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International Research Journal in Engineering, Science and Technology
IREJEST. June 2011, 8(1) 1-9. ISSN-1597-5258.

INVESTIGATION OF NAOH AND KOH DROSSING POTENTIALS
ON LEAD RECOVERY FROM SCRAP.

O. O. Egunlae

Mineral Resources Engineering Dept, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti
olawaleegunlae@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The effects of NaOH and KOH as alkaline drossing agent on the recovery of lead from the
scraps of lead-acid battery is compared and discussed in this paper. Fire-refining technique
was used in purifying the lead scrap containing 12.01% Zn, 8.04% Cu, 4.78% Ag, 3.13% Sb
and 72.4% Pb. The treatment of the melt was done in crucibles fired in furnace with the
addition of refining additives such as carbon powder, silica and zinc powder. The
significance and influences of caustic soda or caustic potash as drossing reagent was
compared. The results show that the addition of 0.8% C, 0.6% SiO
2
, 0.2% Zn and 0.2~0.8%
NaOH or 0.2~0.6% KOH, improved qualities (purity) of lead obtained. The optimum results
obtained were 1.25% Zn, 2.00% Cu, 0.33% Ag, 0.19 % Sb and 96.4% Pb at 0.8% NaOH
and 1.20% Zn, 2.07 % Cu, 0.26 % Ag, 0.21 % Sb and 96.7% Pb at 0.6% KOH. The results
provide useful approach to refining lead for the users who may need higher purity of it in
alloy making and other applications.


Key words: Recovery, Lead, Scrap, Drossing, NaOH AND KOH

INTRODUCTION
The trend of increasing cost of lead and
lead products was a subject of concern for
many in Nigeria. (Onyemaobi 1989, 1990,
1995) The Nigerian Material Congress
NIMACON and AGM, Akure in 2002
discussed the recovery of lead from scrap
(Egunlae et al, 2002).
The commonest natural source of lead is
galena (PbS) which usually occurs in
association with other sulphide of metals
such as Fe, Zn, Cu and small amount of
sulphides of Sb, As, Sn, Ag, Au, Bi, Ni, Co
and Cd (Hicks 1977, Onyemaobi, 2001).

The wining and purification of lead metal
could be generally obtained by the
application of pyrometallurgy,
hydrometallurgy and electrometallurgy.
The wining of Pb by hydrometallurgical
and electrometallurgical techniques lies in
the understanding of the chemical reaction
(the chemistry of reactants and products)
and the ease of retrieving the won lead
metal from the solution or precipitate.
(Gabler and Jones, 1988; Jong et al, (1988;
Lee, 1985; Lee et al, 1986, 1990; Pahlman
and Khalaffala, 1988; Redden et al, 1988;
Stubbs and Jong, 1988; Taylor and Amrah-
Forson, 1987).

The lead – acid accumulator is the main
source of lead metal in Nigeria which is
commonly obtained from used batteries in
automobiles, industrial plants like heavy
generators. The number of scrap lead-acid
accumulators being discarded was
estimated to be more than 30,000 tonnes
annually (Aransiola and Olatunji, 2001).
This regular source of lead from the scrap
battery does not give pure lead but alloys
of lead (usually antimonial-lead containing
5 – 6% antimony) when re-melted. There
is therefore the need for the as received
lead scrap to be treated to increase the
percentage purity of recovered lead. It is
Investigation of NaOH and KOH drossing potentials on lead recovery from scrap 2


the opinion of the author that this paper
discusses the possibility of domesticating
the recovery of lead by pyro-metallurgical
of lead scrap thereby promoting small
scale (cottage) industries in lead
production and market in Nigeria.

Materials and Method
Scrap lead batteries were collected from
battery repair shops at Ado-Ekiti. Carbon
(graphite) rod and silica sand were
obtained from the Glass Technology Dept,
Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti, Zinc
powder, caustic soda and caustic potash
were obtained from the chemical stores.

