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# Limits: A Preview

to Calculus
A
112-acre parcel of land
in Pavo, Georgia, is
bounded by a street,
two other property lines,
and Little Creek, which
runs along the back of it.
How did the surveyors in Brooks County determine that the parcel is 112 acres? In this chapter, you will
use limits to ﬁnd the area of a region with a curved boundary. If we consider Little Creek a function, then
the area below the curve of the function, above Old Pavo Road, and between the two side property
lines represents the parcel of land. Surveyors use limits (which are fundamental later in calculus) to
determine areas of irregular parcels.*
11
*See Section 11.5, Exercises 41 and 42.
Little Creek
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I N THI S CHAPTER we will ﬁrst deﬁne what a limit of a function is and then discuss how to ﬁnd limits of functions.
We will discuss ﬁnding limits numerically with tables, graphically, and algebraically. We will use limits to deﬁne tangent
lines to curves and then to deﬁne the slope of a function––the derivative. We will discuss limits at inﬁnity and the limits of
sequences and summations, and then apply limits to application problems like ﬁnding the area below a curve.
• Limit Laws
• Finding Limits
Using Limit Laws
• Finding Limits
Using Direct
Substitution
• Finding Limits
Using Algebraic
Techniques
• Finding Limits
Using Left-Hand
and Right-Hand
Limits
• Deﬁnition of
a Limit
• Estimating Limits
Numerically and
Graphically
• Limits That Fail
to Exist
• One-Sided Limits
• Tangent Lines
• The Derivative
of a Function
• Instantaneous
Rates of Change
• Limits at Inﬁnity
• Limits of
Sequences
• Limits of
Summations
• The Area Problem
LIMITS: A PREVIEW TO CALCULUS
L E ARNI NG OBJ E CT I VE S

Understand the meaning of a limit and be able to estimate limits.

Apply limit laws and algebraic techniques to ﬁnd exact values of limits and understand how
these techniques differ from estimating techniques.

Find the tangent line to an arbitrary point on a curve representing a function
and understand how the slope of that line corresponds to the derivative of that function.

Find limits at inﬁnity.

Use the limits of summations to ﬁnd the area under a curve.
11.1
Introduction to
Limits:
Estimating Limits
Numerically and
Graphically
11.2
Techniques for
Finding Limits
11.3
Tangent Lines
and Derivatives
11.4
Limits at Inﬁnity;
Limits of
Sequences
11.5
Finding the Area
Under a Curve
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Definition of a Limit
The notion of a limit is a fundamental concept in calculus. The question: “What happens
to the values f (x) of a function f as x approaches the real number a?” can be answered
with a limit.
Let us consider the quadratic function If we rewrite this function
as we can see its graph is a parabola opening upward with a vertex at the
point (2, 0). Let’s investigate the behavior of this function f as x approaches 3. We start by
listing a table of values of f (x) for values of x near 3, but not equal to 3. It is important to
take values of x approaching from both the left (values less than 3) and the right (values
greater than 3).
f (x) = (x - 2)
2
,
f (x) = x
2
- 4x + 4.
y
1 2 3 4
x
1
2
3
4
As x approaches 3
f (x)
approaches
1
f (x) = (x – 2)
2
x 2.9 2.99 2.999 3 3.001 3.01 3.1
f(x) 0.810 0.980 0.998 ? 1.002 1.020 1.21
x approaches 3 from the left x approaches 3 from the right
f(x) approaches 1 f (x) approaches 1
We see in both the table and the graph that when x is close to 3, the values of f (x) are
close to 1. In other words, as x approaches 3 from either side (left or right), the values of
f (x) approach 1.
WORDS MATH
The limit of the function
as x
approaches 3 is equal to 1.
You may be thinking that if we had evaluated the function at we would
have found it to be equal to 1. Although that is true, the concept of a limit is the behavior
of the function as x approaches a value. In fact, a function does not even have to be defined
at a value for a limit to exist at that value.
f (3) = 1, x = 3,
f (x) = x
2
- 4x + 4
lim
xS3
( x
2
- 4x + 4) = 1
CONCEPTUAL OBJECTI VES
■ Understand that the limit of a function at a point may
exist even though the function may not be defined at
that point.
■ Understand when a limit of a function fails to exist.
■ Understand the difference between a limit of a function
and a one-sided limit of a function.
I NTRODUCTI ON TO LI MI TS: ESTI MATI NG
LI MI TS NUMERI CALLY AND GRAPHI CALLY
SKI LLS OBJECTI VES
■ Use tables of values to estimate limits of
functions numerically.
■ Estimate limits of functions by inspecting graphs.
■ Determine whether limits of functions exist.
SECTI ON
11.1
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11.1 Introduction to Limits: Estimating Limits Numerically and Graphically 1079
In other words, the values of f(x) keep getting closer and closer to some real number L as x
keeps getting closer and closer to some real number a (from either side of a). An alternative
notation for is
as
This is read as “f (x) approaches L as x approaches a.” This is the notation we used in
Section 2.6 when discussing asymptotes of rational functions.
It is important to note in defining the limit as that we do not set
regardless of whether x can equal a. This means that we are interested only in the values
of x close to a and we do not even consider when For all three figures below,
even though in part (b), and in part (c), f (a) is not defined. f (a) Z L, lim
xSa
f (x) = L
x = a.
x = a, x S a
x S a f (x) S L
lim
xSa
f (x) = L
If the values of f (x) become arbitrarily close to L as x gets sufficiently close to a,
but not equal to a, then
WORDS MATH
The limit of f (x), as x approaches a, is L. lim
xSa
f (x) = L
The Limit of a Function
DEFI NI TI ON
Study Tip
Imagine a very small difference
between x and a, and imagine
making it smaller and smaller. In the
same way, the difference between
f (x) and L gets smaller and smaller.
y
a
L
x
y
a
L
x
y
a
L
x
f (a) is not defined f (a) Z L f (a) = L
lim
xSa
f (x) = L lim
xSa
f (x) = L lim
xSa
f (x) = L
(a) (b) (c)
Estimating Limits Numerically
and Graphically
In this section, we use calculators to make tables of values of functions and we inspect
graphs of functions to surmise whether a limit of a function exists and, if so, to estimate
limits of functions. It is important to note now (and we will summarize again at the end of
this section) that it is possible for calculators and graphing technologies to give incorrect
values and pictures of behaviors. In the next section, however, we will discuss analytic
methods for calculating limits, which are foolproof.
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x 0.9 0.99 0.999 1 1.001 1.01 1.1
f(x) 1.9 1.99 1.999 ? 2.001 2.01 2.1
x approaches 1 from the left x approaches 1 from the right
f (x) approaches 2 f (x) approaches 2
EXAMPLE 1 Estimating a Limit Numerically and Graphically
Estimate the value of using a table of values and a graph.
Solution:
STEP 1 Make a table with values of x approaching 1 from both the left and the right.
lim
xS1

x
2
- 1
x - 1
Technology Tip
Both the table and the graph indicate
that f (x) approaches 2 as x
approaches 1.
STEP 2 Draw the graph of
and inspect the behavior of f (x) as
x approaches 1 from both
the left and the right.
f (x) =
x
2
- 1
x - 1
Both the table and the graph indicate that our
estimate should be 2.
lim
xS1

x
2
- 1
x - 1
= 2
Study Tip
Notice in Example 1 that the limit of
as exists even
though is not in the domain of f. x = 1
x S1 f (x) =
x
2
- 1
x - 1
y
1 2 3 4
x
1
2
3
4
As x approaches 1
f (x)
approaches
2
f (x) =
x
2
– 1
x – 1
■ YOUR TURN Estimate the value of using a table of values and a graph. lim
xS-2

x
2
- 4
x + 2
The graph shows that is not in
the domain of f.
x = 1
1080 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Estimate the following limits using a table of values. a. Ϫ10 b.
a. b.* lim
xS
1
4

x
3
-
1
16
x
x -
1
4
lim
xS5

25 - x
2
x - 5
1
8
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Technology Tip
Set the viewing rectangle as
by
Both the table and the
graph indicate that f (x) approaches
0 as x approaches 0.
[ -0.3, 0.4].
[ -0.000021, 0.000021]
Study Tip
The notation corresponds to
and is often used when
zooming in on graphs when values
are very small.
2 * 10
-8
2E - 8
EXAMPLE 2 Tables and Graphing Technology Pitfalls
When Estimating Limits
Estimate the value of using a table of values and a graphing utility.
Solution:
If we zoom in closer and closer (x approaches 0 from both sides), one might be led to
believe from the table and the graph that the limit is equal to 0.
lim
xS0

2x
2
+ 4 - 2
x
2
x 0 0.00000001 0.0000001 0.00001
f(x) 0.25000 0.26645 0.00000 ? 0.00000 0.26645 0.25000
-0.00000001 -0.0000001 -0.00001
–1E-6 –6E-7 –2E-7 2E-7 6E-7 1E-6
0.02
0.06
x
y
0.38
0.1
0.34
0.3
0.26
0.22
0.18
0.14
–1E-7 –6E-8 –2E-8 2E-8 6E-8 1E-7
0.02
0.06
x
y
0.38
0.1
0.34
0.3
0.26
0.22
0.18
0.14
f (x) =
2x
2
+ 4 - 2
x
2
In the next section, we will show that this limit is equal to It is important to note that
calculators and graphing utilities can sometimes yield incorrect estimates of limits. In
Section 11.2, we will discuss analytic techniques to find limits that always yield
correct values.
1
4
.
Limits That Fail to Exist
Limits do not necessarily exist. There are three classic examples (Examples 3–5)
illustrated here:
■ Piecewise-defined functions with a jump
■ Functions with oscillating behavior (they never approach a single value)
■ Functions with unbounded behavior (vertical asymptote)
11.1 Introduction to Limits: Estimating Limits Numerically and Graphically 1081
Estimate using a table of values and a graph. lim
xS0

2x
2
+ 9 - 3
x
2
1
6
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1082 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Technology Tip
Both the table and the graph indicate
that f (x) approaches two different
values as x approaches 2.
EXAMPLE 3 A Limit That Fails to Exist Because of a Jump
Show that the following limit does not exist:
where
Solution:
METHOD 1 Make a table with values of x approaching 2 from both the left and the right.
f (x) = b
x x 6 2
x
2
x Ú 2
lim
xS2
f (x),
x 1.5 1.9 1.99 2 2.01 2.1 2.5
f(x) 1.5 1.9 1.99 ? 4.0401 4.41 6.25
x approaches 2 from the left x approaches 2 from the right
f(x) approaches 2 f(x) approaches 4
f (x) ؍ x
2
f (x) ؍ x
–2
1
1 2 3 4
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
x
y
As x approaches 2
f (x)
approaches 2
f (x)
approaches 4
f(x) =
x x < 2
x
2
x ≥ 2
METHOD 2 Draw the graph of
and inspect the behavior of f (x) as x
approaches 2 from both the left and
the right.
f (x) = b
x x 6 2
x
2
x Ú 2
Both the table and the graph indicate that as x approaches 2, there is a “jump” in the
values of the function f (x).
As x approaches 2 from the left, f (x) approaches 2. As x approaches 2 from the right, f (x)
approaches 4. Since f (x) does not approach a single value (it approaches two different
values), we say that does not exist. lim
xS2

f (x)
Classroom Example 11.1.3
Show that where
does not exist.
b
1x + 2, x 7 0
- 1-x, x … 0
, f (x) =
lim
xS0
f (x),
The graph approaches different
values from the left and right
of x ϭ 0. So, the limit does
not exist.
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11.1 Introduction to Limits: Estimating Limits Numerically and Graphically 1083
EXAMPLE 4 A Limit That Fails to Exist Because of
Oscillating Behavior
Show that the following limit does not exist:
Solution:
METHOD 1 Make a table with values of x approaching 0 from the left and the right.
At first glance, it appears that may be zero: lim
xS0
sin
a
p
x
b
lim
xS0
sin
a
p
x
b
.
Technology Tip
Set the viewing rectangle as
by Both the table
and the graph illustrate that f (x)
oscillates between and 1 as x
approaches 0.
-1
[ -1.5, 1.5].
[ -1, 1]
However, selecting other values for x illustrates the continued oscillating behavior
between and 1. -1
METHOD 2 Use a graphing utility to draw the graph
of on
and inspect the behavior of f (x)
as x approaches 0.
Since the value of f (x) does not approach a single (fixed) value as x approaches 0, we say
that . lim
xS0
sin
a
p
x
b
does not exist
[ -2, 2] f (x) = sin
a
p
x
b
x 0 1
f(x) 0 0 0 ? 0 0 0
1
10
1
100
-
1
100
-
1
10
-1
x 0
f(x) 1 1 ? 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
2
3
2
5
2
7
2
9
-
2
9
-
2
7
-
2
5
-
2
3
x
y
–1
–0.5
1 2 –2 –1
0.5
1
f (x) = sin

x
( )
The graph does not approach a
single (fixed) value as x
approaches 1. So, the limit
does not exist.
Show that does not exist. lim
xS1
cos
°
p
2
1 - x
¢
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METHOD 2 Graph and inspect the behavior of f (x) as x approaches 0.
Both the table and the graph indicate that as x approaches 0 from either side, the values
of f (x) continue to grow without bound. Since the values of f (x) do not approach a fixed
real number, does not exist. Even though the limit does not exist, we denote this lim
xS0

1
x
2
f (x) =
1
x
2
1084 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
x
y
2 –2
f (x) =
1
x
2
100
x 0 0.001 0.01 0.1
f(x) 100 10,000 1,000,000 ? 1,000,000 10,000 100
-0.001 -0.01 -0.1
EXAMPLE 5 A Limit That Fails to Exist Because of
Unbounded Behavior
Show that the following limit does not exist:
Solution:
METHOD 1 Make a table with values of x approaching 0 from the left and the right.
lim
xS0

1
x
2
.
Technology Tip
Set the viewing rectangle as
by Both the table and
the graph illustrate that the values
of f (x) grow without bound as x
approaches 0.
[ -20, 120].
[ -2, 2]
In Section 2.6, we discussed rational functions that often have vertical asymptotes,
which corresponded to an increasing (or decreasing) behavior without bound on either side
of a particular value of x. In Example 5, we will see that the function values increase
without bound as x approaches 0 from the left or right. Even though the behavior on both
sides of the asymptote is the same, growing positive without bound, we still say that the
limit does not exist—that is, that the limit is infinite—because the values continue to
increase, and therefore, do not approach a fixed real number.
Study Tip
Vertical asymptotes of graphs of
rational functions correspond to
limits that increase without bound.
special type of behavior (growing without bound) with the notation: .
It is important to note that does not represent a number. This notation is used
for the special case of a limit not existing due to growing without bound. In this case,
it indicates that continues to increase without bound as x gets closer and
closer to 0.
f (x) =
1
x
2
ˆ
lim
xS0

1
x
2
= ϱ
Classroom Example 11.1.5
Show that does not exist.
lim
xS-4

-1
(x + 4)
2
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11.1 Introduction to Limits: Estimating Limits Numerically and Graphically 1085
One-Sided Limits
In Example 3, we discussed the limit of a piecewise-defined function:
In this case, we found that did not exist because the function approached two
different values as x approached 2. Recall that as x approached 2 from the left, f (x)
approached 2 and as x approached 2 from the right, f (x) approached 4. We use the following
notation to represent these one-sided limits:
WORDS MATH
f (x) approaches 2 as x approaches 2
from the left.
f (x) approaches 4 as x approaches 2
from the right.
The notation implies x approaching 2 from the left. In other words, we can consider
only those values of x that are less than 2. The notation implies x approaching 2
from the right. In other words, we can consider only those values of x that are greater than 2.
x S2
+
x S2
-
lim
xS2
+
f (x) = 4
lim
xS2
-
f (x) = 2
lim
xS2
f (x)
f (x) = b
x x 6 2
x
2
x Ú 2
Study Tip
For the standard two-sided limit to
exist, the left-hand and the right-hand
limits both must exist and both must
be equal.
Left-Hand Limit
If the values of f (x) become arbitrarily close to L as x gets sufficiently close to a,
by considering only values less than a, then
WORDS MATH
The left-hand limit of f (x) as
x approaches a is L.
In other words, the limit of f (x) as x approaches a from the left is L.
Right-Hand Limit
If the values of f (x) become arbitrarily close to L as x gets sufficiently close to a,
by considering only values greater than a, then
WORDS MATH
The right-hand limit of f (x) as
x approaches a is L.
In other words, the limit of f (x) as x approaches a from the right is L.
lim
xSa
+
f (x) = L
lim
xSa
-
f (x) = L
DEFI NI TI ON
The One-Sided Limit of a Function
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1086 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
EXAMPLE 6 Using a Graph to Find Limits of a
Piecewise-Deﬁned Function
Find the indicated limits of the function, if they exist.
a. b.
c. d.
e. f.
Solution:
a. As x approaches 0 from the left, f (x) approaches 0.
b. As x approaches 0 from the right, f (x) approaches 0.
c. Since the left-hand and the right-hand limits are equal, the limit is 0.
d. As x approaches 1 from the left, f (x) approaches 0.
e. As x approaches 1 from the right, f (x) approaches 1.
f. Since the left-hand and the right-hand limits are not equal, does not exist. lim
xS1
f (x)
lim
xS1
+
f (x) = 1
lim
xS1
-
f (x) = 0
lim
xS0
f (x) = 0
lim
xS0
+
f (x) = 0
lim
xS0
-
f (x) = 0
lim
xS1
f (x) lim
xS1
+
f (x)
lim
xS1
-
f (x) lim
xS0
f (x)
lim
xS0
+
f (x) lim
xS0
-
f (x)
f (x) =
L
-x x 6 0
0 0 6 x 6 1
x
2
x Ú 1
x
y
2 1 –2 –1
4
3
2
1
0
For the standard (two-sided) limit to exist, the left-hand and the right-hand limits must exist and
must be equal. If the one-sided limits are not equal, then the (two-sided) limit does not exist.
if and only if and lim
xSa
+
f (x) = L lim
xSa
-
f (x) = L lim
xSa
f (x) = L
SUMMARY
SECTI ON
11.1
It is important to note that a function does not have to be defined at
the point where a limit exists. We discussed left-hand,
and right-hand, , limits, and if these exist and are equal,
then the (two-sided) limit exists. If a limit fails to exist due
to unbounded behavior, we use the notation or
lim
xSa
f (x) = -ϱ.
lim
xSa
f (x) = ϱ
lim
xSa
+
f (x)
lim
xSa
-
f (x),
In this section, we used tables and graphs to estimate limits. We
also revealed the fallibility of table and graphing methods. We found
that limits do not always exist. The special cases we discussed
where limits fail to exist are
■ Piecewise-defined functions with a jump
■ Some functions with oscillating behavior (never approach a
single value)
■ Functions with unbounded behavior (vertical asymptote)
Classroom Example 11.1.6
Find the indicated limits, if they
exist:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
a. 0 b. 0 c. 2 d. 3 e. DNE
lim
xS-1
g(x)
lim
xS-1
-
g(x)
lim
xS-1
+
g(x)
lim
xS1
-
g(x)
lim
xS1
+
g(x)
g(x) =
L
3, x … -1
1 - x, -1 6 x 6 1,
1x - 1, x Ú 1
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11.1 Introduction to Limits: Estimating Limits Numerically and Graphically 1087
In Exercises 1–10, complete a table of values to four decimal places (according to the methods followed in Example 1 and
elsewhere) and use the result to estimate the limit.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. lim
xS0

ln(x + 1)
x
lim
xS0
+

x ln x lim
xS0

1
e
1/x
lim
xS0

e
x
- 1
x
lim
xS1

cos(px) + 1
x - 1
lim
xS0

sin x
x
lim
xS9

1x - 3
x - 9
lim
xS-3

11 - x - 2
x + 3
lim
xS-2

x + 2
x
2
- 4
lim
xS1

x - 1
x
2
- 1
In Exercises 11–24, use the graph to estimate the limit, if it exists.
11. lim
xS1
( x
3
- 1) 12. lim
xS1
( 1 - x
4
) 13. lim
xS0

ƒ xƒ
x
14. lim
xS2

ƒ x - 2ƒ
x - 2
15. lim
xS0
+

ln x 16. lim
xS0

e
-ƒ x ƒ
x
y
–10
–8
–6
–4
–2
1 2 –2 –1
10
8
6
4
2
x
y
–10
–8
–6
–4
–2
1 2 –2 –1
10
8
6
4
2
x
y
–2
–1
1 2 –2 –1
2
1
x
y
–2
–1
4 2 6 –2
2
1
x
y
–2
–1
4 2 3 1 6 5 –2 –1
2
1
x
y
4 2 3 1 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
EXERCISES
SECTI ON
11.1

