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The Concept of Program Reengineering
Mayor Schell’s Zero Homeless Family Strategy

Assignment 3

Presented to the Faulty of the Graduate School of Public Administration
Strayer University
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for a Degree of
Master of Public Administration

Isatou Ceesay

Presented to
Dr. Angela Parham

May 23, 2014.

The Concept of Reengineering


Recently, some public administrators have adopted a more comprehensive technique for
improving organizational performance known as Reengineering (Denhardt,2010) It’s core tenet
centers on redesigning work and organizational process to be tailored and be in line with the
organization’s outcomes. In addition, reengineering can be utilized to apply technology and
management science to the modification of existing systems, organizations, processes, and
products in order to make them more effective, efficient, and responsive.
Responsiveness is a critical need for public organizations which involves providing
products and services of demonstrable value to customers, and thereby to those individuals who
have a stake in the success of the organization. Reengineering can be carried out at all levels of a
public organization and it builds upon systems theory, PERT and other techniques which involve
the recognitions of core processes and the systemic context of staff behavior (Denhardt, 2010). In
each case, reengineering involves a basic three-phase systems-engineering life cycle comprising
definition, development, and deployment of the entity to be reengineered (Denhardt, 2010).
The Concept of Program Reengineering
Homelessness occurs when people or households are unable to acquire and/or maintain
housing they can afford (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2014). There are three major
factors that contribute to homelessness and they are poverty, rising cost of living, and personal or
family problems such as domestic violence, drug and alcohol use, mental illness and
Homelessness is not just a local issue but a national public health crisis that costs the
nation billions of dollars in tax revenue, not to mention healthcare and public health issues. In
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The Concept of Reengineering

King County (Seattle, Washington), statistics showed that on any given night, there was as many
as 10,000 people living without adequate food and shelter. In addition, Seattle King
County statistics report showed that in fact there are about 8,000 people living without shelter
each night (Heim, 2009). Many of these homelessness issues stemmed from alcohol and
substance abuse and at least 25% of the homeless population had some form of mental illness.
Many also have developmental disabilities, and at least 10% have HIV (Ten-Year Plan, 2011).
Families become homeless as a result of some unforeseen financial crisis such as a
medical emergency, a car accident, death/ loss of a source of financial support or divorce that
prevents person or family from being able to hold on to housing. Many homeless families are
able to rebound from homelessness quickly, with relatively little public assistance. Usually,
homeless families only require rent assistance, help with housing placement services, job
assistance, and other short-term or one-time services before being able to support themselves and
get their finances in order return to independence and stability (National Alliance to End
Homelessness, 2014).
This case study focuses on a pledge made by Seattle’s Mayor Paul Schell on June 2,
1998. He pledged to remedy the city of homeless families with children or homeless women by
Christmas of 1998 (The Electronic Hallway, 2006). Schell was known as a no-nonsense
visionary who was willing to take risks. As a former developer, it was no surprise that Schell was
committed to housing. He enjoyed the support of both Democrats and Republicans including the
Director of the Community Services Division, Alan Painter.
Painter shared the mayor's commitment and enthusiasm for reducing homelessness in the
city. He had dedicated his professional career to serving the needs of the homeless but he was
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The Concept of Reengineering

concerned about how the mayor's pledge would actually become reality (The Electronic
Hallway, 2006).

Analyze four (4) policy choices of Mayor Schell that were made as part of the
strategy for the homeless.
When Mayor Schell’s made a pledge that by December 1998 his administration would
ensure that there is no homeless families with children or homeless single woman on the street
(The Electronic Hallway, 2006), he set out to achieve these strategy by focusing on the
A. He pledged to convene a housing summit to develop strategies to address the unmet demand
for affordable housing as a result of the economic boom in greater Seattle in the 1990 which
drove housing prices at a double digit.
B. Maintaining the shelter’s current capacity not increasing it. Every year thousands of homeless
people are turned away due to the lack of space. By maintaining the current shelters and
capacity would allow for the resources for the homeless to be available to other programs and
services thus limiting the need for additional shelters. (The Electronic Hallway, 2006).
C. By helping people regain long-term stability. Mayor Schell knew that being in a homeless
facility was only short-term fix. Having the homeless people utilize the services being offered
such as employment services ad transitional housing was the Mayor’s goal since it was a sure
route to independence ad off public assistance. (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2014).
D. A more proactive approach to preventing homelessness. On any given night, there were over
1,300 people in Seattle and 700 of those are families due to the lack of affordable housing in the
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The Concept of Reengineering

city. Thus increasing number of homeless people in Seattle. By helping some of these families
and individuals with affordable housing could solve some of these concerns and issues.