Procedure
Lead plates were removed from the scrap
battery boxes. The plates were cleaned and
washed in water. 50g of the scrap was
measured and ground to -75µm fineness
for chemical analysis using the atomic
absorption spectrometer (AAS). The result
is presented in Figure 1. The as-received
scrap is designated as sample A
o
. Refining
additives (graphite rod, silica sand, NaOH
and KOH pellets) were ground to -75µm
fineness using the vibrating mill. The
refining processes were performed in
stages. The crucibles used for every stage
of refining were cleaned and labelled; B
1

to B
5
, C
1
to C
5
, D
1
to D
5,
E
1
to E
5
and F
1
to
F
5
respectively.

In first stage, each of five crucibles marked
B
1
, B
2,
B
3
, B
4
and B
5
were first loaded with
100g of as-received lead sample (A
o
), plus
increasing %weight addition of graphite
(carbon) powder (0.2% C, 0.4% C, 0.6%
C, 0.8%C and 1.0%C respectively). The
five set of crucibles (B
1
-B
5
) were heated in
the electric furnace at 500
o
C and held for
30mins after which the content is cooled to
room temperature. The samples were
cleaned and analysed (Table 2).
In second stage, the sample that gave the
best yield based on the %Pb and efficiency
of additive among B
1
, B
2,
B
3
, B
4
, and B
5

was divided into crucibles (C
1
, C
2,
C
3
, C
4

and C
5
) and treated further. Increasing
amount (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and
1.0%) of silica sand was added
respectively and the crucibles were fired at
550
o
C for 30mins. The contents were
cooled to room temperature and analysed
(Table 3).

The best yield resulting from the addition
of 0.2-1.0 % S
1
O
2
was selected and fed
into set of crucibles (D
1
, D
2,
D
3
, D
4
, and
D5) to which an increasing amount (%) of
zinc powder were added (Table 4). The
last two stages involved the addition of
increasing %NaOH (caustic soda) and
%KOH (caustic potash) to the best yield
from the set of samples (D
1
-D
5
) for
20mins. The crucibles were marked as (E
1
-
E
5
) and (F
1
-F
5
), and results given in Figure
5 and Figure 6 respectively.

Result and Discussion
The chemical composition of scrap sample
used for the experiment is presented in
Figure 1 of which Pb takes 72.01% of the
entire composition. The effects of various
additives used and the graphical trends are
shown in Tables 1-8 and Figures 2-12
respectively. The comparative effects of
each reagents and their consequent impact
on the reduction of elemental impurities
(Zn, Cu, Ag and Sb) and improvement in
Pb purity are shown in Figure 5-12. The
influence of optimum values of NaOH and
KOH as drossing agents are compared in
Figure 7.

Figure 2 shows the effect of increasing %
carbon addition on thermal refining
process of lead scrap. Graphite powder
(carbon) was added at an increasing
concentration of 0.2% from 0.2% to
1.0%C. (Fig 5- 12). The result shows that
Zn content in the refined lead reduces
(from 12.01% to 2.43%) with the
increasing %carbon additive (from 0 –
1.0%) used for the refining process. Cu,
Ag and Sb have similar trend of results.
There were steady decreases in the
resulting compositions of these metal
3 IREJEST. June 2011, 8(1) 1-9. ISSN-1597-5258.


impurities (8.04% to 2.59%, 4.78 to 1.29
and 3.13 to 1.14 respectively,) with
increasing %carbon from 0.2% to 0.8%.
Further increase in %C above this point
0.8%C caused adverse effect of increasing
their % concentrations in the melt.

On the other hand, there was continuous
increase in the percentage purity of the
refined lead (from 72.4 to 93.1%) as the
%C additive increases. (Fig 5- 12).
Generally, the increasing amount of
graphite powder (Figure 2) caused
significant reduction in the concentration
of all impurities such as Cu, Zn, Ag and
Sb. This could be traced to the high
reducing nature of carbon (Murphy and
Broadhead, 1979; Crumpton, 1982).
Sample B
4
produced the best result since
the main aim of adding carbon is to
remove copper.

