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**TOPIC EXPERIMENT: BERNOULLI THEOREM
**

PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLO)

Upon completion of the programme, graduates will be able to:

1 Possesses and apply civil engineering knowledge

2 Demonstrate technical skills in civil engineering

3 Understand and commit professionally , ethically and humane responsibility, in line the code of

conduct

!ommunicate effectively both in written and spoken form with other colleague and community

" #dentify and provide creative, innovative and effective solution to civil engineering problems

$ %ecognise the need and to engage in, lifelong learning and professional development

& 'elf motivate and enhance entrepreneurship skill for career development

( Demonstrate leaderships skills to lead a team

) *ork collaboratively as team members

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:+

1, -.plain clearly the fluid characteristics, fluid pressure and solve problems in flow of fluid using

/ernoulli0s -1uation,

2, 2pply principles to solve problems in laminar and turbulent flow and relation to

%eynolds number, Darcy0s and 3agen+Poiseuille e1uation for problem solving,

3, 2pply correct methods and procedures of hydraulics solution towards practical problems,

, 2c1uire appropriate knowledge in minor loss in pipe and uniform flow in open channel

No. Lab.Title

Teachi!

Metho"

PLO CLO GSA # L$

1,4

5luid !haracteristics

6ecture,

782,

Demo 2nd

6abo,

182 3 6D1 8 6D 2

2,4

/ernoulli 9heorem

3,4

%eynolds :umber

,4

5luid 5riction 9est

",4

Uniform 5low

Gee%ic St&"et Att%ib&te' (GSA):

GSA ( Co))&icatio' S*ill'

GSA + C%itical Thi*i! a" P%oble)

Sol,i! S*ill'

GSA - Tea).o%* S*ill'

GSA / Mo%al a" P%o0e''ioal Ethic'

GSA 1 Lea"e%'hi2 S*ill'

GSA 3 I0o%)atio Maa!e)et S*ill' a"

Coti&o&' Lea%i!

GSA 4 Et%e2%ee&%'hi2 S*ill'

Lea%i! $o)ai (L$):

L$ ( 5o.le"!e

L$ + Techical S*ill'

L$ - P%o0e''ioali') a" Ethic'

L$ / Social S*ill' a"

Re'2o'ibilitie'

L$ 1 Co))&icatio S*ill'

L$ 3 C%itical Thi*i!

L$ 4 Li0e Lo! Lea%i!

L$ 6 Et%e2%ee&%ial S*ill'

L$ 7 Tea).o%* # Lea"e%'hi2 S*ill'

NO. EXPERIMENT : +

TOPIC EXPERIMENT : BERNOULLI THEOREM

INTRO$UCTION :

9his e.periment is carried out to investigate the validility of /ernoulli0s theorem

when applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct and total pressure heads

in a rigid convergent;divergent tube of known geometry for range of steady flow

rates , 9he /ernoulli0s theorem relates the pressure , velocity and elevation in a

moving fluid < li1uid or gases = , the compressibility and viscosity < #nternal friction =

which are negligible and the flow of which is steady , or laminar ,

/ernoulli>s principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in what is

loosely denoted as /ernoulli>s e1uation, #n fact, there are different forms of the

/ernoulli e1uation for different types of flow, 9he simple form of /ernoulli>s

principle is valid for incompressible flows <e,g, most li1uid flows= and also for

compressible flows <e,g, gases= moving at low ?ach numbers <usually less than

4,3=, ?ore advanced forms may in some cases be applied to compressible flows at

higher ?ach numbers <see the derivations of the /ernoulli e1uation=, /ernoulli>s

principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy, 9his states

that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a

streamline is the same at all points on that streamline, 9his re1uires that the sum

of kinetic energy and potential energy remain constant,

OB8ECTI9E : 9o investigate the validity of /ernoulli0s 9heorem

and Pressure measurements along venturi tube,

APPARATUS : 3ydraulic bench

/ernoulli0s 9heorem Demonstration apparatus,

'top watch

:i!&%e (: /ernoulli0s 9heorem Demonstration 2pparatus

1, 2ssembly board

2, 'ingle water pressure gauge

3, Discharge pipe

, @utlet ball cock

", Aenturi tube with $ measurement points

$, !ompression gland

&, Probe for measuring overall pressure <can be moved a.ially=

(, 3ose connection, water supply

), /all cock at water inlet

14, $+fold water pressure gauge <pressure distribution in venture tube=

THEOR; :

