous !easues% &he 'oble! is that they o$ten only $o(us on a shot-
te! solution, su(h as "is!antling the entie the!al insulation, in so!e (ases /el"ing /hee
/all thi(kness loss is (iti(al, e(oating e1ui'!ent o 'i'ing an" then einsulating - in !ost
(ases /ith the sa!e insulation syste! as be$oe%
With CUI, it's best to think about long-te! solutions an" !ini!i#ing $utue $ailues% 2$
(ouse, this takes an e$$ot at all 'hases o$ the li$e (y(le an" stats /ith senio !anage!ent
allo(ating enough bu"get%
In this ati(le, ho/e0e, I'll only be $o(using on /hat I think is the $ist ste' in the li$e (y(le)
Engineering a Corrosion Under Insulation System
4o! engineeing 'oint o$ 0ie/, /e nee" to look at the /hole syste! an" !ake (hoi(es
1% 5etallugy $o e1ui'!ent*'i'ing
2% Su$a(e 'ote(tion, su(h as (oating o !etali#ation
3% Insulation !ateial
4% Cla""ing o ja(keting
In this ati(le I /ill "is(uss "is(uss ite!s thee an" $ou in "e'th, an" shae e(ent insights
an" 'a(ti(es%
What Is CUI?
In e(ent yeas, I.0e seen a 0aiety o$ 'eo'le "ealing /ith CUI /ho ha0e little o no
ba(kgoun" in the basi( 'hysi(al 'in(i'les o$ (oosion% So, I'll stat /ith a shot su!!ay%
CUI is a (olle(ti0e noun $o 0aious ty'es o$ (oosion !e(hanis!s, but it.s al/ays (ause" by
the 'esen(e o$ ,ain-/ate (ontaining (hloi"es an"*o sul'hates% 4o (abon steel, CUI only
o((us in (o!bination /ith a $aile" o "a!age" (oating syste!, an" (an !ani$est as 'itting
(oosion o uni$o! /all thi(kness loss% 4o austeniti( stainless steel, the !ost (o!!on
$o! o$ (oosion is e6tenal (hloi"e stess (oosion (a(king ,C7-3SCC-%
Wate, /hi(h e0entually (an a((u!ulate onto the substate an" (oul" $o! an ele(tolyte, (an
oiginate $o! 0aious sou(es%
• 8ain$all o hea0y !ist
• +i$t $o! (ooling to/es
• +eluge syste!s
• 9o(ess leakage o s'illage
• Con"ensation /ithin the insulation syste!s
CUI (an be e6'e(te" on 'i'ing an" e1ui'!ent o'eating bet/een -4:C ,2;:4- an" 1<;:C
,34<:4-, but also syste!s o'eating outsi"e this ange% ,4o e6a!'le, (y(li( te!'eatues o
"ea" legs (an in(ease sus(e'tibility%- =s sai" be$oe, CUI is a hi""en $ailue% It (an o((u
lo(ally o (an a$$e(t a lage aea%
=lthough (oosion ates $o (abon steel ae, in geneal, lo/e than (hloi"e e6tenal stess
(oosion (a(king ,C7-3SCC- ates, $o (abon steel, es'e(ially nea salty, seasi"e
en0ion!ents, (oosion ates o$ u' to 20 !ils ,0%; !!- 'e yea ha0e been e'ote"%
The Role of the Insulation System
It.s a (o!!on (onsensus a!ong e6'eien(e" 'eo'le "ealing /ith CUI that "y insulation
syste!s si!'ly "on't e6ist in the long un% &hey thee$oe ten" to be ega"e" as a ba"
in$luen(e% In a""ition, 'eo'le ha0e belie0e" $o "e(a"es that (la""ing*ja(keting is 100 'e(ent
/eathe'oo$ an", in (o!bination /ith ele0ate" se0i(e te!'eatues, that /ate o !oistue
(oul" ne0e get ta''e"% &his i"ea esulte" in !any (ases in /hi(h 'i'ing, othe that the basi(
sho' 'i!e, /asn.t e0en e6ta (oate"%
Cla""ing*ja(keting is 'i!aily "esigne" as /eathe'oo$ing an" not as a 0a'o baie%