Figure 3 presents the result of effect of
increasing addition of %silica on the lead
scrap refining. In this case, silica was
increasingly added to the melt at the same
ratio as carbon in Figure 2. The further
treatment of sample B
4
with increasing
quantity of silica sand to 0.6% in Figure 3
shows that the removal of Ag was most
pronounced in %0.6 (sample C
3
) though
the addition of 0.8% had more of Sb
removed into the slag.

A very close observation of Figure 3
revealed that the addition of silica as a
fluxing agent, led positively to the
reduction in the level (%) of Ag and Sb in
the treated melt. (Fig 5- 12). There was a
reduction in the % impurity of Ag present
in the treated scrap melt (from 1.29 to
0.49) as % silica increases (from 0.0 to
0.6%), above which point on increase in
silica additive does not favour Ag removal
any longer. Sb was drastically and
effectively (removed) reduced from 1.14%
to 0.19% as the content of silica used in
treating the lead scrap increased from 0.0
to 0.8% respectively. (Fig 5- 12). The
cumulative effect of the addition of 0.8%C
and increasing content of silica sand in the
lead scrap refining adversely led to the
overall increase in the content of %Zn and
%Cu impurities present in the melt. This
on the long run resulted into decreasing
values of lead purity. Zn content has
increased from 3.29% to 4.11%, %Cu
increased from 2.59% to 2.93 while %Pb
purity reduced from 92.8% to 92.1%,
though these are of close range of values.

The major reasons for silica sand addition
have been to serve as a fluxing agent to
form (flushable) skim able silica – silver
crust and to reduce the quantity of Sb
present into the slag. It was expected that
more content of Ag and Sb would have
been removed as crust into the slag but
much higher values of not less than
0.49%Ag and 0.19%Sb were left as
metallic impurities in the melt at the end of
silica sand addition. These higher values
of %Ag and %Sb might have resulted from
the incomplete, inefficient silica sand flux
occurring as result of lower operating
temperature (about 550°C), hindering the
complete dissolution (vitrification) of silica
sand and it reactions with Ag and Sb.
Hence, not all the Ag and Sb could be
removed in the slag. Also an increase of
%silica above 0.8% does not yield any
good result in removing or reducing Ag
and Sb further.

In Figure 4, the report is made of the effect
of the addition of zinc at similarly
increasing ratio as carbon and silica sand.
From the result, it could be observed that
there were increasing content of all
metallic impurities such as Sb, Ag, Cu and
Zn as the amount of zinc powder (additive)
increases. With the addition of 1.0%Zn
powder to product of sample C
3
in Table 3,
the result of analysis shows that, the
composition of the refined lead metal
contains higher % impurities. The
impurity content has increased from 0.22
to 0.39%Sb, 0.49 to 0.94%Ag, 2.67 to
5.51%Cu and 3.92 to 17.9%Zn. This
higher %Zn content is greater than what
Investigation of NaOH and KOH drossing potentials on lead recovery from scrap 4


was initially present in the original lead
scrap sample A
o
. This posed a negative
influence on the lead purification (Figures
5- 12).

Molten zinc and lead are insoluble in each
other but silver and zinc are soluble. Hence
the addition of zinc should have dissolved
more of Ag and given Zn more
demarcation for the separation of zinc from
lead.(Hicks, 1977; Atkins 1974; Samuel
and Jerome, 1974 ). Contrary to the
expectation, the addition of Zn powder had
no positive influence in the purification.
The increasing addition of Zn in the melt
and corresponding reduction in %Pb
purity.

