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Designation: A 494/A494M 00 An American National Standard

Standard Specication for

Castings, Nickel and Nickel Alloy
This standard is issued under the xed designation A 494/A494M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
1. Scope
1.1 This specication covers nickel, nickel-copper, nickel-
copper-silicon, nickel-molybdenum, nickel-chromium, and
nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy castings for corrosion-
resistant service.
1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units
are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the
SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each
system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must
be used independently of the other. Combining values from the
two systems may result in nonconformance with the speci-
cation. Inch-pound units are applicable for material ordered to
Specication A 494 and SI units for material ordered to
Specication A 494M.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
A 370 Test Methods and Denitions for Mechanical Testing
of Steel Products
A 488/A488M Practice for Steel Castings, Welding, Quali-
cations of Procedures and Personnel
A 732/A732M Specication for Castings, Investment, Car-
bon and LowAlloy Steel for General Application, and
Cobalt Alloy for High Strength at Elevated Temperatures
A 781/A781M Specication for Castings, Steel and Alloy,
Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
E 29 Practice for Using Signicant Digits in Test Data to
Determine Conformance with Specications
E 30 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Steel, Cast
Iron, Open-Hearth Iron, and Wrought Iron
E 38 Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Chromium
and Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys
E 76 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Copper
E 354 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of High-
Temperature, Electrical, Magnetic, and Other Similar Iron,
Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys
2.2 Military Standards:
NAVSEA T9074AS-GIB-010/271 Requirements for Non-
destructive Testing Methods
NAVSEAS9074AR-GIB-010/2718 Requirements for Fab-
rication Welding and Inspection, and Casting Inspection
and Repair for Machinery, Piping, and Pressure Vessels
3. Terminology
3.1 Denitions:
3.1.1 master heata single furnace charge of rened alloy
which may either be poured directly into castings or into remelt
alloy for individual melts.
3.1.2 meltsa single furnace charge poured into castings.
When master heats are used to prepare melts, a melt analysis
shall be reported.
4. General Conditions for Delivery
4.1 Material furnished to this specication shall conform to
the requirements of Specication A 781/A 781M, including
any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the
purchase order. Failure to comply with the general require-
ments of Specication A 781/A 781M constitutes nonconfor-
mance with this specication. In case of conict between the
requirements of this specication and Specication A 781/
A 781M, this specication shall prevail.
5. Ordering Information
5.1 Orders for castings to this specication should include
the following information:
5.1.1 Quantity, in pieces, and
5.1.2 Grade designation (Table 1) and class (Table 2).
5.2 The purchaser shall specify any of the following infor-
mation required to describe adequately the desired material:
5.2.1 Heat treat condition (see 6.1 and 6.2),
5.2.2 Repair welding (see 11)
5.2.3 Source inspection requirements, if any (see Specica-
tion A 781/A 781M),
5.2.4 Marking-for-identication requirements, if any (see
13.1), and
5.2.5 Supplementary requirements desired, including the
This specication is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel,
Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
A01.18 on Castings.
Current edition approved Mar. 10, 2000. Published May 2000. Originally
published as B 332 58 T. Redesignated as A 494 in 1963. Last previous edition
A 494/A 494M 99.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.03.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.02.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
Discontinued, see 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
Available from DODSSP, Building 4/Section D, 700 Robbins Avenue Phila-
delphia, PA 191115098
Copyright ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
standards of acceptance.
6. Heat Treatment
6.1 Castings shall be heat treated in accordance with the
requirements in Table 2.
NOTE 1Proper heat treatment of these alloys is usually necessary to
enhance corrosion resistance and, in some cases, to meet mechanical
properties. Minimum heat treat temperatures are specied; however, it is
sometimes necessary to heat treat at higher temperatures, hold for some
minimum time at temperature, and then rapidly cool the castings in order
to enhance the corrosion resistance and meet mechanical properties.
6.2 When Class 1 is specied, grades CY40 and M-25S
shall be supplied in the as-cast condition. When Class 2 is
specied, grades CY40 and M-25S shall be supplied in the
solution-treated condition. When Class 3 is specied, grade
M-25S shall be supplied in the age-hardened condition.
7. Chemical Composition
7.1 These alloys shall conform to the chemical composition
requirements prescribed in Table 1.
7.2 An analysis of each master heat shall be made by the
manufacturer to determine the percentages of the elements
specied in Table 1. The analysis shall be made from a
representative sample taken during the pouring of the master
heat. Chemical composition shall be reported to the purchaser
or his representative.
7.3 Test Methods E 76 or Test Methods E 354 shall be used
for referee purposes. Test Methods E 30 or Methods E 38 shall
be used if Test Methods E 76 or Test Methods E 354 do not
include a method for some element present in the material.