+e'en"ing on se0i(e te!'eatue an" a!bient (on"itions, (on"ensation /ithin the insulation
syste! !ay not be a0oi"able, an" thee$oe nee"s to be a""esse" in the engineeing 'hase%
In othe situations, /ate entes into the insulation syste! though $aile" o boken
(la""ing*ja(keting% &his (an be (ause" by)
• 4oot ta$$i(
• Ina"e1uate "esign
• In(oe(t installation
• =n insu$$i(ient !aintenan(e stategy
20elooking all 'ossible CUI (auses in elation to a (onse1uen(e o$ the $ailue o$ 'i'ing
syste!s o e1ui'!ent, thee's a justi$i(ation $o (hallenging the nee" $o insulation%
&he oil (isis "uing the 1><0s bought ne/ insights on enegy sa0ings an" esulte" in othe
"esign (iteia $o the!al insulation $o the ,'eto-(he!i(al in"usty% In so!e (ases, this
esulte" in e6(essi0e insulating, /hi(h /as not al/ays e(ono!i(ally $easible% ?o/e0e,
e(ent geo'oliti(al C2
e"u(tion goals 'esua"e" !any asset-o/nes to e-e0aluate these ol"
goals an" tanslate the! into ne/ (o!'any 'oli(ies%
Belo/ is a $lo/ "iaga! that 'o0i"es a $e/ logi(al ste's to un"estan" /hethe insulation is
ne(essay o (oul" be e'la(e"%
Reasons for Insulating
&he $ist 1uestion that al/ays has to be ans/ee" is the eason $o insulating, /hi(h (an be
one o a (o!bination o$ the $ollo/ing)
• ?eat (onse0ation o enegy sa0ing
• 9o(ess (ontol
• 4ee#e 'ote(tion*/intei#ation
• 9esonnel 'ote(tion
• @oise e"u(tion
• 4ie 'ote(tion
&hese easons "ete!ine the (hoi(e o$ insulation !ateials an" the ty'e o$ (la""ing*ja(keting
use"% &hee ae 0aious insulation stan"a"s an" gui"elines aoun" the /ol", but I /oul" like
to e(o!!en" the CI@I In"ustial Insulation 5anual%
When going though the abo0e $lo/ "iaga!, /e see that only insulation $o 'esonnel
'ote(tion (oul" !aybe be (onsi"ee" $o e!o0al an" e'la(e!ent /ith so!ething like
'ote(ti0e gua"s% ?o/e0e, be(ause en0ion!ental an" enegy-sa0ing goals ha0e be(o!e
!oe i!'otant in e(ent yeas, e!o0al o$ insulation e0en $o this eason shoul" be (iti(ally
Designing a it!for!"ur#ose Insulation System
&hee isn.t a Aone-si#e-$its-allA insulation syste!% &hee$oe, insulation "esign shoul" be
!oe than just "a/ing u' a s'e(i$i(ation% 9i'eline enginees an" e1ui'!ent "esignes shoul"
!ake "etaile" insulation "esign% Base" on a (onse1uen(e o$ $ailue assess!ent, 'i'ing an"*o
e1ui'!ent /ith a highe anking shoul" lea" to the (eation o$ insulation syste!s /ith the
lo/est sus(e'tibility% In o"e to "o so, the $ollo/ing (iteia nee" to be (onsi"ee" /hen
"esigning insulation syste!s)
1% Choi$e of Insulation %aterials
Insulation !ateials (an be oughly sub"i0i"e" into 'e!eable ,o'en-(elle"- an"
i!'e!eable ,(lose"-(ell- !ateials% 4o syste!s belo/ a!bient (on"itions /hee
su$a(e (on"ensation o i(ing is 'ossible, (lose"-(ell !ateials like 9U8*9I8 $oa! o
(ellula glass ae o$ten (hosen, /heeas $o hot syste!s, !ineal /ool like stone o
glass /ool o e6'an"e" 'elite ae (o!!on 'o"u(ts%
&he (hoi(e also "e'en"s on lo(al o histoi(al goun"s% 4o instan(e, 3uo'e uses a lot