The negative effect of zinc powder
addition as obtained in the present study
might be due to some technical reasons.
The fact that, at no point of increasing
addition of %Zn was any improvement
obtained in the purification process is
evidence that suggests that the range of
%Zn (0.2 to 1.0%) added was in excess.
At this end, %Zn added behaves like an
alloying element rather than purifying
agent. It has been established that the
process of zinc addition in lead and silver
purification is a necessary and useful step
(Hicks, 1977). Hence, it would be
suggested that the amount of %Zn needed
should not exceed 0.2%wt. To avoid the
neglect of this valuable step, sample D,
which contains the least content of %Zn
impurity (5.47%) and the highest %Pb
(88.2%) purity (due to the influence of
0.2% Zn addition) was preferable chosen
instead of repeating the experiment with
0.0%Zn treated sample C
3
, which has
higher %Pb purity and lower % impurity
contents (Figure 4). It is believed that this
anomaly would be rectified in the
preceding step of purification. There was
also increase in the % concentration of
other elements such as Cu, Ag and Sb.
Sample D
1
has the least pronounced effect,
hence was treated further.

The process of the addition of NaOH in
lead refining is commonly called caustic
drossing. In this work comparison is made
between NaOH and KOH drossing
potentials. The pretreated sample obtained
from Figure 4 is use as the bases of
material for caustic drossing in Figure 5
and 6. NaOH or KOH is added at
increasing ratio similar to previous
additives used (0.2 to 1.0%). Comparing
results, using sample D
1
(obtained from the
addition of 0.2% Zn powder (dust)),
increasing % addition of NaOH and KOH
in Table 1 and 2 show that both reagents
have the potential of removing residual
metals and oxides (SiO
2
) in the melt into
the slag in the form of complex silicates.
reduction in the quantity of all impurities
such as Zn, Cu, Ag and Sb. (Fig 5- 12).

From Table 1, the result of refining sample
D, shows that for all samples E
1
E
2
E
3
E
4

and E
5
produced from the increasing
content (from 0.2 to 1.0%) of NaOH, and
also for all samples of F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
and F
5

there was corresponding decrease in %Zn
obtained in the refined lead, the
composition of Zn reduced from 5.47% to
1.23% and from 5.47% to 1.08%
respectively. Other metal impurities (Cu,
Ag and Sb) also reduce with corresponding
improvement in %Pb purity from 88.2% to
96.4% as %NaOH was increased until
0.8%, while there was corresponding
improvement in %Pb purity from 88.2% to
95.8% in case of 0.6% KOH was increased
until 0.8% above which point, further
increase in %NaOH addition to the melt
does not produced any favourable result.
(Fig 5- 12). The addition of 0.8% NaOH
yielded the highest purity of refined lead
(E4) bringing the composition of the melt
to 1.25% Zn, 2.00% Cu, 96.4% Pb, 0.33%
Ag and 0.19% Sb. The results show that
the addition of 0.8% C, 0.6% SiO
2
, 0.2%
Zn and 0.2~0.8% NaOH or 0.2~0.6%
KOH, improved qualities (purity) of lead
were obtained.

5 IREJEST. June 2011, 8(1) 1-9. ISSN-1597-5258.


Using the optimum values of all quantities
(%wt) of additives [0.8%C, 0.6% silica
sand, 0.2%Zn dust and 0.8% NaOH or
0.6% KOH] obtained from the results in
Figure 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively, was
mixed with fresh lead scrap sample A
o
as
shown in Table 3. Table 3 shows the result
obtained from the scrap returning when all
the optimum values of additives were
added in stage to the melt. The optimum
results obtained were 1.25% Zn, 2.00%
Cu, 0.33% Ag, 0.19 % Sb and 96.4% Pb at
0.8% NaOH and 1.20% Zn, 2.07 % Cu,
0.26 % Ag, 0.21 % Sb and 96.7% Pb at
0.6% KOH. Comparatively, sample F is of
close values to what was obtained in
sample E
4
in Table 1.