SKI LLS
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1088 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
17. where f (x) = e
-x
2
+ 1 x Z 1
2 x = 1
lim
xS1
f (x), 18. where f (x) = e
-x
3
x Z 0
-2 x = 0
lim
xS0
f (x),
x
y
–3
–2
–1
1 2 –2 –1
5
4
3
2
1
x
y
–4
–3
–2
–1
1 2 –2 –1
4
3
2
1
19. lim
xS0

1
x
20. lim
xS0

ln ƒ xƒ
x
y
–2
–1
1 2 –1
4
3
2
1
–4
–3
–2
y
–3
–2
2
1
–4
x
1 –1
–1
21. lim
xS0

tan x
3␲
2

2
x
y
–3
–4 8
–1
–2
1
2
3
2

22. lim
xSp/2

tan x 23. lim
xS0

cos
p
x
24. lim
xS0

sin
1
x
2
3␲
2

2
x
y
–3
–4 8
–1
–2
1
2
3
2

␲ 4 8 –8 –4
1
x
y
2
–2
–1
3 4.5 –4.5 –3
x
y
2
–2
1.5 –1.5
–1
1
In Exercises 25–32, for the graph of the function f shown, state the value of the given quantity.
x
y
–1
2 4 3 1 –4 –2
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
–3 –1
25. lim
xS-2
-
f (x) 26. lim
xS-2
+
f (x) 27. lim
xS-2
f (x)
28. f ( -2) 29. lim
xS2
-
f (x) 30. lim
xS2
+
f (x)
31. lim
xS2
f (x) 32. f (2)
c11aLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:55 PM Page 1088
11.1 Introduction to Limits: Estimating Limits Numerically and Graphically 1089
In Exercises 33–44, for the graph of the function f shown, state the value of the given quantity.
33. lim
xS-1
-

f (x) 34. lim
xS-1
+
f (x) 35. lim
xS-1
f (x)
36. f ( -1) 37. lim
xS1
-
f (x) 38. lim
xS1
+
f (x)
39. lim
xS1
f (x) 40. f (1) 41. lim
xS2
+
f (x)
42. lim
xS2
-
f (x) 43. lim
xS2
f (x) 44. f (2)
x
y
–2
–1
4 3 –4 –2
4
3
1
–3 –1 2
2
1
In Exercises 45–48, graph the piecewise-defined function and use that graph to estimate the limits, if they exist.
45. 46.
47. 48. lim
xS0
f (x) f (x) = e
ƒ cos x ƒ x Z 0
0 x = 0
lim
xS0
f (x) f (x) =
e
sin x x 6 0
cos x x 7 0
lim
xS1
f (x) f (x) =
L
1
(x - 1)
2
x Z 1
0 x = 1
lim
xS0
f (x) f (x) =
e
-x x … 0
x + 1 x 7 0
50. Greatest-Integer Function. The greatest-integer function
is a step function defined by
-
integer n such
Find the following
values, if they exist:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e. 331 Ϫ x
2
44 lim
xS0
[ [1] ]
lim
xS1
[ [x] ]
lim
xS1
+
[ [x] ]
lim
xS1
-
[ [x] ]
that n … x.
[ [x] ] = the greatest
[ [x] ]
49. Heaviside Function. The Heaviside function H, also
called the unit step function, is a discontinuous function
whose value is 0 for negative arguments and 1 for
nonnegative arguments. The function is named after the
mathematician/engineer Oliver Heaviside and is used in
signal processing to represent a signal that switches on at
some time, typically taken to be and is never
turned off.
Find the following
values, if they exist:
a.
b.
c.
d. H(0)
lim
tS0
H(t)
lim
tS0
+

H(t)
lim
tS0
-

H(t)
t
y
–2
–1
1 3 –2
3
2
1
H(t)
–3
–3 2 –1
H(t) = e
0 t 6 0
1 t Ú 0
(t = 0),
x
y
–2
1 3 –2
3
2
[[x]]
1
–3
–3 2 –1

AP P L I CAT I ONS
c11aLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:55 PM Page 1089
1090 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
x 0
f(x) 0 0 0 ? 0 0 0
2
3
2
5
2
9
-
2
9
-
2
5
-
2
3
In Exercises 51 and 52, explain the mistake that is made.
51. Find the limit, if it exists:
Solution:
Make a table of values.
lim
xS0
cos
a
p
x
b
. 52. Find the limit, if it exists: where
Solution:
Evaluate f (0).
When
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
lim
xS0
f (x) = -1
f (0) = 0 - 1 = -1 f (x) = x - 1. x = 0,
f (x) =
e
x - 1 x … 0
x + 1 x 70
lim
xS0
f (x),
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
lim
xS0

cos
a
p
x
b
= 0
In Exercises 53–56, determine whether each statement is true or false.
53. If then
54. If then lim
xSa
f (x) = L. f (a) = L,
f (a) = L. lim
xSa
f (x) = L,
In Exercises 57 and 58, determine the value for c so that exists.
57. f (x) = e
x - 1 x 6 c
1 - x x 7 c
lim
xSc
f (x)
55. If then exists
and is equal to L.
56. If both the right-hand and left-hand limits exist, then the
two-sided limit exists.
lim
xSa
f (x) lim
xSa
-
f (x) = lim
xSa
+
f (x) = L,
58. f (x) = d
0 x 6 0
sin(px) 0 6 x 6 c
cos(px) c 6 x 6 1
-1 x 7 1
In Exercises 59–64, use a graphing utility to determine whether the limit exists. Estimate the limit to three decimal places,
if it exists.
59. 61. 63.
60. 62. 64. lim
xS1
cos(2px) - 1
cos(px) + 1
lim
xS0

x
3
- 4
x
lim
xS-1

x
3
+ x
2
+ 5x + 5
x + 1
lim
xS1
sin
a
p
2
x
b
- 1
cos(px) + 1
lim
xS0

x
3
+ x
2
- 3
x
lim
xS1

x
3
- x
2
+ 7x - 7
x - 1

CAT CH T HE MI S TAKE

CONCE P T UAL

CHALLENGE

T E CHNOL OGY
c11aLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/11/13 11:14 AM Page 1090
1091
In the last section, we estimated limits of functions using tables of values and inspecting
graphs. However, we found that such methods can sometimes incorrectly describe behavior.
In this section, we discuss calculating limits exactly using limit laws together with visual
inspections of graphs or algebraic techniques.
Limit Laws
The following properties can be used to calculate limits.
Let a and c be real numbers and let f and g be functions with the following limits:
and
Then
lim
xSa
g(x) = M lim
xSa
f (x) = L
LIMIT LAWS
LAW
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
LIMIT OF
A . . .
Sum
Difference
Constant
(Scalar)
Multiple
Product
Quotient
WORDS
The limit of a sum is the sum
of the limits.
The limit of a difference is the
difference of the limits.
The limit of a constant times a
function is the constant times the
limit of the function.
The limit of a product is the
product of the limits.
The limit of a quotient is the
quotient of the limits (provided
the limit of the denominator is
not equal to 0).
CONCEPTUAL OBJECTI VE
■ Understand when limit laws can and cannot
be applied.
TECHNI QUES FOR FI NDI NG LI MI TS
SKI LLS OBJECTI VES
■ Find limits of functions using limit laws.
■ Find limits of functions using direct substitution.
■ Find limits of functions using algebra.
■ Use left-hand and right-hand limits to find the limit of
a function.
SECTI ON
11.2
MATH
lim
xSa

[ f (x) + g(x)] = lim
xSa

f (x) + lim
xSa

g(x) = L + M
lim
xSa

[ f (x) - g(x)] = lim
xSa

f (x) - lim
xSa

g(x) = L - M
lim
xSa

[cf (x)] = c lim
xSa

f (x) = cL
lim
xSa

[ f (x)g(x)] = lim
xSa

f (x)
#
lim
xSa

g(x) = LM
lim
xSa

c
f (x)
g(x)
d =
lim
xSa

f (x)
lim
xSa

g(x)
=
L
M
if M Z 0
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1091
1092 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
These laws agree with our intuition. Looking at Law 1, if f (x) is close to L and g(x) is close
to M, then it makes sense that is close to Similarly, looking at Law 4,
if f (x) is close to L and g(x) is close to M, then it makes sense that is close to LM.
These five laws will be proved in calculus once we have a precise definition of a limit.
Here are two additional limit laws:
f (x)g(x)
L + M. f (x) + g(x)
Let a be a real number and n be a positive integer and let f be a function with
the following limit:
Then
lim
xSa
f (x) = L
LIMIT LAWS
Let a and c be real numbers and n be a positive integer. Then
SPECIAL
LIMIT NO. WORDS MATH
1 The limit of a constant function
2 The limit of the identity function
3 The limit of a power function
4 The limit of a radical function
lim
xSa
1
n
x = 1
n
a, where a 7 0
lim
xSa
x
n
= a
n
lim
xSa
x = a
lim
xSa
c = c
SPECIAL LIMITS
LAW
NO.
6
7
LIMIT OF
A . . .
Power
Root
WORDS
The limit of a power is
the power of the limit.
The limit of a root is
the root of the limit.
MATH
lim
xSa

[ f (x)]
n
= [ lim
xSa

f (x)]
n
= L
n
Note: If n is even, we assume L 7 0.
lim
xSa
2
n
f (x) = 2
n
lim
xSa
f (x) = 2
n
L
Law 6 can be shown by repeating Law 4 with
Before we find limits using the limit laws, let us first mention four special limits.
g(x) = f (x).
Special Limits 1 and 2 can be found by inspecting the graphs of the constant and identity
functions (Section 1.2). Special Limits 3 and 4 are special cases of Limit Laws 6 and 7
when f (x) = x.
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1092
Classroom Example 11.2.1
Given the graphs of the functions
f and g, find the following limits:
a.
b.* , where
a and b are real numbers.
c.
d.
e.*
a. 5 b. a ϩ 4b c. 0
d. e. -
7
2
16
lim
xS-3
f (x) - g(x)
g(x)
lim
xS5
-
1g(x)
lim
xS-4
+
f(x)g(x)
lim
xS0
[af(x) + bg(x)]
lim
xS0
[ f (x) + g(x)]
f(x)
g(x)
11.2 Techniques for Finding Limits 1093
Finding Limits Using Limit Laws
Let us now use these limit laws and special limits.
EXAMPLE 1 Finding Limits Using Limit Laws and Graphs
Given the graphs of functions f and g, find the following limits:
VV
2 0
VV
6 -2
x
y
–3 0 3 2
8
6
4
–2
–4
1 –1 –2
g(x)
f (x)
2
a. b.
c. d.
e. f.
g. h.
Solution (a):
Use the limit of a sum (Law 1).
Inspect the graphs of f and g
to determine the limits.
Simplify.
Solution (b):
Use the limit of a difference (Law 2).
Inspect the graphs of f and g
to determine the limits.
Simplify.
lim
xS2
[ f (x) - g(x)] = 8
= 6 - ( -2) = 8
= lim
xS2
f (x) - lim
xS2
g(x)
lim
xS2
[ f (x) - g(x)] = lim
xS2
f (x) - lim
xS2
g(x)
lim
xS0
[ f (x) + g(x)] = 2
= 2 + 0 = 2
= lim
xS0
f (x) + lim
xS0
g(x)
lim
xS0
[ f (x) + g(x)] = lim
xS0
f (x) + lim
xS0
g(x)
lim
xS2
1f (x) + g(x) lim
xS0
[ f (x)]
2
lim
xS-1
f (x)
g(x)
lim
xS0
f (x)
g(x)
lim
xS-1
[ f (x)g(x)] lim
xS2
[ f (x) - 2g(x)]
lim
xS2
[ f (x) - g(x)] lim
xS0
[ f (x) + g(x)]
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1093
1094 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
V
6
Solution (c):
Use the limit of a difference (Law 2).
Use the limit of a constant
multiple (Law 3).
Inspect the graphs of f and g to
determine the limits.
Simplify.
Solution (d):
Use the limit of a product (Law 4).
Inspect the graphs of f and g to
determine the limits.
Simplify.
Solution (e):
Use the limit of a quotient (Law 5).
Inspect the graphs of f and g to
determine the limits.
=
lim
xS0
f (x)
lim
xS0
g(x)
=
2
0
lim
xS0

f (x)
g(x)
=
lim
xS0

f (x)
lim
xS0
g(x)
lim
xS-1
[ f (x)g(x)] = 0
= (0)( -1) = 0
= lim
xS-1

f (x)
#

lim
xS-1

g(x)
lim
xS-1
[

f (x)g(x)] = lim
xS-1

f (x)
#
lim
xS-1

g(x)
lim
xS2
[

f (x) - 2g(x)] = 10
= 6 - 2( -2) = 10
= lim
xS2
f (x) - 2 lim
xS2
g(x)
= lim
xS2

f (x) - 2 lim
xS2
g(x)
lim
xS2
[ f (x) - 2g(x)] = lim
xS2

f (x) - lim
xS2
[2g(x)]
VV
0 -1
V
0
V
2
V
-1
V
0
Study Tip
If are both
equal to zero, the might
exist. If is nonzero and
is equal to zero, then
does not exist. lim
xSa
f (x)
g(x)
lim
xSa
g(x)
lim
xSa
f (x)
lim
xSa
f (x)
g(x)
lim
xSa
f (x) and lim
xSa
g(x)
lim
xSa

f (x)
g(x)
=
lim
xSa
f (x)
lim
xSa
g(x)
V
-2
The limit, does not exist because the limit in the numerator is nonzero and the
limit in the denominator is equal to zero. Hence, Limit Law 5 cannot be used. And
looking at a table of values would indicate unbounded behavior of at x ϭ 0, where
f (x)
g(x)
lim
xS0

f (x)
g(x)
,
but the therefore, the limit does not exist.
Solution (f):
Use the limit of a quotient (Law 5).
Inspect the graphs of f and g to
determine the limits.
Simplify.
lim
xS-1

f (x)
g(x)
= 0
=
0
-1
= 0
=
lim
xS-1

f (x)
lim
xS-1

g(x)
lim
xS-1

f (x)
g(x)
=
lim
xS-1

f (x)
lim
xS-1
g(x)
lim
xS0
-

f (x)
g(x)
= -ϱ; lim
xS0
+

f (x)
g(x)
= ϱ,
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1094
11.2 Techniques for Finding Limits 1095
V
2
Solution (g):
Use the limit of a power (Law 6).
Inspect the graph of f to
determine the limit.
Simplify.
Solution (h):
Use the limit of a root (Law 7).
Use the limit of a sum (Law 1).
Inspect the graphs of f and g to
determine the limits.
Simplify.
■ YOUR TURN Given the graphs of functions f and g in Example 1, find the following
limits, if they exist:
a. b. c. lim
xS0
[2 f (x) - g(x)] lim
xS-1

g(x)
f (x)
lim
xS2

f (x)
g(x)
lim
xS2
1f (x) + g(x) = 2
= 16 - 2 = 14 = 2
= 1lim
xS2
f (x) + lim
xS2
g(x)
= 1lim
xS2
f (x) + lim
xS2
g(x)
lim
xS2
1f (x) + g(x) = 1lim
xS2
[ f (x) + g(x)]
lim
xS0
[

f (x)]
2
= 4
= 2
2
= 4
= [ lim
xS0
f(x)]
2
lim
xS0
[ f (x)]
2
= [ lim
xS0
f (x)]
2
EXAMPLE 2 Finding Limits Using Limit Laws and Special Limits
Find the following limits:
a. b.
Solution (a):
Use the limit of a sum
(Law 1).
Use the limit of a constant
multiple (Law 3) and the
limit of a power (Law 6).
Use the special limits
1, 2, and 3.
Simplify.
lim
xS-1
(x
3
+ 2x + 5) = 2
= 2
= ( -1)
3
+ 2( -1) + 5
= lim
xS-1

x
3
+ 2 lim
xS-1

x + lim
xS-1

5
lim
xS-1
( x
3
+ 2x + 5) = lim
xS-1

x
3
+ lim
xS-1

2x + lim
xS-1

5
lim
xS1

x
2
- 3x + 2
x
2
- 4
lim
xS-1
( x
3
+ 2x + 5)
VV
6 -2
b. does not exist
c. 4
-3
Technology Tip
Set the viewing rectangle as
by The table indicates that
f (x) approaches 2 as x approaches -1.
[ -4, 8].
[ -2, 2]
a.
1
1
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1095
Classroom Example 11.2.2
Let a, b, and c be real numbers.
Compute the following limits:
a.
b.*
a. a Ϫ b ϩ c
b. 3
lim
xS2a
(x + a)
2
x
2
- a
2
lim
xS-1
( ax
2
+ bx + c)
1096 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Solution (b):
Use the limit of a quotient
(Law 5).
Use the limit of a sum/difference
(Laws 1 and 2).
Use the limit of a constant
multiple (Law 3).
Use the special limits 1, 2, and 3.
Simplify.
■ YOUR TURN Find the following limits:
a. b. lim
xS-1

x
2
+ 1
x
3
+ 2x
lim
xS1
( x
2
- x + 2)
lim
xS1

x
2
- 3x + 2
x
2
- 4
= 0
=
1
2
- 3(1) + 2
1
2
- 4
=
0
-3
= 0
=
lim
xS1

x
2
- 3 lim
xS1

x + lim
xS1
2
lim
xS1
x
2
- lim
xS1
4
=
lim
xS1

x
2
- 3 lim
xS1

x + lim
xS1
2
lim
xS1

x
2
- lim
xS1
4
=
lim
xS1

x
2
- lim
xS1
3x + lim
xS1
2
lim
xS1
x
2
- lim
xS1
4
lim
xS1

x
2
- 3x + 2
x
2
- 4
=
lim
xS1
( x
2
- 3x + 2)
lim
xS1
( x
2
- 4)
V
(1)
2
V
(1)
V
(2)
V
(1)
2
V
(4)
■ Answer: a. 2 b. -
2
3
The table illustrates that f (x)
approaches 0 as x approaches 1.
b.
Finding Limits Using Direct Substitution
Recall from the previous section that the limit of a function can exist even if the function
is not defined [part (c) below], or has another value at that point [part (b) below]. However,
in some cases [part (a) below] the limit is equal to the function value.
y
a
L
x
y
a
L
x
y
a
L
x
f (a) is not defined f (a) Z L f (a) = L
lim
xSa
f (x) = L lim
xSa
f (x) = L lim
xSa
f (x) = L
(a) (b) (c)
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1096
11.2 Techniques for Finding Limits 1097
It is important to note that direct substitution can be used to find the limits of any
continuous function as long as the value that x is approaching is in the domain of the
function. Sinusoidal functions and exponential functions are examples of continuous
functions for which direct substitution can be used for all real values. Radical functions,
logarithmic functions, and other trigonometric functions have domain restrictions. As long
as the value x is approaching is in the domain, then direct substitution can be used.
Recall from Section 1.2 that a function is continuous if you can draw it without picking up
your pencil (no holes or jumps). All polynomial functions are continuous. In fact, the sine
and cosine functions are also continuous functions.
When the limit of a function at a point is equal to the function value at that point
then the function is said to be continuous at the point a. Limits of continuous functions
can be evaluated using direct substitution.
Look again at Example 2(a), which is the limit of a polynomial function.
where
If we directly substitute into the function to get
we see that we indeed get the same result as the limit:
Look again at Example 2(b), which is the limit of a rational function.
where
If we directly substitute to get we see that we
also get the same limit:
Special attention must be given to the domain of the rational function. Remember that
values of x that make the denominator equal to zero, or must be excluded from
the domain.
d(x) = 0,
lim
xS1
f (x) = f (1).
f (1) =
1
2
- 3(1) + 2
1
2
- 4
=
0
-3
= 0, x = 1
f (x) =
n(x)
d(x)
=
x
2
- 3x + 2
x
2
- 4
lim
xS1
x
2
- 3x + 2
x
2
- 4
= lim
xS1
f (x),
lim
xS-1
f (x) = f ( -1).
f (-1) = (-1)
3
+ 2(-1) + 5 = 2, x = -1
f (x) = x
3
+ 2x + 5 lim
xS-1
( x
3
+ 2x + 5) = lim
xS-1
f (x),
lim
xSa
f (x) = f (a)
Study Tip
Rational functions are continuous
everywhere except where they are
not defined (denominator . = 0)
FUNCTION DIRECT SUBSTITUTION RESTRICTIONS ON a
Polynomial: a is any real number.
Rational: a is any real number
such that d(a) Z 0.
lim
xSa

f (x) = f (a) =
n(a)
d(a)
f (x) =
n(x)
d(x)
lim
xSa

f (x) = f (a) f (x)
DIRECT SUBSTITUTION: LIMITS OF POLYNOMIAL
AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
Study Tip
Direct substitution can be used
on any continuous function.
functions, logarithmic functions,
and trigonometric functions all
are continuous over some domain.
In that domain, direct substitution
can be used.
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1097
Classroom Example 11.2.3
Let a, b, and c be real numbers.
Compute the following limits:
a.
b.
c.
a. c b. 3 c. 0
lim
xS3p
tan(2x)
lim
xS-1
-
(4x + 1)
2
4x
2
- 1
lim
xSb
[ a(x - b)
2
+ c]
1098 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
EXAMPLE 3 Finding Limits Using Direct Substitution
Use direct substitution to find the following limits:
a. b. c.
Solution (a):
The function is a polynomial function with a domain of all real numbers.
Use direct substitution.
Evaluate f (3).
Solution (b):
The function is a rational function.
The domain is the set of all real numbers except 1 and .
The value x is approaching in this limit is 2, which is in the domain.
Use direct substitution.
Evaluate f (2).
Solution (c):
The function is a function with a domain of all real numbers.
Use direct substitution.
Evaluate
■ YOUR TURN Use direct substitution to find the following limits, if possible:
a. b. c. lim
xSp/2
(x sin x) lim
xS1