o$ !ineal /ool $o hot insulation, /heeas in the Unite" States, (al(iu! sili(ate,
'elite an" (ellula glass ae !oe (o!!on% In s'e(i$i(ations, it.s (o!!on 'a(ti(e
not to e$e to 'o"u(t na!es% &hee$oe, !any insulation s'e(i$i(ations e$e to
geneal te(hni(al e1uie!ents%
I!'otant (haa(teisti(s in elation to CUI in(lu"e)
o Wate abso'tion ,=S&5 CB10 o =S&5 CB12-
o 7ea(hable (hloi"es (ontent ,=S&5 CC<1 o =S&5 C<>;-
o ?y"o'hobi( beha0io
o Co!'essi0e stength ,/hen $oot ta$$i( (an be e6'e(te"-
o +i!ensional stability
2% Insulation Cladding or &a$keting
&he $ist ste' is to "ete!ine" the 'u'ose $o (la""ing o ja(keting% &hee ae se0eal
"esign (iteia su(h as)
o &he nee" $o a 0a'o baie ,belo/ a!bient se0i(e te!'eatues-
o &he nee" $o /eathe 'ote(tion an" UD esistan(e
o 5e(hani(al esistan(e
o =((essibility $o !aintenan(e o ins'e(tions
Cla""ing*ja(keting (an be sub"i0i"e into !etal an" non-!etal, ea(h o$ /hi(h has
s'e(i$i( (haa(teisti(s an" s(o'e o$ a''li(ations% =lthough the abo0e (iteia
"ete!ine the (hoi(e, this is also in$luen(e" by lo(al a0ailable (a$ts!anshi' an"
'a(ti(es% =nothe i!'otant 'at o$ (la""ing*ja(keting is the use o$ (aulking o
sealants% &he (hoi(e o$ /hethe all joints ,longitu"inal, (i(u!$eential as /ell as
'otusions- shall be $inishe" ,o $lashe"- "e'en"s on ho/ sheeting "etails ae
3% 'o$al (eogra#hi$ Conditions and "lant 'ayout
Seasi"e en0ion!ents ae "i$$eent $o! inlan" en0ion!ents, an" a(ti( (on"itions
"i$$e $o! to'i(al ones% +o/n/in" "i$t $o! (ooling to/es o $e1uent $ie "eluge
"ills ae othe !ajo $a(tos to (onsi"e% In 3uo'e, the esult o$ these (onsi"eations
is that !any sites ae (lassi$ie" in the highest (oosion (lass% It's also i!'otant to
(eate enough "istan(e bet/een 'i'ing an" e1ui'!ent to allo/ 'o'e insulation
installation an" enable !aintenan(e an" ins'e(tion in the $utue%
4% E)ui#ment* "i#ing and Tank Design Details
4o 'essue 'i'ing o e1ui'!ent, stan"a"s an" (o"es like =S53, =9I, BS, 7loy"s
ae a0ailable% But "etails /ith ega"s to insulation "esign ae o$ten li!ite" to things
like (li's o insulation su''ot ings% In a""ition, so!e o$ these "etails (an (eate
'otential ingess 'oints% So, bi"ging the ga' bet/een !e(hani(al "esign an"
insulation "esign is a giant lea' $o/a" in !itigating CUI% &he $ollo/ing suggestions
(an signi$i(antly i!'o0e "esign /hen it (o!es to CUI)
o Collas on 'otu"ing tubes
o Da(uu! ings that "on.t etain /ate
o 7i$ting lugs that (an easily be e!o0e" a$te installation
o 9i'e su''ot on high "ensity ,4o $uthe "esign "etails I e$e to the 34C CUI
gui"eline an" the CI@I In"ustial 5anual%-
;% Installation "ro$edures
Sa$ety, health an" en0ion!ental (on"itions ae "i$$eent "e'en"ing on the (ounty o
egion% So, it's i!'otant to 0ei$y the installation an" a''li(ation gui"elines 'o0i"e"
by the !anu$a(tue an" 0ei$y this /ith a''li(able legislation an" ules% ?ealth an"
sa$ety e1uie!ents ega"ing things like $ibes, "ust an" sol0ents (an in$luen(e the
B% Ins#e$tion and %aintenan$e "ra$ti$es