Conclusion and Recommendations
The present study has shown that the lead
scrap refining can be accomplished in
either a four-stage batch treatment process
or a single stage treatment procedure using
-75µm (or less) graphite powder, silica
sand, zinc powder and NaOH or KOH
powder as drossing additives.
The work provides a possible pyro-
metallurgical method of obtaining Pb from
scrap battery.
The authors have suggested that the
amount (%wt) of Zn dust needed in lead
scrap refining from battery source should
not exceed 0.2% Zn. Hence it will be
recommended that this method could be
used to obtain higher purity of lead metal
for alloy making and other applications.
The work encourages setting up of small-
scale industries that can be producing pure
lead metal suitable for flux (solder) making
and hence, creating job for people and
increasing industrialization.

References:
Aransiola O.E, Olatunji E. (2001)
Thermal refining of lead from scraps.
Thesis, Fed. Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti.

Azeez L.A (1982) Flotability of clean lead
from galena. Thesis, Fed. Polytechnic Ado
Ekiti.
Atkins, P.W.(1974):The Element of
Physical Chemistry, Oxford, Great Britain

Crumpton, T.R.(1982): Small Batteries
Secondary Cells, Macmillan, London.

Egunlae O.O., Adeloye, A.O. and
Oloruntoba D.T. (2002). Thermal
Recovery of lead from scrap batteries
proceedings of Nigeria Material Congress
(NIMACON) and AGM of Nigerian
Material Society (NMS) 2002, NMS-
EMDI Akure, Vol.1, No.1, pp117-119.

Gabler R. C. Jr and Jones J. R. (1988)
Metal recovery from secondary upper
converter dust by ammoniacal carbonate
leaching Bu Mines RI 9199. USA

Hicks J. (1977) Compressive Chemistry ,
Macmillan London.

Jong B. W., Rhoads S. C., Stubbs A. M
and Stoelting T. R (1988) - Recovery or
principal metal values from waster hydro
processing catalysts Bu Mines RI 9252,
USA

Lee A.Y (1985) Electro winning of lead
from H
2
SiF
6
solution, U.S Pat. 4,500,340,
Feb. 19, 1985.

Lee Agnes. Y, Ann. M Wethington .
Ernest R. Cole Jr (1986)
Hydrometallurgical Process For
Producing Lead And Elemental Sulphur
From Galena Concentrate, Bureau Of
Mines RI9055, Pp13.

Lee Agnes. Y, Ann. M Wethington .
Ernest R. Cole Jr (1990) Pressure
leaching of Galena Concentrate to recover
Lead Metal and Elemental Sulphur. Bureau
of Mines RI9314, p1-33

Murphy,D.W. and Broadhead,J. (1979)
Materials for Advanced Batteries, Nato
Scientific Affairs Division,Planet Press,
New York.
Investigation of NaOH and KOH drossing potentials on lead recovery from scrap 6


Onyemaobi O.O (1989) Flotability of
Ishiagwu galena as raw materials for
smelters, Nigerian Journal of Applied
Science, Vol. 8, pp93-101

Onyemaobi O.O (1990) Evaluation of
flotation performance of Nigeria’s (ZnS)
sphalerite w/o action by copper, Ife Journal
of Technology, Vol. 2, No 2, pp21-25

Onyemaobi O.O (1995) Production
processes for lead recycling from lead
battery scraps Nigeria Society of Engineers
Tech Transactions, Vol. 30 No 3, pp 1-7

Onyemaobi O.O (2001) Sustainable
National Mineral Resources Development
Proceedings of The Nigeria Society Of
Engineers, 2001 National Conf, and
Annual General Meetings. Port Harcourt,
Nov 5-9, 2001. pp. 12 – 28.

Pahlman J. E. and Khalaffala S. E.
(1988) Use of ligno chemicals and humic
acids to remove heavy metals from process
waste streams (Bu Mines) Bureau of Mines
RI9200 USA.