1
x
2
+ 2
lim
xS-1
( x
3
+ 2)
lim
xSp
(x cos x) = -p
= p cos p = -p f (p).
lim
xSp
f (x) = f (p)
f (x) = x
#
cos x
lim
xS2

x
2
+ 1
x
2
- 1
=
5
3
=
2
2
+ 1
2
2
- 1
=
5
3
lim
xS2
f (x) = f (2)
( -ϱ, -1) ഫ ( -1, 1) ഫ (1, ϱ) -1:
f (x) =
x
2
+ 1
x
2
- 1
lim
xS3
( x
2
- 7) = 2
= 3
2
- 7 = 2
lim
xS3

f (x) = f (3)
f (x) = x
2
- 7
lim
xSp
(x cos x) lim
xS2

x
2
+ 1
x
2
- 1
lim
xS3
( x
2
- 7)
Technology Tip
Set the viewing rectangle as
by The graph shows that
f (x) approaches as x approaches 2.
5
3
[ -6, 8].
[ -1, 4]
b.
Set the viewing rectangle as
by The graph shows that f (x)
approaches as x approaches p. -p
[ -5, 5].
[0, 2p]
c.
■ Answer: a. 1 b. c.
p
2
1
3
V
-1
Finding Limits Using Algebraic Techniques
Of the techniques for finding limits we have looked at thus far, direct substitution is the easiest.
However, there are many times when direct substitution (or limit laws) cannot be used.
For example, to find direct substitution is not permitted because is not x = 2 lim
xS2

x - 2
x
2
- 4
,
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1098
Classroom Example 11.2.4
Compute .
1
48
lim
xS4
4 - x
x
3
- 64
in the domain of the rational function Furthermore, Limit Law 5 (limit of a
quotient) cannot be used because the limit of the denominator is zero. We can, however,
use algebra to simplify the expression, first so we can then apply direct substitution.
There are three algebraic techniques we will discuss: dividing out a common factor,
rationalizing, and general simplification, which are illustrated in Examples 4 to 6.
x - 2
x
2
- 4
,
f (x) =
x - 2
x
2
- 4
.
EXAMPLE 5 Finding a Limit by Rationalizing
Find
Solution:
Note that we cannot use direct substitution, because zero is not in the domain of the function
nor can we use Limit Law 5, because the limit of the denominator is
zero. Instead, the following algebraic steps enable the expression to be simplified
first and then the limit can be found.
f (x) =
2x
2
+ 4 - 2
x
2
,
lim
xS0

2x
2
+ 4 - 2
x
2
.
Technology Tip
Set the viewing rectangle as
by [ -2, 2].
[ -4, 4]
After dividing out the common
factor, direct substitution
works and f (x) approaches as x
approaches 2.
1
4
x - 2,
Technology Tip
Set the viewing rectangle as
by [ -0.5, 0.5].
[ -2, 2]
11.2 Techniques for Finding Limits 1099
EXAMPLE 4 Finding a Limit by Dividing Out a Common Factor
Find
Solution:
Note that we cannot use direct substitution, because is not in the domain of the
function nor can we use Limit Law 5 because the limit of the denominator
would be zero. Instead, the following algebraic steps enable the expression to be simplified
first and then the limit can be found.
Factor the denominator.
Divide out the common factor.
Simplify.
Use direct substitution (let
xS-1

x + 1
x
2
- 1
.
lim
xS2

x - 2
x
2
- 4
=
1
4
=
1
2 + 2
=
1
4
x S2).
= lim
xS2

1
x + 2
= lim
xS2

(x - 2)
(x - 2)(x + 2)
lim
xS2

x - 2
x
2
- 4
= lim
xS2

(x - 2)
(x - 2)(x + 2)
f (x) =
x - 2
x
2
- 4
,
x = 2
lim
xS2

x - 2
x
2
- 4
.
1
2
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1099
Classroom Example 11.2.5
Let a be a positive real number.
Compute .
1a
2a
lim
xSa
1a - 1x
x - a
Classroom Example 11.2.6
Let a be a nonzero real number
and b be any real number.
Compute
for
2
f (x) = ax
3
+ b.
lim
hS0
f (x + h) - f (x)
h
1100 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Recall from Section 1.2 the difference quotient, An important limit in
calculus is the limit of the difference quotient as the denominator goes to zero:
Notice that the denominator goes to zero, so neither Limit Law 5 nor direct substitution
can be used. Instead, simplifying allows us to find the limit.
lim
hS0
f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f (x + h) - f (x)
h
.
EXAMPLE 6 Finding a Limit by Simplifying
Find given that
Solution:
Let
Expand the numerator.
Simplify the numerator.
Factor the numerator. = lim
hS0

h(2x + h)
h
= lim
hS0

2xh + h
2
h
= lim
hS0

x
2
+ 2xh + h
2
- x
2
h
lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
= lim
hS0

(x + h)
2
- x
2
h
f (x) = x
2
.
f (x) = x
2
. lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
,
Rationalize the
numerator.
Simplify the numerator.
Divide out the common
factor.
Use direct substitution.
This demonstrates algebraically the limit we found in Example 2 of Section 11.1. Recall that
this is the one for which technology gave us misleading information.
xS0

2x
2
+ 1 - 1
x
2
.
lim
xS0

2x
2
+ 4 - 2
x
2
=
1
4
=
1
( 20
2
+ 4 + 2)
=
1
24 + 2
=
1
4
= lim
xS0

1
( 2x
2
+ 4 + 2)
x
2
= lim
xS0

x
2
x
2
( 2x
2
+ 4 + 2)
= lim
xS0

( x
2
+ 4) - 4
x
2
( 2x
2
+ 4 + 2)
lim
xS0

2x
2
+ 4 - 2
x
2
= lim
xS0

( 2x
2
+ 4 - 2)
x
2
#
( 2x
2
+ 4 + 2)
( 2x
2
+ 4 + 2
)
After rationalizing the numerator,
direct substitution works and f (x)
approaches as x approaches 0.
1
4
1
2
Divide out the common factor h.
Use direct substitution.
For the function ϭ 2x . lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f (x) = x
2
,
= 2x + 0 = 2x
= lim
hS0
(2x + h)
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1100
Classroom Example 11.2.7
Find
f (x) = b
1
2
(x + 3)
2
+ 2    x … -3
Έ x + 1Έ    x 7 -3
lim
xS-3
f (x), where
Classroom Example 11.2.8
Compute the following limits,
if they exist:
a.
b.
lim
xS0
g(x)
lim
xS1
g(x)
g(x) =
1
x
x 6 0
1   0 … x 6 1
Έ xΈ   x 7 1
µ
11.2 Techniques for Finding Limits 1101
Finding Limits Using Left-Hand
and Right-Hand Limits
Recall from Section 11.1 that for the standard (two-sided) limit to exist, then the left-hand
and right-hand limits must exist and must be equal. If the one-sided limits are not equal,
then the (two-sided) limit does not exist.
if and only if and
We can now use the techniques from this section (limit laws, direct substitution, and
algebraic techniques) to find the one-sided limits, and if those exist and are equal, then the
result is the standard two-sided limit.
lim
xSa
+

f (x) = L lim
xSa
-

f (x) = L lim
xSa

f (x) = L
EXAMPLE 7 Finding Limits by Evaluating One-Sided Limits
Find where
Solution:
Find the left-hand limit.
Find the right-hand limit.
Since the left-hand and right-hand limits both exist and are equal: . lim
xS1

f (x) = 1
lim
xS1
+

f (x) = lim
xS1
+

x
2
= 1
2
= 1
lim
xS1
-

f (x) = lim
xS1
-
(2 - x) = 2 - 1 = 1
f (x) =
e
2 - x x 6 1
x
2
x 7 1
. lim
xS1

f (x),
EXAMPLE 8 Finding Limits by Evaluating One-Sided Limits
Find if it exists, where
Solution:
Find the left-hand limit.
Find the right-hand limit.
Both limits exist, but they are not equal; therefore, does not exist.
This was Example 3 of Section 11.1, where we found the same result by inspecting the graph.
■ YOUR TURN For find the following limits, if they exist:
a. b. lim
xS1

f (x) lim
xS0

f (x)
f (x) =
L
-x x 6 0
0 0 6 x 6 1
x
2
x Ú 1
,
lim
xS2
f (x)
lim
xS2
+

f (x) = lim
xS2
+

x
2
= 2
2
= 4
lim
xS2
-

f (x) = lim
xS2
-
x = 2
f (x) =
e
x x 6 2
x
2
x Ú 2
. lim
xS2

f (x),
b. does not exist
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1101
1102 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
In Exercises 1–12, given the graphs of functions f and g, find the following limits, if they exist.
In Exercises 13–20, given the graphs of functions f and g, find the following limits,
if they exist.
In Exercises 21–28, find the indicated limit by using limit laws and special limits.
21. 22. 23. 24.
25. 26. 27. 28. lim
xS-1
a
x
2
+ 2x - 1
x
3
+ 2
b
2
lim
xS1

[(x - 3)(x + 2)]
2
lim
xS1
2x
2
+ 8 lim
xS0

x
2
+ 2
x
2
- 1
lim
xS-1

(x
4
- x + 3) lim
xS9
1x lim
xS-2

x
3
lim
xS5

17
14. lim
xS-2

[g(x) - f (x)] 13. lim
xS0

[ f (x) + g(x)] 15. lim
xS-1

f (x)
g(x)
17. lim
xS1

[ f (x)]
2
16. lim
xS2

[ f (x)g(x)] 18. lim
xS0

[g(x)]
2
20. lim
xS-1
1g(x) - f (x) 19. lim
xS2
1f (x) + g(x)
x
y
–4
–3
–2
–1
1 3 2 –4 –2 –1 –3
4
3
6
5
2
1
g(x)
f (x)
x
y
4
3
2
1
–4
–3
–2
–1
g(x)
f (x)
–3 2 1 –2 –1
1. lim
xS0

[3f (x) + g(x)] 2. lim
xS0

[ f (x) - 3g(x)] 3. lim
xS-2

[ f (x)g(x)]
4. lim
xS1

[ f (x)g(x)] 5. lim
xS1

f (x)
g(x)
6. lim
xS-1

f (x)
g(x)
7. lim
xS-2

g(x)
f (x)
8. lim
xS0

g(x)
f (x)
9. lim
xS-1

[ f (x)]
2
10. lim
xS1

[g(x)]
2
11. lim
xS-2
1f (x) - g(x) 12. lim
xS0
13f (x) + g(x)
SUMMARY
SECTI ON
11.2
Exact methods of finding limits include using limit laws (sum,
difference, scalar multiples, product, quotient, powers, and roots
of limits), direct substitution, and algebraic techniques. Special
limits are another aid: constant functions, identity function,
power functions, and radical functions. For all functions, direct
substitution is the simplest method, but it sometimes cannot be
used. For example, if a denominator is equal to zero, then in that
case, the algebraic techniques might help. The algebraic techniques
(simplifying, dividing out a common factor, and rationalizing)
can yield exact values for limits in some cases. The methods
discussed in the previous section (tables and graphs produced by
calculators) yield estimates, and these methods can sometimes
give incorrect behavior.
We also discussed finding limits by first finding the one-sided
limits using the techniques discussed in this section, and if both
one-sided limits exist and are equal, then the traditional two-sided
limit exists.

SKI LLS
EXERCISES
SECTI ON
11.2
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/11/13 11:33 AM Page 1102
11.2 Techniques for Finding Limits 1103
In Exercises 29–50, find the limit, if it exists.
29. 30. 31. 32.
33. 34. 35. 36.
37. 38. 39. 40.
41. 42. 43. 44.
45. 46. 47. 48.
49. 50.
In Exercises 51–62, find
51. 52. 53. 54.
55. 56. 57. 58.
59. 60. 61. 62.
In Exercises 63–70, evaluate the one-sided limits in order to find the limit, if it exists.
63. where 64. where
65. where 66. where
67. where 68. where
69. 70. lim
xS-4

ƒ x + 4ƒ
x + 4
lim
xS3

ƒ x - 3ƒ
x - 3
f (x) =
µ
sin x x 6
p
2
cos x x 7
p
2
lim
xSp/2

f (x), f (x) =
e
sin x x 6 0
cos x x 7 0
lim
xS0

f (x),
f (x) =
e
-2x + 1 x 6 1
3x - 1 x Ú 1
lim
xS1

f (x), f (x) =
e
-x + 1 x … 1
2x + 1 x 7 1
lim
xS1

f (x),
f (x) =
e
-x + 1 x 6 0
x + 1 x 7 0
lim
xS0

f (x), f (x) =
e
-x
2
x 6 0
x x 7 0
lim
xS0

f (x),
f (x) = -x
2
- 3x + 1 f (x) = -x
2
+ 2x + 3 f (x) = 1x f (x) =
1
x
f (x) = -3x
2
+ 2 f (x) = -2x
2
+ 1 f (x) = x
2
- 3 f (x) = x
2
+ 2
f (x) = -3x - 2 f (x) = -2x + 3 f (x) = 3x + 1 f (x) = 5x + 2
lim
hS0

f (x ؉ h) ؊ f (x)
h
.
lim
xS0

1
x - 1
+ 1
x
lim
xS0

1
x + 2
-
1
2
x
lim
tS-1

1
t
+ 1
t + 1
lim
tS2

1
t
-
1
2
t - 2
lim
xS1

1x + 8 - 3
x - 1
lim
xS4

2 - 1x
x - 4
lim
xS0

1x + 4 - 2
x
lim
xS0

1x + 1 - 1
x
lim
xS0

e
2x
- 1
e
x
+ 1
lim
xS0

e
2x
- 1
e
x
- 1
lim
xS0

sec x
csc x
lim
xS0

tan x
sec x
lim
xSp/2

1 - sin x
cos x
lim
xS0

1 - cos x
sin x
lim
xS-2

x
4
- 16
x + 2
lim
xS1

x
4
- 1
x - 1
lim
xS2

x
2
- x - 2
x - 2
lim
xS-2

x
2
- x - 6
x + 2
lim
xS0

-3x
2
- x + 5
4x
2
+ 2x + 3
lim
xS2

5x
2
+ 2x + 7
x
2
+ x + 6
lim
xS-5

x
2
+ 25
x - 5
lim
xS1

x + 1
x
2
+ 1
71. Gravity. A person standing near the edge of a cliff
100 feet high throws a rock upward with an initial speed
of 32 feet per second. The height of the rock above the
lake at the bottom of the cliff is a function of time:
We found in Section 2.1,
Exercise 75, that the rock would hit the lake at
approximately 3.59 seconds. Find the velocity of the rock
when seconds (shortly before it hits the lake). t = 3
h(t) = -16t
2
+ 32t + 100.
Exercises 71 and 72 involve gravity on a falling object. The height function h(t) is given in terms of time t. The velocity at time
is given by lim
tSa

h(t) ؊ h(a)
t ؊ a
. t ؍ a

AP P L I CAT I ONS
72. Gravity. A person holds a pistol straight upward and
fires. The initial velocity of most bullets is around
1200 feet/second. The height of the bullet is a function of
time: We found in Section 2.1,
Exercise 76, that the bullet would hit the ground in
75 seconds. Find the velocity when seconds
(shortly before it hits the ground).
t = 75
h(t) = -16 t
2
+ 1200t.
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1103
1104 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
In Exercises 73–76, explain the mistake that is made.
73. Find
Solution:
Divide out the x.
Use direct substitution.
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
74. Find
Solution:
Divide out the x.
Use direct substitution.
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
= (0 - 1) = -1
lim
xS0

x
2
- 1
x
= lim
xS0

(x - 1)
lim
xS0

x
2
- 1
x
.
= (0 - 8) = -8
lim
xS0

x
3
- 8
x
= lim
xS0

( x
2
- 8)
lim
xS0

x
3
- 8
x
. 75. Find
Solution:
Use direct
substitution.
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
76. Find
Solution:
Use Limit Law 5 (limit
of a quotient).
Use Limit Law 2 (limit
of a difference).
Use special limits 1, 2, and 3.
Simplify.
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
=
0
0
= 1
=
2
3
- 8
2 - 2
=
lim
xS2

x
3
- lim
xS2

8
lim
xS2

x - lim
xS2

2
lim
xS2

x
3
- 8
x - 2
=
lim
xS2

(x
3
- 8)
lim
xS2

(x - 2)
lim
xS2

x
3
- 8
x - 2
.
lim
xS1

x
2
- 1
x - 1
=
1
2
- 1
1 - 1
=
0
0
= 1
lim
xS1

x
2
- 1
x - 1
.
In Exercises 77–80, determine whether each statement is true or false. Assume d(x) and n(x) are polynomials.
79. If exists and exists, then exists.
80. If then and lim
xSa
+

f (x) = L. lim
xSa
-

f (x) = L lim
xSa

f (x) = L,
lim
xSa

f (x) lim
xSa
+

f (x) lim
xSa
-

f (x)
82. f (x) =
L
0 x 6 0
sin x 0 6 x 6 c
sin(2x) c 6 x 6 p
In Exercises 81 and 82, determine the value(s) for c so that exists.
81. f (x) =
e
2x + 6 x 6 c
x
2
- 3x x 7 c
lim
xSc

f (x)
77. If and then is either equal to
or (does not exist).
78. If and then lim
xSa

n(x)
d(x)
= 1. n(a) = 0, d(a) = 0
+ϱ -ϱ
lim
xSa

n(x)
d(x)
n(a) Z 0, d(a) = 0

CAT CH T HE MI S TAKE

CONCE P T UAL

CHALLENGE
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1104
In Exercises 83 and 84, use a graphing utility to estimate the
limit, if it exists.
83. where
84. where f (x) =
19 - x - 3
1x + 9 - 3
lim
xS0

f (x),
f (x) = x cos x lim
xS0

f (x),
In Exercises 85 and 86, use a graphing utility to estimate the
limit, if it exists. Confirm by finding the exact limit using the
limit laws and algebraic techniques.
85. 86. lim
xS2
114 + x - 4
16 - x - 2
lim
xS3
11 + x - 2
17 - x - 2
SECTI ON
11.3
CONCEPTUAL OBJECTI VES
■ Understand that the slope of a tangent line to a graph
of a function at a point is equal to the value of the
derivative of that function at that point.
■ Understand that the derivative of a function at a point
is its instantaneous rate of change at that point.
SKI LLS OBJECTI VES
■ Use limits to find the slope of a tangent line to a graph
of a function at a point.
■ Use limits to find the derivative of a function.
■ Find the instantaneous rate of change of a function,
which is the value of the derivative of that function at
a point.
TANGENT LI NES AND DERI VATI VES
In this section, we will use limits to define tangent lines to curves and then to define a derivative
of a function. As you will see in this section, a derivative of a function defines the rate of change
of that function, and the instantaneous rate of change of a function is the value of the derivative
at a specific point. As you proceed to calculus, you will see many applications of rates of
change, suchas housingprices, manufacturingcosts, gas mileage of a car as a functionof speed,
global warming temperatures, populations, and instantaneous velocity ( just to name a few).
Tangent Lines
In Section 1.2, we discussed functions increasing, decreasing, and being constant on certain
intervals. The parabola shown on the right is increasing on and decreasing on .
Nowwe want to investigate this behavior in more detail. Howquickly is it increasing and how
quickly is it decreasing?
The rate at which the graph is increasing (rising) or decreasing (falling) depends on
which point along the graph we are talking about. Therefore, we classify the rate of change
of a function at a specific point.
The slope of a line corresponds to the rate at which the line rises or falls. For lines, the
slope (rate of change) is the same at every point along the line. For graphs other than lines
(like a parabola), the rate at which the graph rises (increases) or falls (decreases) is
different from point to point.
(3, ϱ) ( -ϱ, 3)
Rising
Less
Quickly
Rising
Quickly
x
y
Level
Falling
3
Falling
More
Quickly
A tangent line to a curve at a point is a line that just touches that curve at a single point
(as long as you stay in the vicinity of the point).