9he measured values are to be compared to /ernoulli0s e1uation,

/ernoulli0s e1uation for constant head h:

.

2 2

2

2 2

2

1 1

const

g

v

g

P

g

v

g

P

= + = +

ρ ρ

2llowance for friction losses and conversion of the pressures p

1

and p

2

into static

pressure heads h

1

and h

2

yields:

v

h

g

v

h

g

v

h + + = +

2 2

2

2

2

2

1

1

p

1

B Pressure at cross+section 2

1

h

1

B Pressure head at cross+section 2

1

v

1

B 5low velocity at cross+section 2

1

p

2

B Pressure at cross+section 2

2

h

2

B Pressure head at cross+section 2

2

v

2

B 5low velocity at cross+section 2

2

B Density of medium B constant for incompressible fluids

such as water

h

v

B Pressure loss head

9he venturi tube used has $ measurement points, 9he table below shows the

standardised reference velocity v , 9his parameter is derived from the geometry of

the venturi tube,

i

A

A

v

1

=

Poit< i "

i

()))

1 2(,

2 22,"

3 1,4

1&,2

" 2,2

$ 2(,

?ultiplying the reference velocity values with a starting value, the student can

calculate the theoretical velocity values v

calc

at the $ measuring points of the venturi

tube,

2t constant flow rate, the starting value for calculating the theoretical velocity is

found as:

1

A

Q

v =

9he results for the calculated velocity, v

calc

can be found in the table,

!alculation of dynamic pressure head:

stat tot dyn

h mm h h − − = 80

(4 mm must be subtracted, as there is a Cero+point difference of (4 mm between

the pressure gauges,

9he velocity, v

meas

was calculated from the dynamic pressure

dyn meas

h g v . . 2

.

=

2

CONCLUSION

/ernoulli>s principle can be used to calculate the lift force on an airfoil if the

behaviour of the fluid flow in the vicinity of the foil is known, 5or e.ample, if the air

flowing past the top surface of an aircraft wing is moving faster than the air flowing

past the bottom surface, then /ernoulli>s principle implies that the pressure on the

surfaces of the wing will be lower above than below, 9his pressure difference

results in an upwards lifting force, *henever the distribution of speed past the top

and bottom surfaces of a wing is known, the lift forces can be calculated <to a good

appro.imation= using /ernoulli>s e1uations established by /ernoulli over a century

before the first man+made wings were used for the purpose of flight, /ernoulli>s

principle does not e.plain why the air flows faster past the top of the wing and

slower past the underside, 9o understand why, it is helpful to understand

circulation, the Dutta condition, and the DuttaEFoukowski theorem,

9he carburetor used in many reciprocating engines contains a venturi to create a

region of low pressure to draw fuel into the carburetor and mi. it thoroughly with

the incoming air, 9he low pressure in the throat of a venturi can be e.plained by

/ernoulli>s principleG in the narrow throat, the air is moving at its fastest speed and

therefore it is at its lowest pressure,

9he Pitot tube and static port on an aircraft are used to determine the airspeed of

the aircraft, 9hese two devices are connected to the airspeed indicator, which

determines the dynamic pressure of the airflow past the aircraft, Dynamic pressure

is the difference between stagnation pressure and static pressure, /ernoulli>s

principle is used to calibrate the airspeed indicator so that it displays the indicated

airspeed appropriate to the dynamic pressure

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