Redden L. D., Groves R. D and Seidel D.
C. (1988) Hydrometallurgical recovery of
critical metals from hard face alloy
grinding waste: A laboratory study. Bu
Mine RI 9210

Samuel H.M. and Jerome, B.L. (1974)
Fundamentals of Physical Chemistry,
Macmillan, London

Stubbs A. M. and Jong B. W. (1988)
Chromium Recovery from High
Temperature shift Cr - Fe catalyst Bu
Mine RI 9204 USA.

Taylor P. R. and Amrah-Forson B,
(1987) Hydro metallurgical oxidation of
Arsenopyrite in alkaline medium 117
th

Annu. AIME meetings phoenix A2; Jan.
25 – 29, 1987.

Table 1: Effect of %NaOH on drossing
%Composition
%NaOH Sample Zn Cu Pb Ag Sb
0.0 D
1
5.47 5.38 88.2 0.89 0.31
0.2 E
1
2.74 5.04 90.7 0.61 0.27
0.4 E
2
1.92 4.83 92.4 0.43 0.26
0.6 E
3
1.39 3.71 95.1 0.38 0.24
0.8 E
4
1.25 2.00 96.4 0.33 0.19
1.0 E
5
1.23 2.04 95.1 0.32 0.21

Table 2: Effect of % KOH on drossing
%Composition
%KOH Sample Zn Cu Pb Ag Sb
0.0 D
1
5.47 5.38 88.2 0.89 0.31
0.2 F
1
3.61 5.01 87.3 0.92 0.33
0.4 F
2
4.33 3.81 94.4 0.54 0.29
0.6 F
3
1.20 2.07 96.7 0.26 0.21
0.8 F
4
1.24 2.01 96.3 0.26 0.34
1.0 F
5
1.08 2.12 95.8 0.31 0.23

Table 3: Effect of addition of 0.8% NaOH and 0.6% KOH
Samples Zn Cu Pb Ag Sb
A
o
(scrap) 12.01 8.04 72.4 4.78 3.13
D
1
5.47 5.38 88.2 0.89 0.31
E
4
(0.8% NaOH) 1.25 2.00 96.4 0.33 0.19
F
3
(0.6% KOH) 1.20 2.07 96.7 0.26 0.21
7 IREJEST. June 2011, 8(1) 1-9. ISSN-1597-5258.


Table 4: Effect of increasing %additive on Zn content
Carbon Silica Zn powder NaOH KOH
0.0 12.01 3.29 3.92 5.47 5.47
0.2 7.23 3.37 5.47 2.74 3.61
0.4 5.17 3.54 9.10 1.92 4.33
0.6 4.62 3.92 10.88 1.39 1.20
0.8 3.29 3.97 16.44 1.25 1.24
1.0 2.43 4.11 17.9 1.23 1.08

Table 5: Effect of increasing %additive on Cu content
%additive Carbon Silica Zn powder NaOH KOH
0.0 8.04 2.59 2.67 5.38 5.38
0.2 5.54 2.63 5.38 5.04 5.01
0.4 3.77 2.63 5.41 4.83 3.81
0.6 3.04 2.67 5.36 3.71 2.07
0.8 2.59 2.71 5.44 2.00 2.01
1.0 2.63 2.93 5.51 2.04 2.12

Table 6: Effect of increasing %additive on Pb extraction
%additive Carbon Silica Zn powder NaOH KOH
0.0 72.40 92.8 92.4 88.2 88.2
0.2 80.91 92.8 88.2 90.7 87.3
0.4 85.24 92.7 84.6 92.4 94.4
0.6 88.86 92.4 82.5 95.1 96.7
0.8 92.8 92.1 76.78 96.4 96.3
1.0 93.1 92.1 75.20 95.1 95.8