T E CHNOL OGY
11.3 Tangent Lines and Derivatives 1105
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1105
1106 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
It is important to note that when we say “tangent line to a curve” we mean at a
specific point. For example, in the figure below, we see that the tangent line in the vicinity
of x ϭ a only touches (intersects but does not cross) the curve at one point, x ϭ a. It does
not matter that the line also intersects the curve at the point x ϭ b. The tangent line may
intersect the curve at other points away from the specified point.
b
a
y
x
b
a
y
x
Realize that the tangent line to the curve at x ϭ b is a different tangent line.
If we look at the tangent lines to the parabola on the left, we see that they approximate
the behavior of the graph of the function around each point. Specifically, we say that the
slope of the tangent line is equal to the slope of the graph at the point. In other words,
the rate of change (slope) of the tangent line is equal to the rate of change (slope) of the
graph of the function at that point.
Recall that in Section 1.2, we discussed the average rate of change of a function in
terms of the slope of the secant line, m
secant
:
m
secant
= average rage of change =
f (x
2
) - f (x
1
)
x
2
- x
1
Rising
Less
Quickly
x
y
Level
Falling
Falling
More
Quickly
Rising
Quickly
S
e
c
a
n
t
(x
2
, f (x
2
))
(x
1
, f (x
1
))
x
y
x
1
x
2
x
2
– x
1
f (x
2
) – f (x
1
)
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1106
11.3 Tangent Lines and Derivatives 1107
The average rate of change is a “global” or macro level description of how the function
changes over some specified segment of the curve. In this section, we seek the rate of
change of the function at a single point, which is a more micro-level description of how
the function is changing. Let us look at the graph of some function f. If we are interested
in the slope of the curve at the point (a, f (a)), then we first consider a nearby point (x, f (x)),
and then we let x approach a.
WORDS MATH
graph of f between points (a, f (a)) and (x, f (x)).
Take the limit as .
The result is the slope of the tangent line m to
the graph of the function f at the point (a, f (a)).
m = lim
xSa
f (x) - f (a)
x - a
lim
xSa

m
secant
= lim
xSa
f (x) - f (a)
x - a
x S a
m
secant
=
f (x) - f (a)
x - a
The tangent line to the graph of f at the point (a, f (a)) is the line that
■ passes through the point (a, f (a)) and
■ has slope m:
m is also called the slope of the graph of f at the point (a, f (a)).
m = lim
xSa
f (x) - f (a)
x - a
A Tangent Line
DEFI NI TI ON
Secant Line
Secant Lines
Tangent Line
x
y
a x
x
y
a
x
y
a x
x – a
f (x) – f (a)
(a, f (a)) (a, f (a))
(a, f (a))
(x, f (x))
Recall from Section 1.2 that if we let x ϭ a ϩ h, then we can rewrite this slope in terms
of the limit of the difference quotient.
m = lim
hS0
f (a + h) - f (a)
h
x
y
a a + h
Secant Line
h
f (a + h) – f (a)
(a, f (a))
(a + h, f (a + h))
c11bLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 3:53 PM Page 1107
1108 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
EXAMPLE 1 Finding the Equation of a Tangent Line to a Curve
Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of at the point (2, 4).
Solution:
STEP 1 Find the slope of the tangent line.
Write the formula for slope of the
tangent line to a curve.
Let f (x) ϭ x
2
.
Identify a: (2, 4) ϭ (a, f (a)).
Let a ϭ 2.
Factor the numerator.
Divide out the common factor x Ϫ 2.
Let . m ϭ 4
STEP 2 Find the equation of the tangent line.
Write the equation of a line. y ϭ mx ϩ b
Let m ϭ 4. y ϭ 4x ϩ b
The line passes through the point (2, 4). 4 ϭ 4(2) ϩ b
Solve for b. b ϭ Ϫ4
The equation for the tangent line is .
STEP 3 Check with a graph.
The graph is a good check because
we see that the tangent line indeed
“touches” the graph of the parabola
at the point (2, 4).
■ YOUR TURN Find the tangent line to the graph of f (x) ϭ x
2
at the point (3, 9).
y = 4x - 4
x S2
m = lim
xS2
(x + 2)
m = lim
xS2
(x - 2)(x + 2)
(x - 2)
m = lim
xS2
x
2
- 4
x - 2
a = 2
m = lim
xSa
x
2
- a
2
x - a
m = lim
xSa
f (x) - f (a)
x - a
f (x) = x
2
x
y
–3
–2
–4
–1
1 4 3 2 –1
4
3
10
5
2
1
8
7
9
6
(2, 4)
y = 4x – 4
f (x) = x
2
–5
f (x) f (a)

Study Tip
In Step 2 of Example 1, we could
have used the point–slope form to
find the equation of the line.
■ Answer: y ϭ 6x Ϫ 9
Technology Tip
To confirmthe equation of the
tangent line, enter Y
1
ϭx
2
and
Y
2
ϭ4x Ϫ4, and graph both equations.
Classroom Example 11.3.1
Find the tangent line to the
graph of
Answer: y = -3x + 8
at (3, -1).
f (x) = -(x - 2)
3
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 4:39 PM Page 1108
EXAMPLE 2 Finding the Equation of a Tangent Line to a Curve
(Using the Difference Quotient)
Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f (x) ϭ x
2
ϩ 2 at the point (1, 3).
Solution:
STEP 1 Find the slope of the tangent line.
Write the formula for
the slope of the tangent
line to a curve.
Let f (x) ϭ x
2
ϩ 2.
Identify a: (1, 3) ϭ (a, f (a)). a ϭ 1
Let a ϭ 1.
Eliminate the parentheses
in the numerator.
Eliminate the brackets in
the numerator.
Simplify.
Factor the numerator.
Divide out the common
factor h.
Let m ϭ 2
STEP 2 Find the equation of the tangent line.
Write the equation of a line. y ϭ mx ϩ b
Let m ϭ 2. y ϭ 2x ϩ b
The line passes through the point (1, 3). 3 ϭ 2(1) ϩ b
Solve for b. b ϭ 1
The equation for the tangent line is y ϭ 2x ϩ 1 .
STEP 3 Check with a graph.
h S0.
m = lim
hS0
(2 + h)
m = lim
hS0
h(2 + h)
h
m = lim
hS0
2h + h
2
h
m = lim
hS0
3 + 2h + h
2
- 3
h
m = lim
hS0
( 1 + 2h + h
2
+ 2) - (3)
h
m = lim
hS0
[ (1 + h)
2
+ 2] - ( 1
2
+ 2)
h
m = lim
hS0
[ (a + h)
2
+ 2] - ( a
2
+ 2)
h
m = lim
hS0
f (a + h) - f (a)
h
11.3 Tangent Lines and Derivatives 1109
Technology Tip
To draw the tangent line to the graph
of f (x) ϭ x
2
ϩ 2 at (1, 3), enter
Y
1
ϭ x
2
ϩ 2. Set the viewing window
as [Ϫ2, 5] by [Ϫ2, 10]. Enter
2nd DRAW 5:Tangent( ENTER
VARS Y-VARS 1:Function...
ENTER 1:Y
1
ENTER , 1 )
ENTER .
To highlight the tangent line at the
point (1, 3), type
TRACE 1 ENTER .
To confirm the equation of the
tangent line, enter Y
1
ϭ x
2
ϩ 2 and
Y
2
ϭ2x ϩ1, and graph both equations.
f (a)

f (a ϩ h)

x
1 3 2 –1
y
–2
–1
4
3
10
5
2
1
8
7
9
6
y = 2x + 1
f (x) = x
2
+ 2
(1, 3)
■ YOUR TURN Find the tangent line to the graph of f (x) ϭϪx
2
Ϫ1 at the point (Ϫ1, Ϫ2).
Classroom Example 11.3.2
Find the tangent line to the
graph of
Answer: y = -3x + 10
at (3, 1).
f (x) = 2 -(x - 2)
3
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 4:39 PM Page 1109
1110 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
The Derivative of a Function
We have seen that the slope of the tangent line to a curve at a point is the rate of change
of the curve at that point. In general, the slope of the tangent line to a curve at the
point (x, f (x)) is given by
This limit is a function of x and is called the derivative of f at x. It is denoted and we
say “f prime of x.”
The derivative is an instantaneous rate of change.
f ¿(x)
m = lim
hS0
f (x + h) - f (x)
h
The derivative of a function f at x, denoted , is
provided this limit exists.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f ¿(x)
Derivative of a Function
DEFI NI TI ON
Notice that if we let x ϭ a, we get
which is a limit of our difference quotient form of the slope of the tangent line to the graph
of the function f at the point (a, f (a)).
We may want to calculate the derivative (rate of change) of a function at several points.
Therefore, we calculate the derivative first as a function of x and then allow x to take on
certain values.
f ¿(a) = lim
hS0
f (a + h) - f (a)
h
EXAMPLE 3 Finding the Derivative of a Function
Let f (x) ϭ Ϫx
2
ϩ 6x Ϫ 3.
a. Find .
b. Find , and .
Solution (a):
Write the formula for the
derivative of a function.
Let f (x) ϭϪx
2
ϩ 6x Ϫ 3.
Eliminate the parentheses in the numerator.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

( -x
2
- 2xh - h
2
+ 6x + 6h - 3) - ( -x
2
+ 6x - 3)
h
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

[ -(x + h)
2
+ 6(x + h) - 3] - ( -x
2
+ 6x - 3)
h
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0
f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f ¿(5) f ¿(1), f ¿(2), f ¿(3), f ¿(4)
f ¿(x)
f (x)

f (x ϩ h)

Study Tip
The derivative of a function
is the limit as of the
difference quotient.
h S0
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 4:39 PM Page 1110
Eliminate the brackets in the numerator.
Simplify.
Factor the numerator.
Divide out the common factor h.
Let
Solution (b):
Let
Let
Let
Let
Let
The derivative of a function at a
point is equal to the slope of the
tangent line at that point.
f ¿(3) = 0
f ¿(5) = -4 f ¿(2) = 2
f ¿(4) = -2 f ¿(1) = 4
f ¿(5) = -2(5) + 6 = -4 x = 5.
f ¿(4) = -2(4) + 6 = -2 x = 4.
f ¿(3) = -2(3) + 6 = 0 x = 3.
f ¿(2) = -2(2) + 6 = 2 x = 2.
f ¿(1) = -2(1) + 6 = 4 x = 1.
f ¿(x) = -2x + 6 f (x) = -x
2
+ 6x - 3.
f ¿(x) = -2x + 6 h S0.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0
( -h - 2x + 6)
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

h( -h - 2x + 6)
h
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

-h
2
- 2xh + 6h
h
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

-x
2
- 2xh - h
2
+ 6x + 6h - 3 + x
2
- 6x + 3
h
11.3 Tangent Lines and Derivatives 1111
a. Find b. Find . f ¿(0), f ¿(2), and f ¿(4) f ¿(x).
f (x) = x
2
- 4x + 3.
a.
b. and
f ¿(4) = 4
f ¿(0) = -4, f ¿(2) = 0,
f ¿(x) = 2x - 4
Falling
Rising
Less
Quickly
x
y
–4
–3
–2
–1
4 6 5 1 3 2
4
8
Level
5
6
7
Zero Slope
More
Negative
Slope
f Ј(5) = –4
f Ј(4) = –2
f Ј(3) = 0
f Ј(2) = 2
f Ј(1) = 4
Less
Positive
Slope
Negative
Slope
Rising
Quickly
Falling
More
Quickly
1
Positive
Slope
EXAMPLE 4 Finding the Derivative of a Function
Let
a. Find .
b. Find , and .
Solution (a):
Write the formula for the
derivative of a function.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f ¿(9) f ¿(1), f ¿(4)
f ¿(x)
f (x) = 1x.
Technology Tip
To find the derivative of
f (x) ϭ Ϫx
2
ϩ 6x Ϫ3 at x ϭ 1, enter
MATH 8:nDeriv( ENTER (Ϫ)
X, T, , n x
2
ϩ 6 X, T, , n Ϫ 3
, X, T, , n , 1 ) ENTER. u
u u
Classroom Example 11.3.3*
Let a, b, c, and d be real
numbers, where and
f (x) ϭax
3
ϩbx
2
ϩcx ϩd.
a. Find .
b. Compute
a. 3ax
2
ϩ2bx ϩc
b. f ¿(1) = 3a + 2b + c
f ¿(2) = 12a + 4b + c
f ¿(1) and f ¿(2).
f ¿(x)
a Z 0,
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 4:40 PM Page 1111
1112 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Let
Rationalize the numerator.
Simplify the numerator
(difference of two squares).
Simplify the numerator.
Divide out the common
factor h.
Let
Solution (b):
Let
Let
Let
The derivative of a function at a point
is equal to the slope of the tangent
line at that point. Here, we find that
the derivatives are all positive; hence,
the slopes are all positive, but they
become less positive as x increases.
f ¿(9) =
1
6
f ¿(4) =
1
4
f ¿(1) =
1
2
f ¿(9) =
1
219
=
1
6
x = 9.
f ¿(4) =
1
214
=
1
4
x = 4.
f ¿(1) =
1
211
=
1
2
x = 1.
f ¿(x) =
1
21x
f (x) = 1x.
f ¿(x) =
1
1x + 1x
=
1
21x
h S0.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

1
1x + h + 1x
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

h
h(1x + h + 1x )
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

(x + h) - x
h(1x + h + 1x )
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0
( 1x + h - 1x )
h
#
( 1x + h + 1x )
1x + h + 1x
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

1x + h - 1x
h
f (x) = 1x.
Rising
Less
Quickly
Rising
Even Less
Quickly
y
4
3
2
5
6
0
1
x
5 10 6 7 8 9 1 4 3 2
f Ј(9) =
Less
Positive
Slope
Lesser
Positive
Slope
Rising
Quickly
Positive
Slope
1
6
f Ј(4) =
1
4
f Ј(1) =
1
2
a. Find b. Find and . f ¿(2) f ¿(
1
2
), f ¿(1), f ¿(x).
f (x) =
1
x
Instantaneous Rates of Change
In developing the forms of the slope of the tangent line and the derivative of a function at
a point, we mentioned our Section 1.2 definition of average rate of change of a function f :
Average rate of change =
change in y
change in x
=
f (x) - f (a)
x - a
Technology Tip
To find the derivative of f (x) ϭ
at x ϭ ϩ1, enter
MATH 8:nDeriv( ENTER 2nd
X, T, , n ) , X, T, , n , 1
) ENTER .
u u 1
1x
The TI will give the approximated
values of the derivatives.
a.
b. , and
f ¿(2) = -
1
4
f ¿ (
1
2
) = - 4, f ¿(1) = -1
f ¿(x) = -
1
x
2
f (x ϩ h)

f (x)
r
Classroom Example 11.3.4
Let .
a. Find
b. Compute
a.
b. g¿(4) =
1a
4
g¿(1) =
1a
2
,
1ax
2x
g¿(1) and g¿(4).
g¿(x).
g(x) = 1ax, where a 7 0
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:05 PM Page 1112
11.3 Tangent Lines and Derivatives 1113
EXAMPLE 5 Instantaneous Velocity
A person standing near the edge of a cliff 100 feet high throws a rock upward with an
initial speed of 32 feet per second. The height of the rock above the lake at the bottom of
the cliff is a function of time: We found in Section 2.1,
Exercise 75 that the rock would hit the ground at approximately 3.59 seconds. Find the
average velocity between 2 and 3 seconds and the instantaneous velocity of the rock
when seconds (shortly before it hits the lake).
Solution (a):
Average velocity:
Let
Simplify.
The average velocity of the rock between and seconds is Ϫ48 ft/sec. The
negative implies falling.
Solution (b):
Instantaneous velocity:
Let
and
Eliminate the brackets in
the numerator.
Factor the numerator.
Divide out the common
factor
Let
The instantaneous velocity at seconds is ft/sec. -64 t = 3
= -64 t S3.
= lim
tS3
[-16(t + 1)]
t - 3.
= lim
tS3

-16(t - 3)(t + 1)
(t - 3)
= lim
tS3

-16t
2
+ 32t + 48
t - 3
a = 3.
= lim
tS3

[ -16t
2
+ 32t + 100] - [ -16(3)
2
+ 32(3) + 100]
t - 3
h(t) = -16t
2
+ 32t + 100
lim
tSa

h(t) - h(a)
t - a
t = 3 t = 2
= -48
=
[ -16( 3)
2
+ 32(3) + 100] - [ -16( 22
2
+ 32(2) + 100]
3 - 2
h(t) = -16t
2
+ 32t + 100.
h(3) - h(2)
3 - 2
t = 3
h(t) = -16t
2
+ 32t + 100.
As mentioned earlier, this gives us a global- or macro-level rate of change of the function.
To see how the function is changing near a point, a, we let x approach a.
The instantaneous rate of change of a function f, at a point is the
limit of the average rate of change as x approaches a.
Instantaneous rate of change = lim
xSa

f (x) - f (a)
x - a
= f ¿(a)
x = a,
INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF CHANGE
Technology Tip
a. To find the average velocity
between and seconds,
enter On
the home screen, enter
( VARS Y-VARS ENTER
1:Y
1
ENTER ( 3 ) – VARS
Y-VARS ENTER 1:Y
1
ENTER
( 2 ) ) Ϭ ( 3 – 2 ) ENTER .
Y
1
= -16x
2
+ 32x + 100.
t = 3 t = 2
b. Finding the instantaneous velocity
at is the same as finding the
derivative of the function h(t) at
, which is
MATH 8:nDeriv( ENTER
(Ϫ) 16 X, T, n x
2
32
X, T, n 100 , X, T, n ,
3 ) ENTER
u, + u,
+ u,
h¿(3). t = 3
t = 3
Study Tip
The derivative is an instantaneous
rate of change.
Classroom Example 11.3.5
Replace the function in
Example 5 by
h(t) ϭ Ϫ16t
2
ϩv
0
t ϩs
0
.
a. Determine the average
velocity between 0 and
2 seconds.
b. Determine the instantaneous
velocity at t ϭ2 seconds.
0
ft/sec
b. Ϫ64 ϩv
0
ft/sec
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 4:40 PM Page 1113
SECTI ON
11.3
1114 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
In Exercises 1–10, find the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at the given point.
1. at the point 2. at the point
3. at the point 4. at the point
5. at the point 6. at the point (1, 7)
7. at the point 8. at the point (Ϫ1, 2)
9. at the point (4, 1) 10. at the point (5, 2)
In Exercises 11–20, find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f at the given point.
11. at the point (2, 17) 12. at the point
13. at the point 14. at the point (4, 10)
15. at the point (Ϫ1, 6) 16. at the point
17. at the point 18. at the point
19. at the point (6, 2) 20. at the point (4, 0)
In Exercises 21–30, find the derivative of the function at the specified value of x.
21. where 22. where
23. where 24. where
25. where 26. where
27. where 28. where
29. where 30. where f (x) =
3
x + 2
f ¿( -3), f (x) =
2
x - 5
f ¿(2),
f (x) = -
1
1x
f ¿(1), f (x) =
1
1x
f ¿(1),
f (x) = 1x - 1 + 2 f ¿(5), f (x) = 1 - 1x - 3 f ¿(12),
f (x) = x
4
f ¿( -1), f (x) = x
3
f ¿(1),
f (x) = 2 - x
2
f ¿(3), f (x) = 1 - 2x
2
f ¿(2),
f (x) = 2 - 1x f (x) = 1x - 2
( -1, - 1) f (x) = -
1
x
2
(1,
1
2
) f (x) =
x
x + 1
(2, - 1) f (x) = -3x
2
+ 2x + 7 f (x) = 2x
2
- 3x + 1
f (x) = 3x - 2 ( - 3, 7) f (x) = -2x + 1
(5, - 6) f (x) = -6 f (x) = 17
f (x) = 1x - 1 f (x) = 1x - 1
f (x) =
2
x
2
(3,
1
4
) f (x) =
1
x + 1
f (x) = 7x
2
(1, - 3) f (x) = -3x
2
( -3, 18) f (x) = -5x + 3 (0, -1) f (x) = 4x - 1
( -1, 2) f (x) = 2 (5, -3) f (x) = -3
The derivative of a function at a point is equal to the slope
of the tangent line to the curve at that point (provided the
limit exists):
The average rate of change is a global- or macro-level behavior,
whereas the instantaneous rate of change (derivative) represents
how a function is changing at a single point (instant) of time.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
In this section, we defined a tangent line to a curve at a specific
point. The tangent line to the graph of a function f, at the point
(a, f (a)), is the line that
■ touches the graph of f at the point (a, f (a)) and
■ has slope m: or
m = lim
hS0