Clients' o/n ins'e(tion 'o(e"ues (an e1uie ins'e(tion 'lugs o a((ess 'oints $o
0isual ins'e(tion o non-"estu(ti0e e0aluation ,@+3-% In a""ition, a((essibility $o
!aintenan(e 'u'oses shoul" be (onsi"ee", $o instan(e !aking it 'ossible to easily
(hange gaskets (an "ete!ine insulation "esign $o 0al0es% It is e(o!!en"e" that
(lients' best 'a(ti(es be use" an" that lessons leane" $o! the use-'hase ega"ing
insulation be a''lie"%
E=*EC "uing ee(tion is o$ten le$t to the insulation (onta(tos' ogani#ation%
8e(ently I.0e seen !any asset-o/nes in0esting in in"e'en"ent autono!ous E=*EC
"e'at!ents /ho ae also "a/ing u' ins'e(tion an" test 'oga!s ,I&9- in /hi(h
(iti(al Ahol"A an" A/itnessA 'oints ae (he(ke"% &hese ste's ae 0ital /hen
(o!!issioning an" setting u' an ins'e(tion an" !aintenan(e stategy%
<% 'ife Cy$le Costs +'CC, and Total Cost of -wnershi# +TC-,
&hese ae t/o te!s that, to so!e o$ us, /ill soun" like senio !anage!ent gibbeish,
but in !y e6'eien(e, (o!'anies /ith a goo" /oking CUI !itigation stategy ha0e a
!aintenan(e !ange /ho.s able to (on0in(e the senio !anage!ent about the link
bet/een Ao0eall e1ui'!ent e$$i(ien(yA an" a CUI ins'e(tion an" !aintenan(e 'oli(y%
=n" sin(e C32s talk in te!s o$ !oney, these $igues be(o!e i!'otant% 2ne thing
all stu"ies ha0e sho/n) &he!al insulation has a etun on in0est!ent ,82I- o$ less
than t/o yeas%
It.s been e'ote" un"e e0ey ty'e o$ insulation !ateial an" (la""ing an" e0en in
ne/e installations that installations that hol" the least a!ount o$ /ate an" "y !ost
1ui(kly esult in the least a!ount o$ (oosion "a!age to e1ui'!ent ,@=C3 S901>C-%
=s a logi(al (onse1uen(e, i!'e!eable, (lose"-(ell insulation !ateials an" 0a'o-
tight baies see! to be the best o'tion% 30en then, o'eational (on"itions ,the!al
e6'ansion*(onta(tion-, $oot ta$$i(, an" $ailing (aulking at 'otusions (an still
"a!age these syste!s an" (ause /ate ingess% Whi(h bings !e to !y o'inion that
the $ollo/ing o'tions shoul" be (onsi"ee"%
o -#tion .: Non!Conta$t System
Wet insulation that (o!es in (onta(t /ith the substate is the (ause o$ all the
abo0e 'oble!s, so /hy not (eate a (a0ity bet/een the insulation an"
substateF &his is (alle" non-(onta(t insulation% =lthough the i"ea is e0i"ent
an" being use" by Statoil an" Shell, so!e "etails nee" to be a""esse"% 4o
instan(e, the s'a(es use" to (eate this (a0ity !ust not (eate a (e0i(e to
allo/ (e0i(e (oosion%
+e'en"ing on the se0i(e te!'eatue, es'e(ially $o 0eti(al (olu!ns /ithin
this (a0ity, a 0eti(al $ee hot ai $lo/ (an (eate e6ta (on0e(tion an"
(onse1uently e6ta heat loss% ?o/e0e, this (an easily be !ini!i#e" by
!aking (o!'at!ents an" (an be (o!'ensate" /ith a highe thi(kness%
o -#tion /: 0n 0erated Insulation System
5oistue /ill al/ays (on"ense /hee the /ate 0a'o 'essue ate is at its
lo/est an" at the (ol"est s'ot% In the!al insulation, this is the
(la""ing*ja(keting% By (eating an ai (a0ity bet/een the insulation !ateial
an" (la""ing*ja(keting, !oistue has not only the 'ossibility to $eely