Table 7: Effect of increasing %additive on Ag content
%additive Carbon Silica Zn powder NaOH KOH
0.0 4.78 1.29 0.49 0.89 0.89
0.2 3.20 1.02 0.89 0.61 0.92
0.4 3.05 0.96 0.91 0.43 0.54
0.6 2.41 0.49 0.93 0.38 0.26
0.8 1.29 0.68 0.94 0.33 0.26
1.0 1.31 0.69 0.94 0.32 0.31

Table 8: Effect of increasing %additive on Sb content
%additive Carbon Silica Zn powder NaOH KOH
0.0 3.13 1.14 0.22 0.31 0.31
0.2 3.10 0.71 0.31 0.27 0.33
0.4 2.73 0.54 0.27 0.26 0.29
0.6 1.42 0.22 0.32 0.24 0.21
0.8 1.14 0.19 0.36 0.19 0.34
1.0 1.16 0.31 0.39 0.21 0.23





Investigation of NaOH and KOH drossing potentials on lead recovery from scrap 8


Fig1:Chemical composition of lead scrap
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Zn Cu Pb g !b
"etals
#
c
o
m
p
o
s
it
io
n
#Compositi
on


Fig2a: $ffect of increasing #Carbon additi%e on reduction of impurities
0
&
10
1&
0 0'2 0'4 0'6 0'8 1
#Carbon
#
im
p
u
r
it
ie
s
Zn
Cu
g
!b



Fig2b: $ffect of increasing #Carbon additi%e on Pb purit(
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 0'& 1 1'&
#Pb purit(
#
C
a
r
b
o
n
Pb



Fig): #!ilica additi%e on Pb reco%e(
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 0'& 1 1'&
#!ilica
#
c
o
m
p
o
s
it
io
n
Zn
Cu
Pb
g
!b



Figure 4: Effect of % addition of Zinc
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
% addition of Zinc
%
c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

o
r

p
u
r
i
t
y
Zn
Cu
Pb
Ag
Sb



Fig&: $ffect of #*a+, on Pb reco%er(
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Zn Cu Pb g !b
#*a+,
#
c
o
m
p
o
s
it
io
n
0
0'2
0'4
0'6
0'8
1



Fig6: $ffect of #-+, on Pb reco%er
-&0
0
&0
100
1&0
Zn Cu Pb g !b
#-+,
#
c
o
m
p
o
s
it
io
n
0
0'2
0'4
0'6
0'8
1



Figure .: Comparati%e effects of addition of 0'8# *a+, and 0'6# -+, on lead
scrap
-&0
0
&0
100
1&0
Zn Cu Pb g !b
"etals
#
c
o
m
p
o
s
it
io
n
o/scrap0
11
$4 /0'8#
*a+,0
F) /0'6#
-+,0



9 IREJEST. June 2011, 8(1) 1-9. ISSN-1597-5258.


Fig 8: $ffect of increasing #additi%e on Zn content
0
&
10
1&
20
0 0'2 0'4 0'6 0'8 1
#additi%e
#

Z
n

c
o
n
t
e
n
t
C
!ilica
Zn
*a+,
-+,



Fig 2: $ffect of increasing #additi%e on Cu content
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 0'2 0'4 0'6 0'8 1
#additi%e
#
C
u
c
o
n
t
e
n
t
C
!ilica
Zn
*a+,
-+,



Fig 10: #Pb $3traction
0
&0
100
1&0
0 0'2 0'4 0'6 0'8 1
#additi%es
#
P
b
$
3
t
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
C
!ilica
Zn
*a+,
-+,







Fig 11: #g content
0
1
2
)
4
&
6
0 0'2 0'4 0'6 0'8 1
#additi%es
#

g

c
o
n
t
e
n
t
C
!ilica
Zn
*a+,
-+,



Fig 12: #!b content
0
1
2
)
4
0 0'2 0'4 0'6 0'8 1
%a d d i t i v e s
C
!ilica
Zn
*a+,
-+,