Analyze the Pre-Implementation and Design Strategies of Mayor Schell and interpret four
(4) practical outcomes of his choices.
Mayor Schell was able to identify the homelessness that was quite evident in King
A. He included the plan for the short term and long term house provision and shelter for the
people. Schell, in implementing and designing strategy for achieving his goal of eradicating
homelessness in the city of Seattle king county also did the following…
B. He created more beds and new space for the homeless, and a new Office of Housing that
helped to create or preserve 10,000 units of low-income and affordable housing.
C. He made provision for communities to get $80.000 to hire consultant to guide it through the
planning and review process of designing its blocks. This includes hiring of public artists and
landscape architects to design street, corridors that run from Seattle center to the uplands hill
terrace (, 2014).
D. He emphasizes the need in having homeless family relocate to more affordable homes than
having them in shelters. Mayor Schell took a stalled process for developing neighborhood plans
and got it done. He tripled the Neighborhood Matching Fund, starting or completing nearly 1,000
neighborhood projects (, 2014).
Reconstruct four (4) steps taken by Mayor Schell to reengineer the program in order to fit
the new objectives.
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Every year in King County, millions of dollars are allocated to addressing homelessness.
Majority of this revenue comes from the federal, state, city and county governments. The City
has helped fund the development of more than 4,000 units of permanent low-income housing
since 1987 through Schell reengineering program by a shift from segmentation to integration,
expanding the division of labor in the organization structure to fit his new structure.
A. Mayor Schell was able to identify that the organization process was in need of change in
the homeless situation of the county. He reengineered the program to fit his new
objective by involving the community in recognizing the issue of homelessness and
neighborhoods more in crafting and designing of the urban areas. He provided money to
communities for designing and maintaining old structures in other to maintain affordable
B. Since Schell pledged to bring the number of homeless families and single women to zero,
he planned to reengineer the program to collect data and also get a better count of the
number of people that are homeless in order to utilize this data to spearhead his new
C. Schell solicited the help of local and national nonprofit organizations such as the United
Way to help fund and reengineer his new objectives. He was also able to bring to bring
together the people in the organization by informing them the process and to develop
indicators that will help them keep the initiative on track.
D. Equal access to appropriate types of housing and services from multiple points
throughout the county (Coordinated Engagement strategy). This could be achieved by
developing common, consistent tools and processes for assessing and referring families
and single women with children seeking housing.
The Concept of Reengineering


Analyze four (4) reasons for the importance of conducting assessments prior to new
program implementation
The reason for conducting assessments prior to a new program implementation is to first,
understand the budgetary implications that implementing a new program will have. By
conducting an assessment prior to implementation will aid in finding sources where the revenue
will come from to implement the new program.
Conducting assessments will also consider tradeoffs that the city will make between some
other programs and the proposed projects, in other not to affect public concerns are to be taken
into consideration.
Assessing the human resources that will be involved in undertaking such project is
paramount. Government, being a bureaucratic bottleneck system does not do well with assigning
the manpower needed to complete the program in a timely manner therefore, conducting
assessments will help guide the best source to effectively complete the program.
Finally, an assessment prior to implementing any program can also help the assessors
come up with possible alternatives that can be explored to help alleviate the current social issue.
In conclusion, a comprehensive assessment is essential in analyzing the situation and
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education program. A comprehensive assessment also informs the people of King County,
administrators and organizations of an array of coordinated services that address fully the
barriers faced by homeless families and single women. A well-designed program evaluation plan
gives program leaders the formative data needed to inform mid-course decisions about program
implementation, and the summative data that demonstrates the success of the program.


Committee to End Homelessness (2011) A roof over every bed: Our community's Ten-Year
Plan to End Homelessness in King County. Retrieved from
Denhardt, R.B., & Denhardt, J.V. (2009). Public administration: An action orientation: 2010
custom editiond. (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson – Wadsworth – Cengage Learning.

National Alliance to End Homelessness (2014) About Homelessness: Snapshot of Homelessness.
Retrieved from (2014) Office of Arts and Culture: Mayors of the City of Seattle, Seattle City
Archives. Retrieved from

Stillman, R.J. (2010). Public administration: Concepts and cases: 2010 custom edition. (9th ed.).
Boston: Houghton Mifflin – Cengage Learning.

The Concept of Reengineering

The Electronic Hallway (2006) Mayor Schell’s Zero Homeless Family Strategy (pdf). Retrieve
In this assignment, you satisfactorily analyzed four policy choices of Mayor Schell that were
made as part of the strategy for the homeless. Secondly, you satisfactorily analyzed the Pre-
Implementation and Design Strategies of Mayor Schell. You satisfactorily interpreted four
practical outcomes of his choices. Thirdly, you thoroughly reconstructed four steps taken by
Mayor Schell to reengineer the program in order to fit the new objectives. Lastly, you
satisfactorily analyzed four reasons for the importance of conducting assessments prior to new
program implementation. You did not research at least four peer-reviewed academic sources to
support your responses.

There is 40% percentage of your paper that was copied from the internet and/or not properly cited. See
yellow highlighted areas. When using the direct words, you are required to place those words in quotation
marks. The goal of TURNITIN is to have your paper have a 20% or lower report. In future assignments, if
the TURNITIN report indicates 20 percent or more of your assignment has been copied from the internet
or not properly cited this will result in a failing grade.

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