8. Tensile Properties
8.1 One tension test shall be made from each master heat
except for grades M-25S and CY5SnBiM when the master heat
is used to pour the castings. One tension test shall be made
from each melt except for grades M-25S and CY5SnBiM. Test
results shall conform to the tensile requirements specied in
Table 3. Test bars shall be poured in special blocks from the
TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements
TABLE 2 Heat Treat Requirements
Grade Heat Treatment
CZ-100, M-35-1, M-35-2, CY-40 Class 1, M-30H, M-30C,
M-25S Class 1, CY5SnBiM
As cast
M-25S, Class 2
Load into furnace at 600F [315C] maximum. Heat to 1600F [870C] and hold
for 1 h plus an additional 30 min for each in. [13 mm] of cross section over 1
Cool to 1300F [705C]
and hold at temperature for 30 min then quench in
oil to room temperature.
M-25S, Class 3 Load into furnace at 600F [315C] maximum. Heat slowly to 1100F [605C] and
hold to develop maximum hardness. Furnace or air cool to room temperature.
N-12MV, N-7M Heat to 2000F [1095C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to
temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means.
CW-12MW, CW-6M, CW-6MC, CW-2M Heat to 2150F [1175C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to
temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means.
CY-40, Class 2 Heat to 1900F [1040C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to
temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means.
CX2MW (N26022) Heat to 2200F [1205C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to
temperature, quench in water or rapid air cool by other means.
CU5MCuC (N28820) Heat to 2100F [1150C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to
temperature, quench in water. Stabilize at 17251815F [940990C], hold for
sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by
other means.
M-25S, while machinable in the as cast condition, is capable of being solution treated for improved machinability. It may be subsequently age hardened to the
hardness specied in Table 3 and nished machined or ground.
For cross sections over 6 in. [125 mm] it may be necessary to increase the hold time if maximum softness is desired.
For maximum softness and the least variation in hardness levels, castings should be transferred from an oven at 1600F [870C] to a second oven at 1300F [705C].
A 494/A494M
same heat as the castings represented.
8.2 The bar from which the test specimen is taken shall be
heat treated in production furnaces to the same procedure as the
castings it represents. If the castings are not heat treated, the
bar used for the test specimen must not be heat treated.
8.3 Test specimens may be cut from castings, at the produc-
ers option, instead of from test bars.
8.4 When castings are produced by methods other than
investment process, tension test coupons shall be machined to
the form and dimension shown in Fig. 8 of, and tested in
accordance with, Test Methods E 8.
8.4.1 When castings are produced by the investment pro-
cess, test specimens in accordance with Specication A 732/
A 732M shall be used for measurement of tensile properties.
8.5 If any specimen shows defective machining or develops
aws, it may be discarded and another substituted from the
same heats.
8.6 To determine conformance with the tension test require-
ments, an observed value or calculated value shall be rounded
in accordance with Practice E 29 to the nearest 500 psi [3.5
MPa] for yield and tensile strength and to the nearest 1 % for
elongation and reduction of area.
9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
9.1 Critical surfaces of all castings intended for corrosion-
resistant service shall be cleaned. Cleaning may be accom-
plished by blasting with clean sand or metallic corrosion-
resistant shot or by other approved methods.
10. Quality
10.1 The castings shall not be peened, plugged or impreg-
nated to stop leaks.
10.2 Internal chills and chaplets may be used in the manu-
facture of castings. However, the chills, chaplets and affected
cast material must be completely removed.
11. Repair by Welding
11.1 Repairs shall be made by using a welding procedure
and operators capable of producing sound welds. The compo-
sition of deposited weld metal shall be similar to that of the
11.2 Weld repairs shall be considered major in the case of a
casting that has leaked on hydrostatic test or when the depth of
the cavity after preparation for repair exceeds 20 % of the
actual wall thickness, or 1 in. [25 mm], whichever is smaller,
or when the extent of the cavity exceeds approximately 10
[65 cm
]. All other weld repairs shall be considered minor.
Major and minor weld repairs shall be subject to the same
quality standards as are used to inspect the castings.
11.3 Castings of M-30H, M-25S, and CY5SnBiM may not
be weld repaired.
11.4 Grades N-12MV, N-7M, CW-12MW, CW-6M, CW-
2M, and CX2MW may require post weld heat treatment after
major weld repairs. If post weld heat treatment is required, it
must be specied along with the grade. If required, it shall be
performed in accordance with Section 6.
11.5 For grade CU5MCuC, the composition of the depos-
ited weld metal shall be similar to that of AWS A5.14 ER
NiCrMo-3 (UNS N06625) or AWS A5.11 E NiCrMo-3
(UNS W86112).