f (a + h) - f (a)
h
m = lim
xSa

f (x) - f (a)
x - a
SUMMARY

SKI LLS
EXERCISES
SECTI ON
11.3
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/11/13 11:35 AM Page 1114
11.3 Tangent Lines and Derivatives 1115
In Exercises 31–40, find the derivative
31. 32. 33.
34. 35. 36.
37. Also note any domain restrictions on 38. Also note any domain restrictions on
39. Also note any domain restrictions on 40. Also note any domain restrictions on f ¿(x). f (x) =
1
x
3
f ¿(x). f (x) =
1
x
4
f ¿(x). f (x) =
1
1x - 1
f ¿(x). f (x) =
1
1 + 1x
f (x) = 2x
2
- x f (x) = x - x
2
f (x) = 9x + 2
f (x) = -7x + 1 f (x) = p f (x) = 2
f ¿(x).
45. Gravity. A person holds a pistol straight upward and fires.
The initial velocity of most bullets is around 1200 feet per
second. The height of the bullet t seconds after it is fired is
a function described by
a. What is the average velocity of the bullet between 30
and 40 seconds after it is fired?
b. What is the instantaneous velocity of the bullet when
sec. (shortly before it hits the ground)?
46. Gravity. For the height function given in Exercise 45:
a. What is the average velocity of the bullet between 37
and 38 seconds after it is fired?
b. What is the instantaneous velocity of the bullet when
sec.? t = 37.5
t = 70
h(t) = -16t
2
+ 1200t
41. Gas Mileage. The gas mileage (miles per gallon, mpg) for a
typical sedan can be approximated by the quadratic function
where x represents the
speed of the car in miles per hour (mph) and f represents the
gas mileage in mpg. Find the instantaneous rate of change
of the gas mileage of this sedan when the speed is 70 mph.
42. Gas Mileage. Find the instantaneous rate of change of the
gas mileage of the sedan in Exercise 41 when the speed is
55 miles per hour.
43. Profit. If the profit function P(x) in dollars corresponding to
producing x units is given by
Find the instantaneous rate of change of the profit when
units. Is the profit increasing or decreasing at
40 units? What is the meaning of and what are its units?
44. Profit. If the profit function P(x) in dollars corresponding to
producing x units is given by
Find the instantaneous rate of change of the profit when
units. Is the profit increasing or decreasing at
100 units? What is the meaning of and what are
its units?
P¿(x)
x = 100
P(x) = -x
2
+ 80x - 1000,
P¿(x)
x = 40
P(x) = -x
2
+ 80x - 1000,
f (x) = -0.008(x - 50)
2
+ 30,
48. Find where
Solution:
Write the formula for the derivative of a function.
Let
Simplify.
Let
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
f ¿(x) = 2 h S0.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

h
2
+ 2h
h
= lim
hS0
(h + 2)
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0
[ (x + h)
2
+ 2(x + h) - 1] - ( x
2
+ 2x - 1)
h
f (x) = x
2
+ 2x - 1.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f (x) = x
2
+ 2x - 1. f ¿(x),
In Exercises 47 and 48, explain the mistake that is made.
47. Find where
Solution:
Write the formula for the derivative of a function.
Let
Simplify.
Let
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
f ¿(x) = 0 h S0.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

-3h
2
h
= lim
hS0
( -3h)
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

[ -3(x + h)
2
+ 1] - ( -3x
2
+ 1)
h
f (x) = -3x
2
+ 1.
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f (x) = -3x
2
+ 1. f ¿(x),

AP P L I CAT I ONS

CAT CH T HE MI S TAKE
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 4:40 PM Page 1115
1116 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
For Exercises 49–52, determine whether each statement is true or false.
52. A tangent line to the graph of a function can never be
a vertical line.
53. Find the derivative of the function
54. Find the derivative of the function f (x) = ax
2
+ b. f ¿(x)
f (x) = ax + b. f ¿(x)
49. The derivative of a constant function is 0.
50. The instantaneous rate of change can never equal the
average rate of change.
51. A tangent line to the graph of a function can never be
a horizontal line.
57. Given find
58. Given find f ¿(x). f (x) =
a
x
2
,
f ¿(x). f (x) = ax
2
+ bx + c, 55. Explain why does not exist for .
56. The function is defined at but the
derivative is not. Why? f ¿(x)
x = 0 f (x) = 1x
f (x) = ƒ xƒ f ¿(0)
In Exercises 59–62, use a graphing utility.
59. Graph and graph where h ϭ 0.1,
h ϭ 0.01, and Based on what you see,
what would you guess to be?
60. Graph and graph where
h ϭ 0.1, h ϭ 0.01, and Based on what you
see, what would you guess to be? f ¿(x)
h = ;0.001. ; ;
sin (x + h) - sin x
h
, f (x) = sin x,
f ¿(x)
h = ;0.001. ;
;
e
x +h
- e
x
h
, f (x) = e
x
, 61. Graph and graph
where h ϭ 0.1,
h ϭ 0.01, and Based on what you see,
what would you guess to be?
62. Graph and graph
where h ϭ 0.1, h ϭ 0.01, and Based on
what you see, what would you guess to be? f ¿(x)
h = ;0.001. ; ;
cos [2(x + h)] - cos(2x)
h
, f (x) = cos(2x),
f ¿(x)
h = ;0.001. ;
;
(x + h)[ln(x + h) - 1] - x(ln x - 1)
h
,
f (x) = x(lnx - 1),
CONCEPTUAL OBJECTI VES
■ Understand that if a limit of a function at infinity
exists, that corresponds to a horizontal asymptote.
■ Understand that if a limit of a sequence at infinity
exists, then the sequence is convergent. If the limit
does not exist, it is a divergent sequence.
LI MI TS AT I NFI NI TY;
LI MI TS OF SEQUENCES
SKI LLS OBJECTI VES
■ Evaluate limits of functions at infinity.
■ Find limits of sequences.
SECTI ON
11.4
All of the limits we have discussed so far have been where x approaches some constant.
The result was one of two things: Either the limit existed (some real number) or the limit
did not exist. Now we turn our attention to another type of limit called a limit at infinity.
lim
xSϱ
f (x)
lim
xSc
f (x)

CONCE P T UAL

CHALLENGE

T E CHNOL OGY
c11cLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 4:40 PM Page 1116
11.4 Limits at Infinity; Limits of Sequences 1117
This examines the behavior of some function f as x gets large (or approaches infinity). We
will also examine the limits of sequences, as n gets large, which will be useful to us in
the last section when we find the area under a curve (graph of a function).
Limits at Infinity
We actually have already found limits at infinity in Section 2.6 when we found horizontal
asymptotes. In Example 5(b) from Section 2.6, we found that the rational function
has a horizontal asymptote and the notation we used in that section was
as
We now use the limit notation from this chapter.
WORDS MATH
The limit of f (x) as x approaches infinity is 2.
The limit of f (x) as x approaches negative infinity is 2.
It is important to note that we use the word “infinity” and the symbol to represent
growing without bound in the positive direction, and we use the words “negative infinity”
and the symbol to represent growing without bound in the negative direction. In the
graph of the rational function on the right, we see that in this case both the right (positive
infinity) and left (negative infinity) limits are equal, at 2. In fact, if any rational function
has a horizontal asymptote, then both the right and left horizontal asymptotes must be the
same. There are, however, other functions such as exponential functions when only one
limit as or exists and the other does not. x S -ϱ x Sϱ

ϱ
lim
xS-ϱ
a
8x
2
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
b
= 2
lim
xSϱ
a
8x
2
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
b
= 2
f (x) S2 x Sϱ,
y = 2,
f (x) =
8x
2
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
a
n
,
Let f be a function; then we use the following notation to represent limits at infinity:
Note the following:
■ Infinity and negative infinity do not represent actual numbers, but
■ The above limits do not have to exist. However, if they do exist, they correspond
to horizontal asymptotes.
( -ϱ) (ϱ)
DEFI NI TI ON
Limits at Infinity
HORIZONTAL
LIMIT AT . . . MATH WORDS ASYMPTOTE
Infinity The limit of f (x) as x
approaches infinity
is L.
Negative Infinity The limit of f (x) as x
approaches negative
infinity is M.
y = M lim
xS-ϱ
f (x) = M
y = L lim
xSϱ
f (x) = L
8 –8 0
y
5
4
3
1
2
y = 2
f (x) =
8x
2
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
x ϱ x –ϱ
x
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1117
x f(x)
-
1
1000
= -0.001 -1000
-
1
100
= -0.01 -100
-
1
10
= -0.1 -10
x f(x)
1
1000
= 0.001 1000
1
100
= 0.01 100
1
10
= 0.1 10
5 4 3 2 1 –5–4 –3 –2
–2
–4
–6
–8
–10
–1
y
10
6
8
4
2
y = 0 is a horizontal
asymptote
y = 0 is a horizontal
asymptote
f (x) =
1
x
x
We see that as x gets large either in the positive or negative direction, approaches 0.
and
Using these limits with the limit of a power (Law 6 from Section 11.2) yields the following
special limits.
lim
xS-ϱ
1
x
= 0 lim
xSϱ

1
x
= 0
1
x
HORIZONTAL
LIMIT AT . . . MATH WORDS ASYMPTOTE
Infinity The limit of as
x approaches infinity
is 0.
Negative Infinity The limit of as
x approaches negative
infinity is 0.
y = 0
1
x
n
lim
xS-ϱ

1
x
n
= 0
y = 0
1
x
n
lim
xSϱ

1
x
n
= 0
Let n be any positive integer. Then
SPECIAL LIMITS
Before reading Example 1, reread Section 2.6, Example 5. The graphs of all three
functions are shown there, and the horizontal asymptotes are found. In Section 2.6, we
stated a rule for finding horizontal asymptotes of rational functions by comparing degrees of
The limit laws from Section 11.2 hold for limits at infinity. There are two special
limits at infinity that we will use in combination with the limit laws to evaluate limits at
infinity. Special cases of these special limits are
and
Recall the reciprocal function, which was discussed in Section 1.2. Inspecting
a table of values as x gets large in both directions and the graph of the function, we see that
is the horizontal asymptote.
As AS x S ˆ x S ؊ˆ
y = 0
f (x) =
1
x
,
lim
xSϱ

1
x
lim
xS-ϱ

1
x
1118 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1118
11.4 Limits at Infinity; Limits of Sequences 1119
the numerator and denominator. Here, we present an algebraic technique to determine
limits at infinity for rational functions. The first step is to divide the numerator and
denominator by where n is the degree of the denominator. x
n
,
EXAMPLE 1 Finding Limits at Inﬁnity for Rational Functions
Find the following limits, if they exist:
a. b. c.
Solution (a):
Since the degree of the denominator
is 2, divide both the numerator and
denominator by
Use Limit Law 5 (limit of a quotient).
Use Limit Law 1 (limit of a sum).
Use the special limits.
Simplify.
A similar calculation can be done to find that the limit as is also 0. Looking
back at Example 5(a) in Section 2.6, we see both algebraically and graphically that the
horizontal asymptote of is
Solution (b):
Since the degree of the denominator
is 2, divide both the numerator and
denominator by
Use Limit Law 5 (limit of a quotient). =
lim
xSϱ
a
8 +
3
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
a
4 +
1
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ

8x
2
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
= lim
xSϱ

8 +
3
x
2
4 +
1
x
2
x
2
.
y = 0. f (x) =
8x + 3
4x
2
+ 1
x S -ϱ
lim
xSϱ

8x + 3
4x
2
+ 1
= 0
=
0
4
= 0
=
8 lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
b
+ 3 lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
4 + lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
2
b
=
lim
xSϱ
a
8
x
b
+ lim
xSϱ
a
3
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
(4) + lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
2
b
=
lim
xSϱ
a
8
x
+
3
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
a
4 +
1
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ

8x + 3
4x
2
+ 1
= lim
xSϱ

8
x
+
3
x
2
4 +
1
x
2
x
2
.
lim
xSϱ

8x
3
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
lim
xSϱ

8x
2
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
lim
xSϱ

8x + 3
4x
2
+ 1
0
r
0
r
0
r
4
r
Technology Tip
Set the viewing rectangle as
by . [ -2, 4] [ -10, 10]
a.
The graph indicates that the limiting
value of y is 0 as and as
. That is, the horizontal
asymptote is
b.
y = 0.
x Sϱ
x S -ϱ
Set the viewing rectangle as
by . [ -2, 4] [ -10, 10]
The graph indicates that the limiting
value of y is 2 as and as
. That is, the horizontal
asymptote is y = 2.
x Sϱ
x S -ϱ
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1119
1120 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Use Limit Law 1 (limit of a sum).
Use the special limits.
Simplify.
A similar calculation can be done to find that the limit as is also 2. Looking back
at Example 5(b) in Section 2.6, we see both algebraically and graphically that the horizontal
asymptote of is
Solution (c):
Since the degree of the denominator
is 2, divide both the numerator and
denominator by
Use Limit Law 5 (limit of a quotient).
Use Limit Law 1 (limit of a sum).
Use the special limits.
We conclude that (does not exist) because the numerator grows
without bound while the denominator approaches 4. A similar calculation can be done to
find that the limit as also does not exist. Looking back at Example 5(c) in Section 2.6,
we see both algebraically and graphically that has no horizontal asymptote.
■ YOUR TURN Find the following limits, if they exist:
a. b. c. lim
xSϱ

2x
3
- 1
x
2
+ 2
lim
xSϱ

2x - 1
x
2
+ 2
lim
xSϱ
2x
2
- 1
x
2
+ 2
h(x) =
8x
3
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
x S -ϱ
lim
xSϱ

8x
3
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
= ϱ
=
lim
xSϱ
(8x) + lim
xSϱ
a
3
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
(4) + lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
2
b
=
lim
xSϱ
(8x) + lim
xSϱ
a
3
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
(4) + lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
2
b
=
lim
xSϱ
a
8x +
3
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
a
4 +
1
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ

8x
3
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
= lim
xSϱ

8x +
3
x
2
4 +
1
x
2
x
2
.
y = 2. g(x) =
8x
2
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
x S -ϱ
lim
xSϱ

8x
2
+ 3
4x
2
+ 1
= 2
=
8
4
= 2
=
lim
xSϱ
(8) + lim
xSϱ
a
3
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
(4) + lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
2
b
=
lim
xSϱ
(8) + lim
xSϱ
a
3
x
2
b
lim
xSϱ
(4) + lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
2
b
8
r
0
r
0
r
4
r
ϱ
r
0
r
0
r
4
r
Set the viewing rectangle as
by . [ -20, 20] [ -10, 10]
The graph indicate that the limiting
value of y approaches as and
approaches as . There is
no horizontal asymptote.
x S -ϱ -ϱ
x Sϱ ϱ
a. 2
b. 0
c. (does not exist) ϱ
c.
Classroom Example 11.4.1
Find the following limits, if they
exist:
a.
b.
c.
a. 2 b. DNE c. 0
lim
xSϱ
2x + 1
2x
2
+ 1
lim
xSϱ
(2x + 1)
4
2x
3
+ 1
lim
xSϱ
(2x + 1)
2
2x
2
+ 1
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1120
11.4 Limits at Infinity; Limits of Sequences 1121
EXAMPLE 2 Finding Limits at Inﬁnity for Trigonometric Functions
Use the graph of the trigonometric functions to determine the following limits, if they exist:
a.
b. and
Solution (a):
The sine function continues to oscillate between
the y-values of and 1. Therefore, the sine
function does not approach a single value as x
gets large.
Solution (b):
lim
xS-ϱ

arctan x = -
p
2
lim
xSϱ

arctan x =
p
2
lim
xSϱ

sin x does not exist.
-1
lim
xS-ϱ

arctan x lim
xSϱ

arctan x
lim
xSϱ

sin x
EXAMPLE 3 Finding Limits at Inﬁnity for Exponential Functions
Use graphs to find the following limits at
infinity of exponential functions:
a. and
b. and
Solution (a):
■ (does not exist) because
the function continues to grow without
bound to the right.

Solution (b):

■ (does not exist) because the
function continues to grow without
bound to the left.
lim
xS-ϱ

e
-x
= ϱ
lim
xSϱ

e
- x
= 0
lim
xS-ϱ

e
x
= 0
lim
xSϱ

e
x
= ϱ
lim
xS-ϱ
e
-x
lim
xSϱ
e
-x
lim
xS-ϱ
e
x
lim
xSϱ
e
x
–1
–2
y
x
2
1
100 80 60 40 20 0
y
x
20 10 –10 –20

2
3␲
4

4

2
3␲
4

4
lim arctan x
x → ϱ
lim arctan x
x → Ϫϱ
–3 –2 –4 –1 1 0 2 3 4
x
y
10
5
y = e
x
y = e
–x
–3 –2 –4 –1 1 0 2 3 4
x
y
10
5
Classroom Example 11.4.2*
Determine the following limits,
if they exist:
a.
b.
c.
a. DNE b. DNE c. 1
lim
xSϱ
cos
a
1
2x
b
lim
xS-ϱ
cos(2x)
lim
xSϱ

