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Fivestar HV Testing Equipment Co.

, Limited
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Impulse Voltage Generator
Lightning impulse voltage up to 7200kV
Switching impulse voltage up to 5000kV

Contents Directory:
Application Ambient Condition Service Configuration
Impulse Voltage Generator System Components Performance
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Our advanced impulse voltage generator can be used to
generate impulse voltage from 10kV to 7200kV simulating
lightning strokes and switching surges, it also can be used to
generator chopping wave, oscillating wave and steeping wave if
add some extra equipments.

We can supply different structure of impulse voltage generator,
such as S type, D type, V type, G type and etc.

Applications covered include testing according to IEC, ANSI/IEEE
as well as other national standards.

The basic system can be upgraded in various ways for special
tests and greater ease of operation. A number of additional
circuits and components allow optimizing the impulse test system for testing different kind of high
voltage test objects, such as power transformer, power cable, instrument transformer (CT/PT/CVT),
insulator, GIS/switchgear, arrester, shunt reactor and other high voltage products.

Ambient Condition
Height above sea level
For each add 100m, the HV rating must be decreased by
Relative humidity in main hall under non condensing conditions 90% (at 20°C)
Extreme temperatures for HV components Min. -5°C, Max. +40°C
The waveform of the supply voltage is the actual sine wave, waveform deviation factor <3%
Equipped with a reliable grounding point, earth resistance <0.5

1. Delivery test and field test;
2. Installation on user HV bay;
3. Training on how to use the HV system;
4. Training on how to maintains the HV system;
5. All other Technical supports.

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1. Main Components
a. Impulse voltage generator
b. DC charging apparatus
c. Weak damped capacitive impulse voltage divider
d. Automated multiple chopping gap
e. Glaninger circuit
f. Shunt
g. Steeping wave device
h. Digital control and measuring system

2. Typical diagram for impulse voltage generator

3. Function of the test system
The impulse voltage test system operates under a control system which charges the impulse
generator through the charging unit. This is achieved as the stages in the impulse voltage generator
are connected in parallel via the charging resistors. Charging time and voltage can be selected.

Once the selected charging voltage has been reached, a trigger pulse initiates firing of the first
spark-gap of the impulse voltage generator. As all the spark-gap fire, the stages which are connected
in series, multiply the charging voltage to reach the test voltage.

Any impulse voltage divider reduces the impulse voltage to a value that the measuring and
recording instruments require.

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Impulse voltage generator
The impulse voltage generator is the main part of an impulse voltage test system. It consists of
impulse capacitors charged to desired voltage, when it has been reached, a set of sphere gaps
connect to the capacitors in series and the output voltage is delivered via some pulse forming

The figure shows an equivalent circuit diagram for a single
stage impulse voltage generator (it is possible to simplify a
multi stage impulse generator into this circuit).

The impulse voltage generator is based on the MARX
multiplier circuit. The construction is the result of decades of experience in designing impulse test
system. The major impulse circuit elements such as capacitors and resistors are arranged in an
optimum manner to simultaneously satisfy the two major requirements for smallest possible
internal inductance and operating convenience. In order to increase the impulse capacitance,
generator stages can be connected in parallel and the groups so formed can be further connected in
series. The total charging voltage is the product of the stage charging voltage and the number of

The impulse voltage generator can be extended easily for the generation of higher peak values by
adding some stages. Impulse generators are designed for stationary operation as standard. For
handy mobility, an air bearing system is available also. Spark-gap drive, gap chimney ventilation,
safety group system, triggering unit and charging rectifier are built into the base frame.

Technical Parameter
Rated voltage: 10kV-7200kV
Stage voltage: 100kV, 150kV, 200kV
Stage Energy: 5kJ, 10kJ, 15kJ, 20kJ, 30kJ

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System Components
1. Weak damped capacitance impulse voltage divider
The external damped capacitance impulse voltage dividers can
be used for the voltage measuring of lighting impulse and
switching impulse up to 7200kV.
This voltage divider serves simultaneously as a load capacitor
for the impulse generator. Provided with an adequate
additional secondary part it can also be used for AC voltage
The divider ratio is designed to achieve an suitable output
voltage at rated lightning impulse voltage. This suitable value is
chosen in order to reduce the influence of electromagnetic
interference. We supply customized service on the divider ratio.
Technical Parameter
Top Electrode


Or other
200 50 1300 50
MWF-400/300 300 600 1610 75
MWF-400/600 600 600 2200 150
MWF-400/900 900 900 3600 220
MWF-400/1200 1200 1200 4375 310
MWF-400/1500 1500 1800 5060 380
MWF-400/1600 1600 1600 5800 680
MWF-400/2400 2400 2200 8600 1200
MWF-400/3000 3000 2200 10370 1420
MWF-400/3200 3200 2200 11200 1540
MWF-400/3600 3600 3100 14000 1800
MWF-400/4200 4200 3500 14660 2300
MWF-400/5400 5400 4200 18000 4200
MWF-400/7200 7200 5000 25000 7000
Other configurations are possible upon request.

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2. Chopping Gaps
Chopping device capacitor pillar consists of HV impulse
capacitor, movable and with top electrode, suitable for
remote control.

The device has excellent stability, and realize
controllable delay sparking trigger function. The
chopping time is with low disparity.

Technical parameter
Rated Voltage
Stage Voltage
Rated Capacitance
IGCG-600/300 600 100 300
IGCG-900/300 900 150 300
IGCG-1600/400 1600 200 400
IGCG-1800/400 1800 200 400
IGCG-2400/400 2400 200 400
The chopping gap is component of impulse voltage generator, we will set the capacitance
according to system requirement.
3. Glaninger Circuit
Glaninger circuit act as system component of impulse voltage generator, it is necessary when testing
very small inductance.

It is common when testing low voltage winding of power transformer. The glaninger circuit is
connected in parallel to the series resistor. The inductance has a high impedance during the rapid
rise at the impulse head. This mean only the series resistor effective during impulse raise time.

When slow decay, the impedance has a low impedance, which mean the glaninger inductance come
into effective. The result is less damping in the resonant circuit and hence increase time to half

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4. Digital control and measuring system
Control system:
a. Automatic/manual operation mode;
b. Interlock function;
c. Alarm bell;
d. Automatic earth for satety;
Measuring system:
a. Digit oscilloscope for data acquisition;
b. Waveform transfer software;
c. Liquid crystal display (LCD);
d. 9bit or 12bit;
e. Sampling rate >1.25GS/s
f. Bandwidth >100MHz

Protection: Over-voltage protection, Over-current protection, Charging abnormal protection
Interlock: Door interlock, Earth device interlock, Polarity transfer interlock
5. Pulse capacitors and resistors

We can make the pulse capacitor, wave-head resistor and wave-tail resistor upon request.

6. Some other components

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800kV 40kJ

1400kV 140kJ

3000kV 300kJ


1600kV 160kJ