12. Rejection and Rehearing
12.1 Samples that represent rejected material shall be pre-
served for two weeks from the date of transmission of the
rejection report. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the
tests, the manufacturer may make claim for a rehearing within
that time.
13. Product Marking
13.1 Castings shall be marked for the material identication
with the ASTM specication designation (A 494/A 494M) and
grade symbol, that is, CY-40. The manufacturers name or
identication mark and the pattern number shall be cast or
stamped on all castings except those of such small size as to
make such marking impractical. To minimize small defects
caused by dislodged particles of molding sand, the number of
cast identication marks shall be minimized. The marking of
heat numbers on individual castings shall be agreed upon by
the manufacturer and the purchaser. Markings shall be in such
position as not to injure the usefulness of the casting.
13.1.1 When the castings are too small to mark individually,
a symbol traceable to the heat shall be placed on the castings
and the required identication then placed on a tag affixed to
the container in which these castings are shipped.
14. Keywords
14.1 corrosion resistant applications; nickel; nickel alloy
castings; nickel alloys; nickel castings
TABLE 3 Mechanical Properties
M-35-1 M-35-2 M-30H M-25S M-30C N-12MV N-7M CY-40 CW-
Tensile strength,
min, psi [MPa]
50 000
65 000
65 000
100 00
... 65 000
76 000
76 000
70 000
72 000
72 000
72 000
70 000
... 80 000
75 000
Yield strength,
min, psi [MPa]
18 000
25 000
30 000
60 000
... 32 500
40 000
40 000
28 000
40 000
40 000
40 000
40 000
... 45 000
35 000
Elongation in 2 in.
[50 mm],
min, %
10.0 25.0 25.0 10.0 ... 25.0 6.0 20.0 30.0 4.0 25.0 20.0 25.0 ... 30.0 20.0
Hardness HB ... ... ... ...
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
When ICI test bars are used in tensile testing as provided for in Specication A 732/A 732M, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4 to 1.
300 HB minimum for the age hardened condition.
A 494/A494M
The following supplementary requirements shall not apply unless specied in the purchase order. A
list of standard supplementary requirements for use at the option of the purchaser is included in
Specication A 781/A 781M. Those which are ordinarily considered for use with this specication are
given below; others enumerated in Specication A 781/A 781M may be used with this specication
upon agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
S2. Radiographic Examination
S3. Liquid Penetrant Examination
S6. Certication
S10. Hardness Tests
S10.1 When composition M-25S material is ordered with a
hardness maximum or range in the as-cast or solution treated
condition, hardness tests shall be made in accordance with Test
Methods and Denitions A 370. The test location, number of
tests, and hardness values shall be agreed upon between the
manufacturer and purchaser.
S10.1.1 If castings are ordered in the as-cast condition,
hardness determinations shall be made on two different repre-
sentative areas of each casting or coupon selected for test.
S10.1.1.1 By agreement between purchaser and producer,
those as-cast castings which fail to meet the required hardness
may be accepted in the solution annealed and hardened
condition if the hardness thus developed meets the hardness
requirement of the specication.
S10.1.2 If castings ordered are in the solution-treated con-
dition, two sample castings or two coupons representing the lot
shall be heat treated for tests (see S 1.1.2). Hardness determi-
nations shall be made on two different representative areas of
each casting or coupon.
S10.1.3 When hardness tests are made, the specimens shall
be at least
4 in. [6 mm] in thickness and the area to be tested
shall be ground clean before the hardness tests are made.
S22. Weldability Test
S22.1 If weldability tests are specied for M-30-C or
M-35-1, prepare a coupon obtained from a test bar shown in
Fig. 1 or Fig. 2 for each lot of composition M-30-C or M-35-1
castings. The weld test to be used shall be agreed upon between
the purchaser and manufacturer.
S22.1.1 Prepare and weld the test bar cast in accordance
with Fig. 1 in accordance with Fig. 3.
S22.1.1.1 Machine the cast skin and unsound metal from
two adjacent faces of the as-cast specimen, exclude the riser
face, and cut the specimen into approximately 6-in. [150-mm]
S22.1.1.2 Clamp the two 6-in. [150 mm] lengths together to
form a double V-joint and weld two passes at a time on
alternate sides of the specimen using
8-in. [3-mm] diameter
electrodes that will deposit metal of similar composition of the
test pieces.
S22.1.1.3 Allow the specimen to cool to room temperature
between passes, remove all ux, and examine visually for
S22.1.1.4 The clamps may be removed from the specimen
after the rst two weld passes have been completed.
S22.1.1.5 Deposit alternate series of passes until the double
V-groove has been completely lled. After the second series
(number 4 pass) a
32-in. [4-mm] diameter electrode may be
used if desired.
