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UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION

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UNITED NATIONS
UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION
Vienna
: UNITED NAT,lONS
New York, 1985
Abstract
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The Popular Manual for Wooden House Construction- presents a construction
-
system aimed at helping low-income families solve their housing needs. The
system can be used in regions that have ample timber. The Manual is written
in simple language and has many sketches to facilitate its use.
The first part of the Manual discusses the:
Design of the house
Quantities of materials needed
Pre-fabrication and pre-cutting of components
Construction of the house
Finishing
Adaptations and modifications
The major part of the Manual is devoted to the actual construction of the
--
house :
Layout and putting up piles
Laying the floor frame and floorboards
Erecting the panels
Erecting the roof frame and putting on the roof
Windows and doors
Although the construction system was conceived and implemented in the
Amazon region of Brazil, information on wood species found in Africa and Asia
is also included, as are data on the required physical and mechanical charac-
teristics of the wood used in the various parts of the house. Thus, the
Manual can be of use in many regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
Preface
--e-m
The Popular Manual for Wooden House Construction was originally prepared
by the Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), S%o Paulo, Brazil, for a
self-help community building project at Coroados, Manaus, under a contract
with the Housing Society for the Amazon State (SHAM). (Phorographs 1 to 4
show the project at various stages, including a view of completed houses.)
An experimental group of 40 houses was built during the period
November 1981March 1982. The average cost was $US 49.70 to $US 59.50 per
square metre (as of March 1982) * depending on the area, which averaged
40 square metres, and the type of foundation used (stone or ceramic blocks and
a cement or wooden floor). All houses were equipped with bathrooms built with
concrete blocks. The cost included the materials delivered at the construc-
tion site and the labour for manufacture and assembly and for masonry, elec-
trical and pipe work. It did not include materials and labour for painting;
electrical) water and sewerage installations; nails and tools; and land acqui-
sition and infrastructure.
The purpose of this Hanual is to provide direct and simple assistance to
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people and communities that want to build their own houses either individually
or on a co-operative basis. Complicated design calculations have been omitted
and instructions are straightforward and easy to follow. The format used
enables interested parties to reproduce the Manual in their own language by
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translating the captions and inserting them in the appropriate places. The
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is willing to make
available good originals for this purpose to Governments, national bodies or
groups. The only requirements are that full acknowledgement and credit must
be given to UNIDO and to IPT for the original work and that UNIDO must receive
two complimentary copies of any such reproduction.
Photo 1. Partial view of the IPT/SHAM houses under construction
in Coroados, Manaus, Brazil
Photo 2. The houses being painted with PVA-based paint
Photo 3.
View of houses nearing completion.
In the foreground,
house with ceramic block
foundation and cement fioor
Photo 4.
View of finished houses, already occupied
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Table 1. Wood species that can be used in wooden house construction
Name and species Where found Common local names
AFRICA
1. Piles and beams
Afzelia -
Afzelia bipindensis
(also A. pachyloba,
A. africana and
A. quanzensis)
West, Middle and
East Africa
Lingue (Ivory Coast, Senegal);
Papao (Ghana); Apa, Aligna
(Nigeria); M’Banga, Doussie
(Cameroon); N’Kokongo, Doussie
(Angola, Congo); Bolengu
(Zaire) ; Pau Conta (Guinea-
Bissau); Mkora, Mbembakaft
(United Republic of Tanzania);
Chanfuta, Mussacossa
(Mozambique); Beyo, Meli, Azza
(Uganda)
Danta - Nesogordonia
papaverifera
East Africa, from
Sierra Leone to
Cameroon and
northern Gabon
Otutu (Nigeria); Kotibe <Ivory
Coast) ; 0~06 (Cameroon); Arbor-
bora (Gabon); Kondo findo
(Zaire) ; Naouya (Angola);
Abumana, Ajumaba, Epro (Ghana).
Ekki - Lophira alata West Africa Bongossi, Bakunda (Cameroon);
Azobe (West Africa); Kabu (Ghana);
Eba, Ekki, Aba (Nigeria); Esore
(Ivory Coast); Endwei (Sierra
Leone 1; Akoga (Gabon); Boukole
(Congo)
Opepe - Nauclea
diderrichii
From Sierra Leone
to the Congo and,
in the Yast to
Uganda
Jusia, Kusiaba (Ghana); Badi
(Ivory Coast); Bilinga, Akondoc
(Cameroon); N’Gou, Masa (Angola,
Congo, Zaire); Kilingi (Uganda);
Aloma (Equatorial Guinea, Gabon)
2. Floor frame and platform
Idigbo - Terminalia
ivorensis a/
From Guinea to
Cameroon
Black afara (Nigeria); Framire
(France, Ivory Coast); Emeri
(Ghana)
Guarea - Guarea cedrata Ghana, ivory Coast, Boss6 (France, Ivory Coast); Kwabo
G. Thompsonii southern Nigeria Koro (Ghana); Obobo (Nigeria),
Edoucid (Cameroon)
a/
Only for floors.