1
cos x
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1121
1122 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Limits of Sequences
Recall that in Section 10.1 we discussed the idea of a sequence of numbers
that can be represented by a general term: where Here, we want to
investigate the behavior of the sequence as n gets large:
For example, take the sequence for If we write out the terms
. . . , we see that the terms of this sequence get closer and closer to 0. We
say that this sequence converges to 0 and we use the following limit notation:
Let us graph the sequence for . . . and the function
for Notice that the sequence has the positive integers as its domain, whereas the
function is defined for all positive real numbers and zero. We see the same behavior in that
both the function and the sequence approach the number 2 as we move to the right.
x Ú 0.
f (x) =
2x
x + 1
n = 1, 2, 3, a
n
=
2n
n + 1
lim
nSϱ
1
n
2
= 0
1,
1
4
,
1
9
,
1
16
,
1
25
,
1
36
,
n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . a
n
=
1
n
2
n Sϱ.
n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . a
n
,
(a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, . . .)
Let be a sequence where represents the nth term of the sequence.
If the nth term gets closer and closer to L as n gets larger and larger, then we
define the limit of a sequence as:
a
n
a
n
a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, . . .
If exists, then we say that the sequence converges (or is convergent),
and if the limit does not exist, we say that the sequence diverges (or is divergent).
lim
nSϱ

a
n
= L
DEFI NI TI ON
Limit of a Sequence
WORDS MATH
The limit of as n gets sufficiently large is L. lim
nSϱ

a
n
= L a
n
6 1 0 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5
n
a
n
3
1
2
a
n
=
2n
n + 1
6 1 0 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5
x
y
3
1
2
f (x) =
2x
x + 1
We can define a limit of a sequence similarly to how we defined a limit of a function
at infinity.
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1122
11.4 Limits at Infinity; Limits of Sequences 1123
If and for every positive integer n, then lim
nSϱ

a
n
= L. f (n) = a
n
lim
xSϱ

f (x) = L
The limit laws and special limits also hold for sequences.
EXAMPLE 4 Finding the Limit of a Convergent Sequence
Determine whether the sequence is convergent. If it is, state the limit.
Solution:
Simplify a
n
.
Take the limit of a
n
as
Use Limit Law 1 (Limit of a Sum).
Evaluate the limits.
Simplify.
The sequence converges to 3.
■ YOUR TURN Find the limit of the sequence a
n
=
5
n
2
c
n(n + 1)
2
d .
lim
nSϱ

a
n
=

3
lim
nSϱ

a
n
= 3 + 0 + 0
lim
nSϱ
(3) + lim
nSϱ
a
9
2n
b
+ lim
nSϱ
a
3
2n
2
b
lim
nSϱ

a
n
=
lim
nSϱ
a
3 +
9
2n
+
3
2n
2
b
lim
nSϱ

a
n
= n Sϱ.
= 3 +
9
2n
+
3
2n
2
=
6n
3
2n
3
+
9n
2
2n
3
+
3n
2n
3
=
6n
3
+ 9n
2
+ 3n
2n
3
a
n
=
3( 2n
3
+ 3n
2
+ n)
2n
3
a
n
=
9
n
3
c
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
d
5
2
Technology Tip
To enter the sequence
you
need to set the MODE to Seq and
use
9 X, T, n ^ 3 (
X, T, n ( X, T, n 1 ) (
2 X, T, n ϩ 1 ) 6 ) , u,
+ u, u,
u, , Y =
Y = .
a
n
=
9
n
3
c
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
d ,
Set the viewing window with
and
[0, 50] by [0, 5].
nMin = 1, nMax = 50,
The graph shows that the sequence
converges to 3 as n approaches ϱ.
Classroom Example 11.4.4
Determine whether the sequence is convergent. If it is, state its limit.
Convergent with limit .
1
3
a
n
=
(n + 1)
2
(n - 1)
2
3n
4
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1123
1124 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
EXAMPLE 5 Finding That a Sequence Diverges
Show that the limit of diverges (does not converge).
Solution:
Make a table and graph of the sequence.
a
n
= ( -1)
n
We see that the terms in this sequence are
either 1 or and they continue to
oscillate as n grows.
Therefore, this sequence does not converge
to a single value. Hence, we say that this
sequence diverges.
-1
n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 a
n
6 1 0 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5
x
y
2
–1
–2
1
Technology Tip
To enter the sequence
you need to set the MODE to Seq
and use
( 1 ) ^ X, T, n
Set the viewing window with
and [0, 50]
by [ -2, 2].
nMax = 50, nMin = 1,
u, ( -) Y =
Y = .
a
n
= ( -1)
n
,
The graph shows that the sequence
does not converge to a single value.
Recall that in Section 10.1, we said that a sequence whose general termalternated between
positive and negative, usually through behavior, is said to be an alternating sequence.
It is important to note that just because it is oscillating does not mean it does not converge.
For example, is an alternating sequence, but as n increases, it is oscillating
(positive to negative) around zero. Therefore, we say that lim
nSϱ
a
n
= lim
nSϱ
( -1)
n
n
= 0.
a
n
=
( -1)
n
n
( -1)
n
4 3 2 1
–1
1
n
n
a
n
a
n
= , n ≥ 1
(–1)
n
function f has a horizontal asymptote, We also discussed
limits of sequences. If the limit of a sequence exists, we say that
the sequence converges, and if the limit of the sequence does not
exist, we say that the sequence diverges.
y = L. In this section, we defined limits at infinity. Specifically, we
allowed x to increase without bound and decrease without
bound If the limit at infinity of a function exists,
that is, if or then the graph of the lim
xS-ϱ
f (x) = L, lim
xSϱ
f (x) = L
(x S -ϱ).
(x Sϱ)
SUMMARY
SECTI ON
11.4
Show that the sequence defined The odd-indexed terms are all 1, while the even-indexed terms
by diverges. are all 3. Hence, the terms oscillate back and forth between 1
and 3 without ever settling down to a single value.
b
n
= 2 + ( -1)
n
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1124
11.4 Limits at Infinity; Limits of Sequences 1125
In Exercises 1–16, find the limit, if it exists.
1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7. 8.
9. 10. 11. 12.
13. 14. 15. 16.
In Exercises 17–28, determine whether the sequence converges. If it does converge, state the limit.
17. 18. 19. 20.
21. 22. 23. 24.
25. 26. 27. 28. a
n
=
12
n
3
c
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
d a
n
=
12
n
4
c
n
2
(n + 1)
2
4
d a
n
= ( -1)
n+1
n! a
n
= ( -1)
n
n
2
a
n
= cos (np) a
n
= sin
a
np
2
b
a
n
=
(n - 1)!
(n + 1)!
a
n
=
n!
(n + 1)!
a
n
=
(n - 1)
2
(n + 1)
2
a
n
=
2n
2
- 1
n
2
a
n
=
2n + 1
n
a
n
=
n
n + 1
lim
xSϱ
a
x -
1
x
b
lim
xSϱ
a
3x +
4
x
b
lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
2
+
3x + 4
2x - 1
b
lim
xSϱ
a
1
x
3
-
2x + 1
x - 5
b
lim
xS-ϱ
5e
x
lim
xSϱ
4e
- x
lim
xSϱ
tan x lim
xSϱ
cos x
lim
xS-ϱ
6x
2
+ 6x + 1
3x
2
- 5x - 2
lim
xS-ϱ

x
2
- 4x + 5
2x
2
+ 6x - 4
lim
xSϱ
2 - x
3
2x - 7
lim
xSϱ
7x
3
+ 1
x + 5
lim
xSϱ
a
-
2x
x
2
+ 9
b
lim
xSϱ

7x
x
2
+ 16
lim
xSϱ
a
-
4
x
b
lim
xSϱ

3
x
29. Medicine. The concentration C of a particular drug in a
person’s bloodstream t minutes after injection is given by
What do you expect the concentration to
be after several days?
30. Medicine. The concentration C of aspirin in the bloodstream
t hours after consumption is given by What
do you expect the concentration to be after several days?
31. Keyboarding. An administrative assistant is hired by a law
firm upon graduation from high school and learns to
keyboard (type) on the job. The number of words he can
enter per minute is given by where n
is the number of months he has been on the job. How
many words per minute would you expect him to enter if
he worked at the same firm until he retired?
32. Memorization. A professor teaching a large lecture course
tries to learn students’ names. The number of names she can
remember increases with each week in the semester n,
and is given by According to this relation,
what is the greatest number of names she can remember?
N(n) =
600n
n + 20
.
N(n)
a
n
=
130n + 260
n + 5
,
C(t) =
t
t
2
+ 40
.
C(t) =
2t
t
2
+ 100
.
33. Weight. The amount of food that cats typically eat increases
as their weight increases. A function that describes this is
where the amount of food F(x) is given in
ounces and the weight of the cat x is given in pounds.
How many ounces of food will most adult cats eat?
6 8 10 2 4
x
y
10
8
6
4
2
F(x) =
10x
2
x
2
+ 4
,

SKI LLS
EXERCISES
SECTI ON
11.4

AP P L I CAT I ONS
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1126 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
34. Memorization. The 2004 Guinness Book of World Records
states that Dominic O’Brien (from the U.K.) memorized on
a single sighting a random sequence of 54 separate packs
of cards all shuffled together (2808 cards in total) at
Simpson’s-In-The-Strand, London, on May 1, 2002. He
memorized the cards in 11 hours 42 minutes, and then
recited them in exact sequence in a time of 3 hours
30 minutes. With only a 0.5% margin of error allowed
(no more than 14 errors), he broke the record with just
8 errors. If we let t represent the time (hours) it takes to
memorize the cards and y represent the number of cards
memorized, then a rational function that models this
event is given by . According to this model,
what is the greatest number of cards that can be memorized?
y =
2800t
2
+ t
t
2
+ 2
35. Carrying Capacity. In biology, the term carrying capacity
refers to the maximum number of animals that a system can
sustain due to food sources and other environmental factors. If
the number of golden lancehead vipers that live on an island
off the coast of Brazil is given by
where S is the number of vipers and t is the number of years
(assume corresponds to the year 2000), what is the
carrying capacity of the island for this pit viper?
36. Automotive Sales. A new model of an automobile is being
released. The number N of this model on the roads in the
United States is given by where t represents the
number of weeks after its release. What is the greatest
number of these automobiles that will ever be expected on
the road in the United States according to the formula?
100,000
1 + 10e
-2t
,
t = 0
S = 3000( 1 - e
-0.02t
),
38. Find
Solution:
Rewrite secant as the
reciprocal of cosine.
Use Limit Law 5
(limit of a quotient).
Evaluate the limits.
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
=
1
1
= 1
=
lim
nSϱ

1
lim
nSϱ

cos (np)
lim
nSϱ

sec (np) = lim
nSϱ

1
cos (np)
lim
nSϱ
sec (np).
In Exercises 37 and 38, explain the mistake that is made.
37. Find
Solution:
Use Limit Law 1 (limit of a sum).
Use Limit Law 4
(limit of a product).
Evaluate using
special limits.
Simplify.
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
= 2 + 0 = 0
=
[
lim2
xSϱ
] [
limx
xSϱ
]
+ lim
xSϱ
1
x
=
[
lim2
xSϱ
] [
limx
xSϱ
]
+ lim
xSϱ
1
x
lim
xSϱ
a
2x +
1
x
b
= lim
xSϱ

2x + lim
xSϱ

1
x
lim
xSϱ
a
2x +
1
x
b
.
2

does not
exist

0

In Exercises 39–42, determine whether each statement is true or false.
41. If the limit at infinity of a function exists, then the function
has a horizontal asymptote.
42. If the terms of a sequence continue to increase without
bound as n increases, we say that the sequence is
convergent.
39. When the degree of the numerator is less than the degree
of the denominator for a rational function, then the limit at
infinity does not exist.
40. When the degree of the numerator is equal to the degree of
the denominator for a rational function, then the limit at
infinity exists.
44. Find . lim
xSϱ
x –sinx 43. Find . lim
xSϱ

sin x
x

CAT CH T HE MI S TAKE

CONCE P T UAL

CHALLENGE
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1126
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve 1127
Prior to Exercises 45 and 46, use a graphing utility to show
that the following limits equal zero:
45. Which of these three limits most quickly converges to zero?
46. Which of these three limits most slowly converges to zero?
lim
nSˆ

1
n!
lim
nSˆ

1
2
n
lim
nSˆ

1
n
2
For Exercises 47 and 48, use a graphing utility to determine
whether the sequence converges. If it does converge, find the
limit to four decimal places.
47.
48. a
n
=
a
1 -
2
n
b
n
a
n
= nln
a
1 +
12
n
b
One of the fundamental problems in calculus is the area problem.
FI NDI NG THE AREA
UNDER A CURVE
SECTI ON
11.5
CONCEPTUAL OBJECTI VE
■ Understand that the more rectangles used to
approximate the area under a curve, the better
the approximation.
SKI LLS OBJECTI VES
■ Find limits of summations.
■ Find the area under a curve using rectangles.
■ Find the area under a curve by using limits of
summations.
Find the area of the region S that lies
under the curve f (x) from to x = b. x = a
THE AREA PROBLEM
y
x
a
f (x)
S
b
The challenge here is that the region S has a curved boundary. Notice that three of the
boundaries are straight lines: and but the boundary, which is the graph
of f (x), is curved. If we had wanted the area of a region such as a rectangle, triangle, or
circle, we would already know the formula. But what happens when a boundary is defined
by a specified function?
Recall that in Section 11.3, we used the limit of the slopes of secant lines to a curve
(average rate of change) to approximate the slope of a tangent line to a curve (instantaneous
rate of change) as the two points defining the secant line got closer and closer together. In
x = b, x = a, y = 0,

T E CHNOL OGY
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1127
1128 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
For example, let’s take a finite geometric series (Section 10.3) with
Let
Below are summation properties and summation formulas. Many of the summation
formulas were derived in Section 10.4 (Mathematical Induction), and they will be useful
in the area problem later in this section.
lim
nSϱ
B
a
n
k =1
x
k -1
R = lim
nSϱ
B
( 1 - x
n
)
(1 - x)
R =
L
1
1 - x
Έ xΈ 6 1
does not exist Έ xΈ Ú 1
n Sϱ:
a
n
k =1
x
k -1
= 1 + x + x
2
+ x
3
+
Á
+ x
n-1
=
( 1 - x
n
)
(1 - x)
a
1
= 1:
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

a
k
=
a
ϱ
k =1
a
k
= a
1
+ a
2
+ a
3
+
Á
s
limit of a summation
w
infinite series
1. c is a constant
2.
3.
a
n
k =1
(a
k
- b
k
) =
a
n
k =1
a
k
-
a
n
k =1
b
k
a
n
k =1
(a
k
+ b
k
) =
a
n
k =1
a
k
+
a
n
k =1
b
k
a
n
k =1
ca
k
= c
a
n
k =1
a
k
,
SUMMATION PROPERTIES
1. c is a constant 2.
3. 4.
a
n
k =1
k
3
=
n
2
(n + 1)
2
4
a
n
k =1
k
2
=
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
a
n
k =1
k =
n(n + 1)
2
a
n
k =1
c = cn,
SUMMATION FORMULAS
this section, we will use limits again; only this time we will approximate the area of S using
rectangles (which we know the area of) and let the width of each rectangle approach 0. This
will require us to take limits of summations. So we will first discuss limits of summations,
and then we will develop an approach to solving the area problem.
Limits of Summations
In Section 10.1, we used sigma notation to represent a finite series, or summation:
Recall that the sum of a finite series can always be found. When we allow n to grow without
bound, that is, allow the result is an infinite series, and the sum may or may not
exist (depending on whether the limit exists).
n Sϱ,
a
n
k =1
a
k
= a
1
+ a
2
+ a
3
+
Á
+ a
n
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1128
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve 1129
}
40
}
40
}
40
EXAMPLE 1 Evaluate a Summation
Evaluate the summation:
Solution:
Use summation property (1).
Use summation formula (3) with
Simplify.
■ YOUR TURN Evaluate the summation:
a
25
k =1
4k
3
= 4 + 4(2)
3
+ 4(3)
3
+
Á
+ 4(25)
3
a
40
k =1
3k
2
= 66,420
= 3 c
40(41)(81)
6
d = 66,420
= 3
s
n(n + 1)(2
#
n + 1)
6
t n = 40.

a
40
k =1
3k
2
= 3
a
40
k =1
k
2
a
40
k =1
3k
2
= 3 + 3(2)
2
+ 3(3)
2
+
. . .
+ 3(40)
2
.
EXAMPLE 2 Finding the Limit of a Summation
Find
Solution:
STEP 1 Find the sum.
Use summation property (1)
(n is a constant).
Use summation property (3).
Use summation formulas (1) and (2).
Simplify.
Combine the expression inside the
brackets into one fraction.
Eliminate the parentheses inside
the brackets.
Simplify the numerator.
Eliminate the brackets.
STEP 2 Find the limit of the sum.
Let
in the limit.
a
n
k =1
k - 1
n
2
=
n
2
- n
2n
2
=
n
2
- n
2n
2
=
1
n
2
c
n
2
- n
2
d
=
1
n
2
c
n
2
+ n - 2n
2
d
=
1
n
2
c
n(n + 1) - 2n
2
d
=
1
n
2
c
n(n + 1)
2
- nd
=
1
n
2
B
a
n
k =1
k -
a
n
k =1
1R
=
1
n
2
B
a
n
k =1
k -
a
n
k =1
1R
a
n
k =1

k - 1
n
2
=
1
n
2

a
n
k =1
k - 1
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

k - 1
n
2
.
r
n(n + 1)
2
r
n
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
k - 1
n
2
= lim
nSϱ

n
2
- n
2n
2
Technology Tip
To find the sum of the finite series
you need to use the SUM
a
40
k =1
3k
2
,
Technology Tip
To find the limit of the sum of the
series you need to use
the command. We shall put in
100, 800. Enter
. ENTER ) 1 , 50
, 1 , X, T, ␪, n , x
2
50 ,
) 1 - X, T, ␪, n ( ENTER
5:seq(

OPS

LIST
ENTER 5:sum(

MATH

LIST n = 50,
SUM
lim
nSϱ
a
n
k =1
k - 1
n
2
,
command. Enter
.
ENTER ) 1 , 40 , 1
, X, T, ␪, n , x
2
X, T, ␪, n
3 ENTER 5:seq(

OPS

LIST ENTER 5:sum(

MATH ᭤
LIST
Classroom Example 11.5.1
Evaluate the summations:
a. *b.
a. Ϫ2550 b. Ϫ2544
a
50
k =3
- 2k
a
50
k =1
- 2k
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1129
1130 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Divide the numerator and
denominator by
Simplify.
Let
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
2k + 1
n
2
.
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
k - 1
n
2
=
1
2
= lim
nSϱ
1 -
1
n
2
=
1 - 0
2
=
1
2
n Sϱ.
= lim
nSϱ
1 -
1
n
2
n
2
.
The Area Problem
Now that we can find the limits of summations, we are ready to solve the area problem.
The goal is to find the area bounded by the graph of a function f, which is above the x-axis,
and three straight boundaries: and This bounded region S is often
called the area under the curve (where “the curve” is the graph of f ). We will assume that
the function f is continuous and is nonnegative (lies entirely on or above the x-axis). First
we will start by approximating the area with a finite number of rectangles and then we will
increase the number of rectangles and see that, as the number of rectangles increases, the
approximation gets better. Ultimately, we will define the exact area of the region as a limit
of the sum of the areas of infinitely many rectangles.
x = b. y = 0, x = a,
y
x
a
f (x)
S
b
Technology Tip
EXAMPLE 3 Approximating the Area Under a Curve with Rectangles
Use the area of four rectangles to
approximate the area of the region
bounded by the graph of
the x-axis, and the lines
and
Solution:
STEP 1 Label four rectangles.
Divide the x-interval [0, 1] into
four equal subintervals.
c 0,
1
4
d , c
1
4
,
1
2
d , c
1
2
,
3
4
d , c
3
4
, 1d
x = 1. x = 0
f (x) = x
2
,
x
y
1
4
1
1
2
1
2
3
4
1 0
f (x) = x
2
Label points along the curve that
correspond to the right endpoints
of the subintervals.
x
y
1
4
1
1
2
9
16
1
4
1
16
3
4
1 0
f (x) = x
2
= lim
nSϱ
n
2
n
2
-
n
n
2
2n
2
n
2
Classroom Example 11.5.2
Find
2
3
lim
nSϱ
a
n
k =1
2k
2
+ n
n
3
.
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1130
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve 1131
STEP 2 Find the areas of the four rectangles.
Write the formula for area of a rectangle.
Each of the four rectangles has width
The length (or height) of each rectangle is equal to the function value f (x).
Area of Rectangle 1:
Area of Rectangle 2:
Area of Rectangle 3:
Area of Rectangle 4:
STEP 3 Sum the areas of the four rectangles.
R
4
= (1)
2
a
1
4
b
= (1)
a
1
4
b
=
1
4
R
3
=
a
3
4
b
2
a
1
4
b
=
a
9
16
b

a
1
4
b
=
9
64
R
2
=
a
1
2
b
2
a
1
4
b
=
a
1
4
b

a
1
4
b
=
1
16
R
1
=
a
1
4
b
2
a
1
4
b
=
a
1
16
b

a
1
4
b
=
1
64
R = l
#
1
4
1
4
.
R = l
#
w
f (1) = (1)
2
= 1
f
a
3
4
b
=
a
3
4
b
2
=
9
16
f
a
1
2
b
=
a
1
2
b
2
=
1
4
f
a
1
4
b
=
a
1
4
b
2
=
1
16
x
y
1
4
1
1
2
9
16
1
4
1
16
3
4
1 0
f (x) = x
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
The area is equal to the
sum of the four rectangles.
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+ R
4
=
1
64
+
1
16
+
9
64
+
1
4
Combine the four fractions
into a single fraction.
square units
■ YOUR TURN Use the area of four rectangles
(using left endpoints) to
approximate the area of the
region bounded by the graph
of the x-axis, and
the lines and x = 1. x = 0
f (x) = x
2
,
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+ R
4
=

0.46875
=
1 + 4 + 9 + 16
64
=
30
64
=
15
32
x
y
1
4
1
1
2
9
16
1
4
1
16
3
4
1
f (x) = x
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
Draw the four rectangles that have width and height equal to the function
values corresponding to the right endpoints of the subintervals.
=
1
4
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1131
It seems that the upper and lower estimates are converging to . We will now let n be the
number of intervals and then allow n to approach infinity. In Example 4, we show that the
exact area under the curve is .
1
3
1
3
EXAMPLE 4 Finding the Exact Area Under a Curve
Find the area of the region bounded
by the graph of the x-axis,
and the lines and
Solution:
STEP 1 Let n rectangles approximate the area under the curve.
Note that if n is the number of
intervals, then each of the equal
subintervals has width
Write the subintervals in terms of n.
Identify the right endpoints.
1
n
,
2
n
,
3
n
, Á,
n
n
c 0,
1
n
d , c
1
n
,
2
n
d , c
2
n
,
3
n
d , Á, c
n - 1
n
,
n
n
d
1
n
.
x = 1. x = 0
f (x) = x
2
,
1132 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
In Example 3, by choosing the rectangles using the right endpoints of the intervals, we
calculated an approximate area that overpredicts the actual area under the curve. In the Your
Turn following Example 3, by choosing the rectangles using the left endpoints of the
intervals, we calculated an approximate area that underpredicts the actual area under the
curve. The actual area lies somewhere in between:
Furthermore, had we chosen more than four rectangles, we would have calculated better
estimates.
0.21875 6 A 6 0.46875
NUMBER OF RECTANGLES UPPER AND LOWER ESTIMATES
10
100
1000 0.33283 6 A 6 0.33383
0.32835 6 A 6 0.33835
0.28500 6 A 6 0.38500
x
y
1
4
1
1
2
1
2
3
4
1 0
f (x) = x
2
x
y
1
0
f (x) = x
2
R
k
1
n
k
n
n
n
k – 1
n
c11dLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 5:38 PM Page 1132
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve 1133
STEP 2 Find a general formula for the area of each of the rectangles.
Rectangle 1 has width and length
(height) equal to
Rectangle 2 has width and length
(height) equal to
Rectangle 3 has width and length
(height) equal to
Rectangle k has width and length
(height) equal to
The general area of each rectangle is
STEP 3 Sum the area of the n rectangles.
Sum the areas of the n
rectangles.
Write using sigma notation.
Use summation property
(1) (n is a constant).
Use summation formula (3).
STEP 4 Use the limit to get the exact area under the curve as .
As n gets large, approximates
the area under the curve, A.
Let
Divide the numerator and
denominator by = lim
nSϱ