S22.1.1.6 During welding allow each pass to cool, clean,
and examine visually for cracks. The presence of cracks shall
be cause for rejection.
S22.1.1.7 Upon completion of the welding, cut one section
4 in. [19 mm] long transverse to the weld from
each end and discard.
S22.1.1.8 Polish each end of the remaining center section on
a 100/200-grit wheel and etch with concentrated HNO
or with
Lepitos etchant. Prepare Lepitos etchant as follows: (a) 15 g
of (NH
dissolved in 75 cm
of water; (b) 250 g of
(powdered) dissolved in 100 cm
of HCl; (c) mix
solutions (a) and (b) and add 30 cm
of HNO
S22.1.1.9 Examine the etched section under low magnica-
tion (5 to 103). The lot represented by the test specimen shall
be accepted if it complies with the following crack require-
ments: (a) Three cracks maximum in linear inch of base metal
and (b) The length of any crack in the base metal does not
exceed 0.20 in. [5 mm].
S22.1.1.10 Cracks observed in the weld metal during the
low-magnication examination shall not be cause for rejection.
S22.1.1.11 Failure of welded test bars to comply with any of
the requirements S22.1 through S22.1.1.10 shall result in
Metric Equivalents
in. 1 3 4 12
[mm] [25] [75] [100] [305]
NOTE 1Riser shall be machined off and 1 in. [25 mm] square by 12
in. [305 mm] coupon shall be used for x-weld test. See Fig. 3.
FIG. 1 Weld Test Bar (As Cast)
A 494/A494M
rejection of the lot represented.
S22.1.2 Prepare and weld the test bar cast in accordance
with Fig. 2 as follows:
S22.1.2.1 Fill the groove in the block completely with weld
deposit using manual metallic arc process with
8-in. [3.2mm]
32-in. [4-mm] diameter electrodes that will deposit metal of
similar composition of the test piece.
S22.1.2.2 Remove one
8-in. [10-mm] thick bend coupon
longitudinally from the welded block by machining, sawing,
abrasive cutting, or other suitable means. Make a transverse
side bend test of the welded joint in accordance with Practice
A 488/A 488M.
S22.1.2.3 Remove a transverse weld macro-specimen from
the welded plate and visually examine for cracks. This speci-
men may be the same one to be used for the bend specimen.
S22.1.3 Acceptance:
S22.1.3.1 Cracks as tears in the casting in the fusion zone or
heat-affected zone of the macro-specimen shall be cause for
rejection. Cracks originating at the weld bead undercuts, at
weld slag inclusions, or at casting defects shall not be cause for
S22.1.3.2 Cracks or other open defects exceeding
8-in. [3.2
mm] measured in any direction on the convex surface of the
bent specimens shall be cause for rejection, except that cracks
occurring on the corners while testing and cracks originating at
weld bead undercuts shall not be considered.
S23 U.S. Military Requirements
The following supplementary requirements are intended
primarily for U.S. military applications and each shall apply
only when individually specied by the purchaser in the
inquiry, contract, or order.
S23.1 Supplementary requirement S19 in A 781/A 781M
shall apply.
S23.2 Nondestructive testingNondestructive testing shall
be conducted in accordance with S9074AR-GIB-010/278, or
other standard as specied, to the acceptance criteria specied
in the order. Nondestructive test methods shall be in accor-
dance with NAVSEA T9074AS-GIB-010/271. Frequency of
inspection (each piece or sampling plan) shall be as specied in
the order.
S23.3 First article testingThe rst casting of each type
and design submitted for inspection shall be the rst article
Metric Equivalents
4 1
8 2
4 3
4 6
[mm] [5] [10] [20] [30] [70] [85] [155]
FIG. 2 Weld Test Bar (As Cast)
Metric Equivalents
4 4
[mm] [20] [115]
FIG. 3 X-Weld Test
A 494/A494M
sample. The rst article casting shall be radiographically
inspected in accordance with NAVSEA T9074AS-GIB-010/
271 using the acceptance criteria in S9074AR-GIB-010/278
as specied in the order. Mechanical property testing of the
rst article casting including the location, orientation, and
number of the specimens and the required mechanical proper-
ties shall be as agreed upon between the purchaser and the
manufacturer. The manufacturer shall maintain a record of
foundry practices (including type of melting and rening unit,
molding process, rigging design, location of risers and chills)
used in the rst article casting. In the event of change in the
foundry practice in the same or subsequent order, the manu-
facturer shall notify the purchaser and obtain approval of the
changes. The manufacturer may be required to perform specic
rst article tests and examinations to verify that the change will
not or has not degraded casting quality.
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A 494/A494M