(on"ense, but also to $in" its /ay to the lo/est 'oint /hee it (an es(a'e
though a "ain hole%
@eithe o$ these o'tions ae ne/, an" they'e i!'le!ente" by (o!'anies like Shell,
Statoil an" +o/% =lso it.s "o(u!ente" in the CI@I In"ustial 5anual an" stan"a"s
like @28S2G, +I@ an" =HI-E% +es'ite this, it's not /i"ely kno/n /ithin the
insulation ban(h% =lthough so!e big asset-o/nes ae behin" these syste!s, it.s
i!'otant that in"e'en"ent testing gi0e !oe s(ienti$i( an" eliable "ata that (an lea"
to bette stan"a"i#ation%
'ife$y$le 1ersus In2estment
It's ob0ious that these o'tions (o!e /ith a su(hage in (o!'aison to ta"itional /ays o$
insulation% =n" /ithout $un"a!ental esea(h an" testing, it.s 'lausible that although /ate
still (an ingess, it has a /ay to get out% In othe /o"s, these syste!s ae less sus(e'tible to
CUI% =s a esult, they (ontibute to e6'e(te" li$e(y(les% Will these syste!s in(ease
ins'e(tion inte0alsF &his "e'en"s on !oe $a(tos% But /ith 2'tion 1, en"os(o'i( 0isual
ins'e(tions ae a 'ossibility an" lage-s(ale insulation "is!antling is no longe ne(essay%
Boken o "a!age" (la""ing*ja(keting still nee"s to be e'aie", but in this (ase you (an $eel
!oe (on$i"ent that /ate that has gone in /ill soone o late get out%
New De2elo#ments in CUI
&he te(hni(al insulation !aket is not $a!ous $o its in0enti0eness% @e0etheless, so!e
si!'le bight i"eas ha0e being "e0elo'e" o0e the last yeas% 4o instan(e)
• 5oistue "ete(tion syste!s
• Insulation /ith built-in /i(king
&he Intenational Stan"a" ogani#ation ,IS2- has, un"e &C-B<, $o!e" a /oking gou'
WH11 /ho is going to "e0elo' IS2*@9 1>2<< ,5etho"s $o Contol o$ Coosion Un"e
&he!al Insulation an" 4ie'oo$ing 5ateials-% 9at o$ the stan"a" is to "e0elo' a stan"a"
that (an be use" to test an" e0aluate insulation syste!s an" the e$$e(t o$ CUI% It's a ne(essay
ste' in o"e to get /ol"/i"e a((e'tan(e an" in"e'en"ent 'o(e"ues, an" o'en ne/ /ays
$o 'o"u(t "e0elo'!ent on a syste! le0el%
CUI Isn3t New
CUI is nothing ne/ an" a lot o$ solutions in this ati(le ha0e been kno/n $o yeas% In !y
o'inion, thee ae t/o !ajo ste's ne(essay to (ontol CUI in the yeas to (o!e) 3"u(ation
an" !in"set% In the last "e(a"es, a lot o$ kno/-ho/ has "isa''eae" $o! the in"usty "ue to
(ut-ba(ks, es'e(ially /ith asset-o/nes% =n", sin(e it.s i!'ossible to get a ba(helo's "egee
in in"ustial te(hni(al insulation, this kno/le"ge ga' has been $ille" in by insulation
!anu$a(tues an" (onta(tos% But sin(e thei e6'etise is the!al insulation an" CUI is a
(oosion issue, so!e bi"ges ha0e to be built an" kno/le"ge shaes% &his stats /ith a
(hanging !in"set% CUI !itigation is a syste!s a''oa(h) !etallugi( "esign, su$a(e
'ote(tion, insulation !ateial an" (la""ing*ja(keting% By (o!bining these "is(i'lines /ithin
engineeing, an i!'otant ste' $o/a" (an be !a"e%
=n" as !e!be o$ IS2 &CB<*WH11, CI@I an" 34C I see it a 'esonal (hallenge to buil"
these bi"ges an" kee' on shaing kno/le"ge%