2 +
3
n
+
1
n
2
6
n
3
.
A = lim
nSϱ

2n
3
+ 3n
2
+ n
6n
3
A
n
=
2n
3
+ 3n
2
+ n
6n
3
.
A = lim
nSϱ

A
n
A
n
n Sϱ
=
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6n
3
=
2n
3
+ 3n
2
+ n
6n
3
=
1
n
3

#

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
=
1
n
3 a
n
k =1
k
2
=
a
n
k =1

R
k
=
a
n
k =1

1
n

a
k
n
b
2
=
a
n
k =1
k
2
n
3
=
1
n

a
1
n
b
2
+
1
n

a
2
n
b
2
+
1
n

a
3
n
b
2
+
. . .
+
1
n

a
n
n
b
2
A
n
= R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+
. . .
+ R
n
R
k
=
1
n

a
k
n
b
2
.
R
k
=
1
n

a
k
n
b
2
f
a
k
n
b
=
a
k
n
b
2
:
1
n
R
3
=
1
n

a
3
n
b
2
f
a
3
n
b
=
a
3
n
b
2
:
1
n
R
2
=
1
n

a
2
n
b
2
f
a
2
n
b
=
a
2
n
b
2
:
1
n
R
1
=
1
n

a
1
n
b
2
f
a
1
n
b
=
a
1
n
b
2
:
1
n
Technology Tip
To find the limit of the sum of the
series you need to use
the command. We shall
put in 800, 900. Enter
. ENTER ) 1 , 100 , 1 ,
X, T, ␪, n , 3 ^ 100 , x
2
X, T, ␪, n ENTER 5:seq(

OPS
᭤ LIST ENTER
5:sum(

MATH
᭤ LIST
n = 100,
SUM
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k=1
k
2
n
3
,
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1133
1134 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
Use Limit Laws 1 and 5
(limit of a sum/quotient).
Let
Simplify.
square units A =
1
3
=
2
6
=
1
3
=
2 + 0 + 0
6
n Sϱ.
=
lim
nSϱ
2 + lim
nSϱ

3
n
+ lim
nSϱ

1
n
2
lim
nSϱ
6
We can generalize the procedure outlined in Example 4 to find the exact area under a
curve by taking the limit of the sum of the areas of n rectangles as n approaches In
calculus this limit of sums represents an integral.
ϱ.
EXAMPLE 5 Finding the Area Under a Curve
Find the area bounded by the
curve and
the x-axis.
Solution:
STEP 1 Find the x-intercepts of f.
Let f (x) ϭ 0.
Solve for x.
or x = 2 x = 0
x(2 - x) = 0
2x - x
2
= 0
f (x) = 2x - x
2
Let f be a continuous nonnegative function on the interval [a, b]. The area of the
region bounded by the graph of f , the x-axis and the vertical
lines and is given by
where:
Width of each rectangle
Right endpoint of the kth rectangle
Height of the kth rectangle
A = lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
f
c
a +
(b - a)k
n
d

a
b - a
n
b
f (x
k
) = f (a + k¢x)
x
k
= a + k¢x
¢x =
b - a
n
A = lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

f (x
k
)¢x
x = b x = a
(y = 0), ( f (x) 7 0)
Area Under a Curve DEFI NI TI ON
d
rr
area of rectangle, R
k
height width
1 0 3 2
x
y
2
1
f (x) = 2x – x
2
Classroom Example 11.5.4
a. Find the area under the curve
.
b. Find the area under the curve
a. 21 sq units
b. 150 sq units
f (x) = 2x
2
+ 1 on [0, 6].
f (x) = 2x
2
+ 1 on [0, 3]
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1134
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve 1135
STEP 2 Find the dimensions of the rectangles.
Find the width.
Find the right endpoints.
Find the height.
STEP 3 Find the sum of the areas of the n rectangles.
Areas of the rectangles.
Let and
Eliminate the parentheses.
Use summation property (3).
Use summation property (1)
(n is a constant).
Use summation formulas (2)
and (3).
Simplify
Eliminate the parentheses.
Combine into a single fraction.
Simplify.
STEP 4 Find the area under the curve by taking the limit as n
Let
Use Limit Law 2
(limit of a difference).
Divide out n
2
in the first limit.
Find the individual limits.
sq units
■ YOUR TURN Find the area bounded by the curve and the x-axis. f (x) = 3x - x
2
A =
4
3
=
4
3
- 0 =
4
3
= lim
nSϱ
a
4
3
b
- lim
nSϱ
a
4
3n
2
b
= lim
nSϱ
a
4n
2
3n
2
b - lim
nSϱ
a
4
3n
2
b
A = lim
nSϱ
a
4n
2
- 4
3n
2
b n Sϱ.
Sϱ.
=
4n
2
- 4
3n
2
=
12n
2
+ 12n - 8n
2
- 12n - 4
3n
2
=
4n + 4
n
-
8n
2
+ 12n + 4
3n
2
=
4(n + 1)
n
-
4(n + 1)(2n + 1)
3n
2
=
8
n
2
#
n(n + 1)
2
-
8
n
3
#
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
=
8
n
2 a
n
k =1
k -
8
n
3 a
n
k =1
k
2
=
a
n
k =1
8k
n
2
-
a
n
k =1
8k
2
n
3
=
a
n
k =1
a
8k
n
2
-
8k
2
n
3
b
=
a
n
k =1
c a
4k
n
-
4k
2
n
2 b

a
2
n
bd
f (x
k
) =
4k
n
-
4k
2
n
2
. ¢x =
2
n
A
n
=
a
n
k =1
f (x
k
)¢x
=
4k
n
-
4k
2
n
2
f (x
k
) = f
a
2k
n
b
= 2
a
2k
n
b
-
a
2k
n
b
2
x
k
= a + k¢x = 0 + k
2
n
=
2k
n
¢x =
b - a
n
=
2 - 0
n
=
2
n
d
f (x) ϭ 2x Ϫ x
2
Technology Tip
To find the limit of the sum of the
series
you need to
use the command. We shall
put in and 800. Enter
8
. ENTER )
1 , 100 , 1 , X, T, ␪, n ,
3 ^ 100 , ( X, T, ␪, n
Ϫ
100
( X, T, ␪, n ENTER 5:seq(

OPS
᭤ LIST ENTER
5:sum(

MATH
᭤ LIST
n = 100
SUM
lim
nSϱ
a
n
k=1
8k(n - k)
n
3
,
lim
nSϱ
a
n
k=1 a
4k
n
-
4k
2
n
2
b
2
n
=
9
2
Similarly:
Classroom Example 11.5.5
Find the area under the curve
above the x-axis.
125
3
g(x) = -2x
2
+ 2x + 12
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1135
1136 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
EXAMPLE 6 Finding the Area Under a Curve
Find the area bounded by the graph of
and the x-axis, between
and
Solution:
STEP 1 Find the dimensions of the rectangles.
Find the width.
Find the right endpoints.
Find the height.
STEP 2 Find the sum of the areas of the n rectangles.
Areas of the rectangles.
Let and
Eliminate the parentheses.
Use summation property (3).
Use summation property (1)
(n is a constant).
Use summation formulas
(2) and (3).
Simplify.
Divide out common factors.
Eliminate parentheses. = 8 -
n + 1
n
-
2n
2
+ 3n + 1
6n
2
= 8 -
(n + 1)
n
-
(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6n
2
=
8
n
n -
2
n
2
#
n(n + 1)
2
-
1
n
3
#
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
=
8
n

a
n
k =1
1 -
2
n
2

a
n
k =1
k -
1
n
3

a
n
k =1
k
2
=
8
n

a
n
k =1
1 -
2
n
2

a
n
k =1
k -
1
n
3

a
n
k =1
k
2
=
a
n
k =1

8
n
-
a
n
k =1

2k
n
2
-
a
n
k =1

k
2
n
3
=
a
n
k =1
c
8
n
-
2k
n
2
-
k
2
n
3
d
A
n
=
a
n
k =1
c a
8 -
2k
n
-
k
2
n
2
ba
1
n
bd
f (x
k
) = 8 -
2k
n
-
k
2
n
2
. ¢x =
1
n
A
n
=
a
n
k =1
f (x
k
)¢x
f (x
k
) = f
a
1 +
k
n
b
= -
a
1 +
k
n
b
2
+ 9 = 8 -
2k
n
-
k
2
n
2
x
k
= a + k¢x = 1 + k
1
n
= 1 +
k
n
¢x =
b - a
n
=
2 - 1
n
=
1
n
x = 2. x = 1
f (x) = -x
2
+ 9
1 0 3 2
x
y
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
f (x) = –x
2
+ 9
x = 2 x = 1
dd
n
n(n + 1)
2
d
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
d
f(x) ϭ Ϫx
2
ϩ 9
Technology Tip
To find the limit of the sum of the
series
you need
to use the command. We
shall put in Enter
. ENTER ) 1 , 100 ,
1 , X, T, ␪, n , 3 ^ 100 ,
)
x
2
X, T, ␪, n - X, T, ␪, n
) 100 ( 2 - x
2
)
100 ( 8 ( ENTER 5:seq(

OPS

LIST ENTER
5:sum(

MATH

LIST
n = 100, 800, 900.
SUM
lim
nSϱ
a
n
k=1
8n
2
- 2nk - k
2
n
3
,
lim
nSϱ
a
n
k=1 a
8 -
2k
n
-
k
2
n
2
b
1
n
=
Classroom Example 11.5.6
Find the area bounded by the
curve
between
112
3
x = -1 and x = 3.
g(x) = -2x
2
+ 2x + 12
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1136
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve 1137
STEP 3 Find the area under the curve by taking the limit as n
Let
Use Limit Law 2
(limit of a
difference).
Divide out the
common factors:
n and
Use Limit Law 1
(limit of a sum).
Find the individual
limits.
square units
■ YOUR TURN Find the area bounded by the graph of and the
x-axis, between and x = 2. x = 1
f (x) = -x
2
+ 4
A =
20
3
= 8 - 1 - 0 -
1
3
- 0 - 0 =
20
3
= lim
nSϱ
8 - lim
nSϱ
1 - lim
nSϱ

1
n
- lim
nSϱ

1
3
- lim
nSϱ

1
2n
- lim
nSϱ

1
6n
2
= 8 - lim
nSϱ

a
1 +
1
n
b
- lim
nSϱ

a
1
3
+
1
2n
+
1
6n
2
b
n
2
.
= lim
nSϱ
8 - lim
nSϱ
a
n + 1
n
b
- lim
nSϱ

a
2n
2
+ 3n + 1
6n
2
b
A = lim
nSϱ
a
8 -
n + 1
n
-
2n
2
+ 3n + 1
6n
2
b
n Sϱ.
Sϱ.
■ Answer: sq units A =
5
3
In Exercises 1–10, evaluate the summations. Note: In Exercise 9 the summation starts at 0, and in Exercise 10 the summation
starts at 2.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
a
n
k =2
(k
2
+ 2)
a
n
k =0
(k
2
+ 2)
a
n
k =1
(2k
3
- k)
a
n
k =1
(2k
3
+ k
2
)
a
n
k =1
(2k - 5)
n
2
a
n
k =1
(3k - 4)
n
a
17
k =1
2k
2
a
25
k =1
3k
a
30
k =1
8
a
20
k =1
5
SUMMARY
SECTI ON
11.5
In this section, we first discussed summation properties and
formulas.
1.
2.
3.
4.
a
n
k =1
k
3
=
n
2
(n + 1)
2
4
a
n
k =1
k
2
=
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
a
n
k =1
k =
n(n + 1)
2
a
n
k =1
c = cn, c is a constant
Then we discussed how to find the area under a specified curve.
We first started by approximating the area by sums of
rectangles. Either right or left endpoints of the intervals can be
used to calculate the height of the rectangles. We found that for
increasing functions, right endpoints resulted in an overestimate
and left endpoints resulted in an underestimate. For decreasing
functions the opposite is true. Then we defined the exact area in
terms of the limit of the sums of areas of rectangles as the number
of rectangles, n, approaches . ϱ

SKI LLS
EXERCISES
SECTI ON
11.5
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1137
1138 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
In Exercises 11–20, find the limit of the summations.
11. 12. 13. 14.
15. 16. 17. 18.
19. 20.
In Exercises 21–23, approximate the area under the curve (between the graph of f, the x-axis, and ) using the
given number of rectangles of equal width.
21. Approximate with four rectangles and use left endpoints.
22. Approximate with four rectangles and use right endpoints.
23. Based on Exercises 21 and 22 the actual area A is
In Exercises 24–26, approximate the area under the curve (between the graph of f, the x-axis, and ) using the
given number of rectangles of equal width.
24. Approximate with two rectangles and use left endpoints.
25. Approximate with two rectangles and use right endpoints.
26. Based on Exercises 24 and 25 the actual area A is
In Exercises 27–30, approximate the area under the curve using the given number of rectangles of equal width.
27. on [0, 8]; eight rectangles with right endpoints
28. on [0, 2]; four rectangles with right endpoints
29. on [0, 4]; four rectangles with left endpoints
30. on [1, 2]; eight rectangles with left endpoints
In Exercises 31–40, find the area under the curve on the specified interval.
31. 32. 33.
34. 35. 36.
37. 38. 39.
40. 3 … x … 4 f (x) = -x
2
+ 7x - 10,
2 … x … 3 f (x) = -x
2
+ 5x - 4, 1 … x … 2 f (x) = x
2
- 3x, 1 … x … 3 f (x) = x
2
- 4x,
0 … x … 1 f (x) = x
3
+ 1, 0 … x … 2 f (x) = 8 - x
3
, 0 … x … 2 f (x) = 5 - x
2
,
0 … x … 1 f (x) = 2 - x
2
, 1 … x … 3 f (x) = x - 1, 0 … x … 1 f (x) = -2x + 3,
f (x) =
1
x
f (x) = 1x
f (x) = x
2
+ 1
f (x) = 4 -
1
2
x
____ 6 A 6 ____.
x ؍ 2 x ؍ 0
____ 6 A 6 ____.
x ؍ 4 x ؍ 0
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
a
k
2
5n
3
-
2
n
+
3k
n
2
b
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
a
k
2
2n
3
+
2
n
-
4k
n
2
b
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
a
2k
3
3n
5
-
k
4n
2
b
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
a
2k
3
n
4
+
k
2
3n
3
b
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
a
5
n
-
k
n
2
b
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
a
2k
n
2
-
3
n
b
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
2k
2
n
3
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
3k
n
2
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
8
n
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
5
n
x
y
5 4 3 2 1
10
5
f (x) = x
2 1
2
x
y
3 2 1
10
5
f (x) = 8 – x
3
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1138
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve 1139
42. Surveying. Steve and Peggy bought a parcel of land so their
dogs, Cisco, Cali, Cruz, and Auti, could have more room to
train for field trials. One side of their property is bounded by
a road, and two sides of their property are bounded by their
two neighbors’ properties. The back of the property is
bordered by a creek whose path can be approximately
modeled by the function where x
is given in feet. Calculate the area of their parcel of land to
the nearest hundredth of an acre (1 acre = 43,560 ft
2
).
f (x) = -0.006x
2
+ 5000,
41. Surveying. Colby and Michelle bought a parcel of land so
their dog Chief could have more room to train for field
trials. One side of their property is bounded by a road, and
two sides of their property are bounded by their two
neighbors’ properties. The back of the property is bordered
by a creek whose path can be approximately modeled by
the function
where x is given in feet. Calculate the area of their
parcel of land to the nearest hundredth of an acre
See graph below: (1 acre = 43,560 ft
2
).
f (x) = 200 +
1
100,000
( -x
3
+ 600x
2
)
For Exercises 43 and 44, refer to the following:
The work that it takes to move an object that weighs F pounds
a distance of d feet is the product, On the Cartesian
graph, work in foot pounds is an area (in this case, the force
is constant).
W = Fd.
43. Work. A man tries to move a large object. In the
beginning, he will push with more force, and as he gets
tired, he will push with less and less force until he can
push no more. Calculate the work exerted when a man
pushes with a force of pounds from
to
44. Work. Calculate the work exerted when a man pushes with
a force of pounds from to x = 5 ft. x = 0 f (x) = 400 - x
2
x = 10 ft.
x = 0 f (x) = 200 - x
2
100 0 200 300 400 500 600
100
200
300
Colby and Michelle’s
Property
400
500
600
f (x) = 200 + (–x
3
+ 600x
2
)
x
y
C
R
E
E
K

1
100,000
0 1000 2000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
f (x) = –0.0006x
2
+ 5000
x
y
Little C
re
e
k

d (ft)
F (lb)
W (ft-lb)
d
F
W

AP P L I CAT I ONS
When the force is not constant (varying), the work is still the
area—only now we must use a method similar to the area
problem for computing work.
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1139
1140 CHAPTER 11 Limits: A Preview to Calculus
When speed is varying (nonconstant), we can still think of distance
as the area under the speed curve over a given time interval.
For Exercises 45 and 46, refer to the following:
Recall the distance–rate–time formula, If a car travels at
a constant speed of, say, 60 miles per hour, then it will take
hour to drive 30 miles. The distance can be thought of as the
area under the speed function (curve) over a given time interval.
1
2
d = rt.
In Exercises 47 and 48, explain the mistake that is made.
47. Find
Solution:
Use summation
property (1).
Use Limit Law 1.
Let
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
= 2
a
n
k =1
0 = 0
= 2
a
n
k =1
lim
nSϱ

1
n
n Sϱ.
= 2 lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

1
n
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

2
n
= lim
nSϱ

2
a
n
k =1

1
n
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

2
n
. 48. Find
Solution:
Use summation
property (1).
Use Limit Law 4
(limit of product).
Let
This is incorrect. What mistake was made?
= lim
nSϱ

1
n
2
lim
nSϱ
a
n
k =1
k = 0 n Sϱ.
= lim
nSϱ

1
n
2
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
k
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

k
n
2
= lim
nSϱ

1
n
2

a
n
k =1
k
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

k
n
2
.
For Exercises 49 and 50, determine whether each statement is
true or false.
49. 50.
51. Find the area bounded by the graph of and
the x-axis.
f (x) = -x
2
+ 1
lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1
1
k
= 0
a
n
k =1
k
2
=
c
a
n
k =1
k
d
2
r
0
t (s)
r (ft/s)
d (ft)

CAT CH T HE MI S TAKE K

CONCE P T UAL
52. Find the area bounded by the graph of and
the x-axis.
53. Find the area bounded by the graphs of and
54. Find the area bounded by the graphs of and
g(x) = x.
f (x) = x
2
g(x) = -x
2
+ 2.
f (x) = x
2
f (x) = -x
2
+ 4
t (h)
r (mi/h)
d (mi)
45. Distance–Rate–Time. Assume the speed of a smart car
(driven on a college campus) is given by
where v is the speed of the car in feet per second and t is the
time in seconds after the smart car starts moving. Find the
distance traveled by the smart car from to
46. Distance–Rate–Time. Repeat Exercise 45 for to
t = 6 s.
t = 4
t = 10 s. t = 0
v(t) = 10t - t
2
,
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1140
57. Approximate the area bounded by the graph of
the x-axis, and the vertical lines and using
four rectangles and the right endpoints. Repeat for ten
rectangles. Round to four decimal places.
58. Approximate the area bounded by the graph of
the x-axis, and the vertical lines and using four
rectangles and the right endpoints. Repeat for ten
rectangles. Round to four decimal places.
x =
p
2
x = 0
y = cos x,
x = p x = 0
y = sin x, 59. Use a graphing utility to approximate the area bounded by
the graph of the x-axis, and the vertical lines
and using 4, 100, and 500 rectangles. Round to four
decimal places.
60. Use a graphing utility to approximate the area bounded by
the graph of the x-axis, and the vertical
lines and using 4, 100, and 500 rectangles.
Round to four decimal places.
x = 2 x = 0
y = ln(x + 1),
x = 2
x = 0 y = e
x
,