88
-1- .II. _
Name and species Where found Common local names
FSakor6 - Tieghemella
heckelii
From Sierra Leone to
Cameroon, Gabon and
southern Cabinda
3. Panels, roof frames and finishinrs
Baku (Ghana); Douka, Ukola
(Gabon); Flakore (Ivory Coast)
Abura - Mitragyna
ciliata b/
Agba -
Gossweilerodendron
balsamiferum
Limba - Terminalia
superba
Niangon - Tarrietia
utilis
1. Piles and beams
Kapur - Dryobalanops
West Africa, from
Sierra Leone tc the
Congo and Angola
West Africa, southern
Nigeria to the Congo
basin
West Africa, from
Sierra Leone to Angola
and Zaire
From Sierra Leone to
Ghana, Cameroon and
Gabon
ASIA
Borneo, Sumatra,
aromatica, D. lanceolata, Malaysia
D. beccarii
Kempas - Koompassia
malaccens is
Malaysia, Sumatra,
Borneo, Indonesia
Keruing - Dipterocarpus Indo-Malaysian region
SPP
Bahia (Ivory Coast); Subaha,
Baya (Ghana); M’Boy (Sierra
Leone); M’Boy (Liberia); Elolom
(Cameroon) ; Elelon (Gabon) , Vuku ,
M’Voukou (Zaire); Nzingu (Uganda,
Zambia)
Achi, Egba, Emongi, Ayinre
(Nigeria) ; Tola blanc (Congo);
Tola branca (Angola), N’Tola
(Zaire)
Ofram (Ghana) ; Akom (Cameroon);
Limbo, ChBne-Limbo, Frake, Noyer
du Hayombe, Korina (West Africa);
Afara (Nigeria); Limba (Angola,
(Zaire) ; N’ganga (Central African
Republic)
Niankom (Ghana); Ogoue (Cameroon)
De-Orh (Liberia); Yawe (Sierra
Leone 1
Keladan, Kapur (Malaysia);
Kapoer (Indonesia); Kapor
ISabah)
Impas (Sabah); Mengaris
(Sarawak)
Keruing (Indonesia, Malaysia,
Sabah, Sarawak); Gurjun (Burma,
India); Yang (Thailand), Apitong
(Philippines); Eng Or In (Burma);
(Langan, Keroeing (Indonesia); Dau
(Democratic Kampuchea, Viet Nam)
b/
A preservation treatment is advisable.
89
__-__---___ -__- ----- - -._- ---..--.----- ----_
Name and species
_ ------_
Where found Common local names
----.--1-------------------
Kerbau - Intsia Indo-Malaysian region,
palembanica, I. bijuga Indonesia, Philippines
Australia and western
Pacific Islands
2. Floor frame and platform_
Dark red meranti -
Shorea Spp
Peninsular Halasia, Saya (Thailand); Red seraya
Sabah and Sarawak, (Malaysia); Meranti, Merah
Indonesia and (Indonesia); White lauan,
Philippines Almon, Mayapis (Philippines)
Kohko - Albizzia lebbek South and South.-Eas t
Asia, Burma, India,
Indo-China,
Malaysia and
the Philippines
Siris, Siris tree, East Indian
walnut
Mengkulang - Heritiera India, from Malaysia
simplicifolia to Indonesia,
Philippines and other
Pacific islands
Kembang (Malaysia); Kanze
(Burma) ; Chuprak (Theilandi ;
Lumsayan, Lumbayau
(Philippines); Huyah
(Democratic Kampuchea)
Ramin - Gonystylus
bancanus b/
Malaysia, Indonesia
and Philippines
3. Panels,
---
roof frame and finishings
Geronggang - Cratoxylon South-East Asia,
arborescens h/ Malaysia, Indonesia,
Brunei
Krabak - Anisoptera Spp Burma, Indonesia,
Malaysia, New Guinea,
Philippines, Thailand
Light red meranti -
Shorea Spp
White seraya -
Parashorea plicata
Indonesia, Halaysia
and Philippines
Brunei Darussalam,
Malaysia and
Philippines
Tat--Talum (Burma); Lumpha.