T E CHNOL OGY
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve 1141
56. Find the area bounded by the x-axis and the graph of the
function:
f (x) =
L
x
3
0 … x … 1
x
2
1 6 x … 2
-2x + 8 2 6 x … 4
55. Find the area bounded by the x-axis and the graph of the
function:
f (x) =
L
x
2
0 … x … 1
1 1 6 x … 2
3 - x 2 6 x … 3

CHALLENGE
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1141
1. Consider the graph of the function y ϭ f (x)
shown at the right, along with its tangent
line at x ϭ 1.
a. Determine the derivative of f at x ϭ 1.
Hint: Recall from Section 11.3 that the
derivative of a function at a point is
deﬁned to be the slope of the tangent
line at that point.
b. Next, use a ruler or straight edge to
sketch the tangent line to the function,
y ϭ f (x), through each of the indicated
points (at x ϭ Ϫ3, Ϫ2, Ϫ1, 0, 2, and 3).
c. Determine the derivative of f at x ϭ Ϫ3,
Ϫ2, Ϫ1, 0, 2, and 3 and record these in the table below.
1142
CHAPTER 11 I NQUI RY- BASED LEARNI NG PROJECT
Graph of y ϭ f(x)
x Ϫ3 Ϫ2 Ϫ1 0 1 2 3
y ؍ f؅(x)
d. Graph the derivative of f by plotting the
points from your table in part (c). Do
this graph?
e. The graph of f ؅ has an x-intercept at
x ϭ 0. What does this mean about the
graph of f ?
f. The graph of f ؅ is below the x-axis for
x Ͻ 0 and above the x-axis for x Ͼ 0.
What does this mean about the graph
of f ?
2. The graph of y ϭ g(x) is shown below.
a. Sketch the graph of its derivative,
y ϭ g؅(x), by plotting points.
Graph of y ϭ f ؅(x)
x Ϫ3 Ϫ2 Ϫ1 0 1 2 3
g؅(x)
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:28 PM Page 1142
b. What can you say about the derivative of a linear function?
3. Lastly, suppose y ϭ h(x) is a constant function. Try to predict what the
graph of its derivative, y ϭ h؅(x), will look like. Explain.
Graph of y ϭ g؅(x) Graph of y ϭ g(x)
1143
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1143
1144
MODELI NG OUR WORLD
The seven-wedges model is a proposed plan to keep the world from
doubling our current CO
2
emissions. In 2005, the world produced roughly
7 billion tons, or 7 gigatons of carbon (GtC) per year and is currently on a
path to double that to 14 GtCs per year by 2055. Each of the seven wedges
represents a cumulative savings of 25 GtCs (the area of each wedge). In this
project, we are going to assume a nonlinear model for carbon emissions and
determine the total amount of carbon emission reduction between the models.
1. Develop two quadratic models of the form C(t ) ؍ a(t ؊ h)
2
؉ k, where C
is the number of gigatons of carbon, t represents the year, t ؍ 0
corresponds to the year 2005, and the peak (vertex) of our carbon
emissions occurs in the year 2055.
a. Model A: Maximum carbon emissions in 2055 is 9 GtC.
b. Model B: Maximum carbon emissions in 2055 is 10 GtC.
2. Calculate the total amount of GtCs that are emitted over the 50-year period
from 2005 to 2055. (The area under the curve of C represents the total
amount of carbon emitted over the time period.)
a. Model A
b. Model B
3. What is the difference in total carbon emissions between Models A and B
over the 50-year period?
4. Research ways to reducing carbon emissions (e.g., driving a 60-mpg car
instead of a 30-mpg car) and suggest ways to meet the goals of the two
models.
Year
1975 2015 2055 2095 2135
T
o
n
s

o
f

C
a
r
b
o
n

E
m
i
t
t
e
d

/

Y
e
a
r
(
i
n

b
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
)
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
Wedges
Flat
Path
7 GtC/yr
14 GtC/yr
7 “Wedges”
Historical
Emissions
Currently
Projected
Path
1.9
Total =
25 Gigatons Carbon
50 years
1 GtC/yr
What is a “Wedge”?
A “solution” to the CO
2
problem should provide at least one wedge.
Cumulatively, a wedge redirects the flow of 25 GtCs in its first
50 years.
A “wedge” is a strategy to reduce carbon emissions that
grow in 50 years from 0 to 1.0 GtC/yr. The strategy
has already been commercialized at scale somewhere.
c11eLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:15 PM Page 1144
SECTION CONCEPT KEY IDEAS/FORMULAS
11.1 Introduction to limits:
Estimating limits numerically
and graphically
Definition of a limit
The limit of f(x) as x approaches a is L.
Estimating limits Inspection of graphs and tables allows us to estimate
numerically and limits. Be careful: Technology sometimes indicates
graphically incorrect behavior.
Note: even if or f (a) is not defined.
Limits that fail to exist ■ Piecewise-defined functions with jumps
■ Functions with oscillating behavior
■ Functions with unbounded behavior:
or
One-sided limits The left-hand limit of f (x) as x approaches a is L:
The right-hand limit of f (x) as x approaches a is L:
If the left-hand and right-hand limits both exist and are
equal, then the two-sided limit exists.
if and only if
and
11.2 Techniques for
finding limits
Limit laws Sum:
Difference:
Constant multiple:
Product:
Quotient:
Power: if exists
Root: if exists
Special limits:
lim
xSa
1
n
x = 1
n
a lim
xSa

x
n
= a
n
lim
xSa

x = a lim
xSa

c = c
lim
xSa
f (x) lim
xSa
1
n
f (x) = 1
n
lim
xSa

f (x)
lim
xSa
f (x) lim
xSa
[ f (x)]
n
= c
lim
xSa

f (x)
d
n
lim
xSa
c
f (x)
g(x)
d =
lim
xSa

f (x)
lim
xSa

g(x)
if lim
xSa
g(x) Z 0
lim
xSa
[ f (x)g(x)] = lim
xSa

f (x)
#
lim
xSa

g(x)
lim
xSa
[cf (x)] = c lim
xSa

f (x)
lim
xSa

[

f (x) - g(x)] = lim
xSa

f (x) - lim
xSa

g(x)
lim
xSa

[ f (x) + g(x)] = lim
xSa

f (x) + lim
xSa

g(x)
lim
xSa
+

f (x) = L lim
xSa
-

f (x) = L
lim
xSa
f (x) = L
lim
xSa
+

f (x) = L
lim
xSa
-

f (x) = L
lim
xSa
f (x) = -ϱ lim
xSa
f (x) = ϱ
f (a) Z L lim
xSa

f (x) can equal L
lim
xSa

f (x) = L
1145
CHAPTER 11 REVI EW
C
H
A
P
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E
R

R
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c11fLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:26 PM Page 1145
Finding limits using Use limit laws and special limits with
limit laws information from graphs.
Finding limits using If f (x) is continuous at x ϭ a, then .
direct substitution
Finding limits using ■ Simplifying and dividing out common factors
algebraic techniques ■ Rationalizing denominators or numerators
Finding limits using left-hand If then .
and right-hand limits
11.3 Tangent lines and
derivatives
Tangent lines The tangent line to the graph of f at the point (a, f (a))
is the line that
■ passes through the point (a, f (a)) and
■ has slope m:
The derivative of a function The derivative of a function f at x, denoted is
provided this limit exists.
Instantaneous rates The instantaneous rate of change of a function f
of change at a point is the limit of the average rate of change
as x approaches a.
11.4 Limits at infinity;
limits of sequences
Limits at infinity
The limit of f (x) as x approaches is L.
f (x) has a horizontal asymptote:
Special limit at infinity:
has a horizontal asymptote:
Limits of sequences Convergent sequence:
Divergent sequence: does not exist. lim
nSϱ

a
n
lim
nSϱ

a
n
= L
y = 0 for n 7 0.
f (x) =
1
x
n
lim
xSϱ

1
x
n
= 0
y = L.
ϱ
a
or lim
xS-ϱ

f (x) = L
b
lim
xSϱ

f (x) = L
lim
xSa

f (x) - f (a)
x - a
= f ¿(a)
x = a
f ¿(x) = lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f ¿(x),
m = lim
xSa

f (x) - f (a)
x - a
lim
xSa
f (x) = L lim
xSa
-
f (x) = lim
xSa
+
f (x) = L,
lim
xSa
f (x) = f (a)
SECTION CONCEPT KEY IDEAS/FORMULAS
C
H
A
P
T
E
R

R
E
V
I
E
W
1146
c11fLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:26 PM Page 1146
11.5 Finding the area Find the area of the region S that lies under the curve f (x)
under a curve and above the x-axis from to
Limits of summations Summation properties:
Summation formulas:
The area problem A = lim
nSϱ

a
n
k =1

f (x
k
)¢x
a
n
k =1
k
3
=
n
2
(n + 1)
2
4
a
n
k =1
k
2
=
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
a
n
k =1
k =
n(n + 1)
2
a
n
k =1
c = cn
a
n
k =1
(a
k
; b
k
) =
a
n
k =1
a
k
;
a
n
k =1
b
k
a
n
k =1
ca
k
= c
a
n
k =1
a
k
y
x
a
f (x)
S
b
x = b. x = a
SECTION CONCEPT KEY IDEAS/FORMULAS
r
}
height width
C
H
A
P
T
E
R

R
E
V
I
E
W
1147
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11.1 Introduction to Limits:
Estimating Limits Numerically
and Graphically
Complete a table of values to four decimal places and use
the result to estimate each limit.
1. 2.
Use the graph to estimate the limit, if it exists.
3.
4.
5.
6. where
f (x) =
e

x
2
- 1 x Z 0
1 x = 0
lim
xS0
f (x),
lim
xSp/2
csc x
lim
xS-1

ƒ x + 1ƒ
x + 1
lim
xS0

1
x
2
lim
xS16

1x - 4
x - 16
lim
xS3

x - 3
x
2
- 9
11.2 Techniques for Finding Limits
Find each limit, if it exists.
7. 8.
9. 10.
11. 12.
13. 14.
Find .
15. 16.
Evaluate the one-sided limits in order to find the limit,
if it exists.
17. where
18. where
19. where
20. where
11.3 Tangent Lines and Derivatives
Find the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at the
given point.
21. at the point (0, 3)
22. at the point (Ϫ1, Ϫ3)
23. at the point (Ϫ1, 1)
24. at the point (3, 2)
Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of f at the
given point.
25. at the point (2, 12)
26. at the point (1, 2) f (x) = -3x + 5
f (x) = 12
f (x) = 1x + 1
f (x) =
1
x
2
f (x) = -3x
2
f (x) = 6x + 3
f (x) =
e

cos x x 6 p
sec x x 7 p
lim
xSp

f (x),
f (x) = d
sin x x 6
p
4
cos x x 7
p
4
lim
xSp/4
f (x),
f (x) =
e

-x + 1 x 6 0
x
2
- 1 x 7 0
lim
xS0

f (x),
f (x) =
e

-x x 6 0
x
2
x 7 0
lim
xS0

f (x),
f (x) = -7x + 9 f (x) = x
2
- 2x + 3
lim
hS0

f (x ؉ h) ؊ f (x)
h
lim
xSp

tan x
sec x
lim
xS2p

1 - cos x
sin x
lim
xS9

1x - 3
x - 9
lim
xS-1

x
2
- 1
x + 1
lim
xS-2
2x
2
+ 5 lim
xS0

2x
2
- 3x + 5
-x
2
+ 10
lim
xS-1
x
5
lim
xS3
8
–5 –3 –1 2 1 3 4 5
x
y
2
3
4
5
1
6
7
8
9
10
–5 –3 –1 2 1 3 4 5
x
y
–5
–3
–2
–4
1
2
3
4
5
␲ ␲ 2␲
2
3␲
2
–4
–2
–3
–1
2
4
1
3
x
y
–5 –3 –1 2 1 3 4 5
x
y
–5
–3
–2
–4
1
2
3
4
5
1148
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E
X
E
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C
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E
S
CHAPTER 11 REVI EW EXERCI SES
c11fLimitsAPreviewtoCalculus.qxd 6/10/13 6:26 PM Page 1148
27. at the point (0, 2)
28. at the point
Find the derivative of the function at the specified value of x.
29. where
30. where
31. where
32. where
Find the derivative
33. 34.
35. 36.
11.4 Limits at Inﬁnity;
Limits of Sequences
Find each limit, if it exists.
37. 38.
39. 40.
41. 42.
Determine whether the sequence converges. If it does
converge, state the limit.
43. 44.
45. 46.
11.5 Finding the Area Under a Curve
Evaluate the summations.
47. 48.
Find the area under the curve on the specified interval.
49.
50.
51.
52. 1 … x … 2 f (x) = x
2
+ 3x + 1,
1 … x … 3 f (x) = 5x + 3x
2
,
0 … x … 6 f (x) = x
2
,
1 … x … 4 f (x) = 5 - x,
a
12
k =1
(5 + k
2
)
a
30
k =1
3k
2
a
n
= ( -1)
n
n! a
n
= sin (np)
a
n
=
(n + 1)!
(n - 1) ! n(n + 1)
a
n
=
3n - 4
n
lim
xSϱ

a
5x
x
2
- 8
b
lim
xSϱ

a
1
x
- 3x
b
lim
xSϱ
ln x lim
xS-ϱ
e
2x
lim
xSϱ

a
4x
2
- 2x
3x
2
+ 9
b
lim
xSϱ

a
-
3
x
b
f (x) = 1x - 1 f (x) = 3x
2
- 2x + 1
f (x) = 6x + 7 f (x) = e
f
œ
(x).
f (x) =
x
1 + x
f ¿(0),
f (x) = 1 - x
2
f ¿(5),
f (x) = -x
4
f ¿( -1),
f (x) = 2 - 5x
2
f ¿(2),
a
1
2
, 2
b
f (x) =
1
x
f (x) = 5x
2
+ 2 Technology Exercises
Section 11.1
Use a graphing utility to determine whether the limit exists.
Estimate the limit to three decimal places, if it exists.
53. 54.
Section 11.2
Use a graphing utility to estimate the limit, if it exists.
Confirm by finding the exact limit using the limit laws and
algebraic techniques.
55. where
56. where
Section 11.3
Use a graphing utility.
57. Graph and graph where
and Based on what you
see, what would you guess to be?
58. Graph and graph where
and Based on
what you see, what would you guess to be?
Section 11.4
Use a graphing utility to determine whether the sequence
converges. If it does converge, find the limit to four
decimal places.
59. 60.
Section 11.5
61. Use a graphing utility to approximate the area bounded
by the graph of the x-axis, and the vertical
lines and using 4, 100, and 500 rectangles.
Round to four decimal places.
62. Use a graphing utility to approximate the area bounded by
the graph of the x-axis, and the vertical lines
and using 4, 100, and 500 rectangles. Round
to four decimal places.
x =
p
3
x = 0
y = tan x,
x = 1 x = 0
y = 12x + 1,
a
n
= n cos
a
1
n
b
- 1 a
n
= n sin
15
n
f ¿(x)
h = ;0.001. h = ;0.01, h = ;0.1,
cos (x + h) - cos x
h
, f (x) = cos x
f ¿(x)
h = ;0.001. h = ;0.01, h = ;0.1,
ln (x + h) - ln x
h
, f (x) = ln x
f (x) =
e
2(x -1)
- 1
e
x -1
- 1
lim
xS1
f (x),
f (x) =
x - 3
212 - x - 3
lim
xS3
f (x),
lim
xS-2

x
3
+ 2x
2
- x - 2
x + 2
lim
xS1

tan
a
p
3
x
b
- 13
tan
a
p
4
x
b
- 1
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d
Review Exercises 1149
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Use the graph to estimate each limit, if it exists.
1.
2. where
In Exercises 3–12, find each limit, if it exists.
3. 4.
5. 6.
7. 8.
9. 10.
11. 12. lim
xSϱ

a
2x
x
2
- 1
b
lim
xSϱ

a
1
x
- x
b
lim
xSϱ

a
9x
2
+ x
3x
2
+ 7
b
lim
xSϱ

a
-
5
x - 1
b
lim
xSp

csc x
cot x
lim
xSp

1 - sin x
cos x
lim
xS-5

x
2
- 25
x + 5
lim
xS0

-x
2
+ 4x - 2
x
2
+ 10
lim
xS-1
(x + 1)
5
lim
xS5
6
f (x) = e
x
2
x Z 0
2 x = 0
lim
xS0

f (x),
lim
xS1

1
(x - 1)
2
13. Find for
14. Find where .
15. Find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of
at the point ( ).
16. Find where .
In Exercises 17 and 18, find the derivative
17.
18.
19. Determine whether the sequence given by
converges. If it does converge, state the limit.
20. Evaluate the summation
In Exercises 21 and 22, find the area under the curve on the
specified interval.
21.
22.
23. Use a graphing utility to determine whether the sequence
converges. If it does converge, find the
limit to four decimal places.
24. Use a graphing utility to approximate the area bounded by
the graph of the x-axis, and the vertical lines,
and , using 4 and 100 rectangles. Round each
to four decimal places.
x =
p
2
x = 0
y = cos x,
a
n
= n sin
13
n
-1 … x … 1 f (x) = -x
2
+ 1,
-2 … x … 2 f (x) = x
2
,
a
20
k=1
(2k + 5).
a
n
=
(2n - 1)!
(2n + 1)!
f (x) = -2x
2
- 3x + 7
f (x) = 17x + 5
f
œ
(x).
f (x) = -x
4
+ 2 f ¿(1),
1, -1 f (x) = -3x
2
+ 2
f (x) = e
-x + 2 x 6 0
x
2
+ 2 x 7 0
lim
xS0
f (x),
f (x) = -2 x
2
+ 3x - 7. lim
hS0

f (x + h) - f (x)
h
–5 –3 –1 2 1 3 4 5
x
y
2
3
4
5
1
6
7
8
9
10
–5 –3 –1 2 1 3 4 5
x
y
2
3
4
5
1
6
7
8
9
10
a
a
CHAPTER 11 PRACTI CE TEST
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13. Evaluate exactly cos .
14. Solve the triangle and ft.
15. Solve the system of linear equations: .
16. Find the determinant of .
17. For the matrices and , find AB
and BA.
18. Identify the center and graph the ellipse
19. Solve the system of nonlinear equations
20. Find , if it exists.
21. Find , if it exists.
22. Find the area bounded by the curves
and x = 3. x = 0,
y = 0, y = x
2
,
lim
xSϱ

5x
2
+ 2
10x
2
+ 1
lim
xS3

x
2
- 2x - 3
x - 3
(x - 1)
2
+ ( y + 1)
2
= 9
x + y = 3
9x
2
- 18x + 4y
2
+ 16y = 11
J
5 1
0 4
3 2
K
A =
c
2 3 1
0 1 2
d

3 0 1
2 -5 -1
1 2 7

4x + 3y - z = -4
-x + y - z = 0
3x + 2y + 5z = 25
c = 3. 2 b = 3.7 ft, ␣ = 103°,
c
tan
-1
a
-
13
3
bd
1. For the function find the difference
quotient .
2. Find the inverse of the function . State the
domain and range of both f and its inverse
3. Find the composite function where ,
and for and state its domain and range.
4. Find the vertex and graph the parabola given by
5. Write as a product of
linear factors.
6. State the vertical and horizontal asymptotes and graph the
rational function .
7. Solve
places.
9. How many years will it take your initial principal to double if
invested in an account earning 4% annually and compounded
continuously?
10. Evaluate exactly .
11. State the domain and range of the function
12. Solve -sin
2
x + cos x - 1 = 0.
f (x) = 2 sin (3x).
tan
a
7p
6
b
e
2x -1
= 15. 7
log
3
(2x + 7) - log
3
(x - 1) = 1.
f (x) =
3x
2
+ x - 2
x
2
- 4
P(x) = x
4
- x
3
+ 7x
2
- 9x - 18
f (x) = x
2
- 4x + 7.
x Ú 0 g(x) = x
2
+ 1
f (x) = 1x - 1 f (g(x)),
f
-1
.
f (x) =
2
5 + x
f (x + h) - f (x)
h
f (x) = -7x
2
+ 3x,
CHAPTERS 1–11 CUMULATI VE TEST
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