Lumpho (Thailand); Kwila
(New Guinea); Vesi (Fiji
Islands) ; Ipil (Philippines);
Merbau (Malaysia)
Helawis (Malaysia); Garu-Buaja
(Indonesia); Janutan-Bagio
Serungan (Sabah, Sarawak,
Brunei Darussalam)
Mersawa (Brunei Darussalam,
Malaysia); Kanghmu Palosapis
(Philippines); Phdiek
(Democratic Kampuchea);
Ven-Ven (Viet Nam)
Light red seraya, red seraya
(Malaysia); Saya (Thailand);
Meranti merah (Indonesia); Whit
lauan , Almon , Mayapi s
(Philippines)
Bagtikan (Philippines); Urak Ma
(Malaysia)
90
Name and species Where found Common local names
LATIN AMERICA
1. Piles and beams
Balata - Manilkara
bidentata
Courbaril - Iiymenaea
courbaril
Manbarklak -
Eschweilera longipes
Tonka - Dipteryr
odorata
Wallaba - Eperua bijuga
West Indies, Central
America and northern
part of South America
South of Mexico,
Central America, West
Indies, Bolivia,
northern part of
Brazil and Peru
Amazon basin, Costa
Rica, Guyanas and
Trinidad
Brazilian Amazon
Region, Colombia,
Guyanas and Venezuela
Brazilian Amazon
region, Guyanas and
Venezuela
2. Floor frame and platform
Angelin - Andira inermis From south of Mexico
through Central
America and northern
part of South America
(Brazil and Peru).
Also occurs in Guyana
and Trinidad
Gronfoloe - Qualea
albif lora
Tropical America, from
south of Mexico to
Peru. Abundant in
Brazil and Guyanas
Chicozapote (Mexico); Ausubo
(Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic);
Nispero (Panama); Beefwood
(Guyana) ; Bolletri (Suriname);
Balate rouge (French Guyana);
Maqaranduba (Brazil)
Cuapinol, Guapinol (Mexico);
Guapinol (Central America);
Locust, Kawanari (Guyana);
Rode lokus (Suriname);
Algarrobol (Spanish-speaking
Latin America); Jutai, Jatobi,
Jatai (Brazil 1
Oxito, Olleto (Panama); Coca de
mono, Moutangero (Venezuela!;
Coca cristal, Tete congo
(Colombia); Haudan, Kakeralli
(Guyana)
Almendro (Costa Rica, Panama);
Serrapia (Colombia, Venezuela);
Cumaru (Brazil); Charapilla,
Cumarut (Peru)
Palo machete (Venezuela);
Wallaba, Bijlhout (Suriname);
Wapa (French Guyana); Apb,
Apazeiro , JQbaro (Brazil 1
Hoca (Cuba, Puerto Rico);
Cuilimbuco, Plaquilla (Mexico);
Barbosquillo, Arenillo
(Panama) ; Rodes kabbes
(Suriname); Acapurana (Brazil)
Florencillo (Venezuela); Kouali,
Gringnongou (French Guyana);
Gronfoloe (Suriname); Quaruba,
Mandioqueira (Brazil)
Name and species Where found Common local names
Kopie - Goupia glabra
Mahoe - Hibscus elatus
Manni - Symphonia
globulifera
Nargusta - Terminailia
amazon i a
Amazon, Colombia and
Guyana
Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica,
Mexico, Peru and West
Indies
West Indies, Central
America and northern
part of South America
From south of Mexico
to Central America
and northern part of
South America. Also
occurs in Guyana and
?dest Indies
3. Panels. rc>,jf fsse and finishing
Determa - Ocotaa rubra Brazil’s lower -Amazon
region, Guyana and
Trinidad
Crabwood - Carapa
guianensis
West Indies, from Cuba
to Trinidad, from
south Honduras,
through Central
America to Guyanas
and Brazil, Colombia
and Peru and high
countries of the
Orinoco in Venezuela
Santa Maria - West Indies and from
Calophyllum brasiliense south of Mexico,
Saino, Sapino (Colombia);
Kopi (Suriname); Kabukalli
(Guyana) ; Groupie (French
Guyana 1; Cupiriba (Brazil)
Emajagua excelsa (Puerto
Rico) ; Ma j agua , Ma j agua
azul (Cuba) ; Mountain mahoe
(Jamaica)
Barillo (Guatemala, Honduras);
Cerillo (Costa Rica, Panama);
Machare (Colombia); Mani,
Paramin (Venezuela); Matalci
(Suriname) ; Manni (Guyana) ;
Breacaspi (Peru); Anani (Brazil)
Almendro (Honduras); Canshan
(Mexico) ; Amarillo carabazuelo
t Panama) ; Guayabo lean (Colombia)
Pardillo negro (Venezuela); Pau,
Mulato brancc (Brazil)
Louro vermelho (Brazil); Determa
(Guyana) ; Wana, Wane (Suriname) ;
Grignon rouge (French Guyana)
Cedro-macho (Venezuela); Kapra
(Suriname); Figueiro, Tangare
(Ecuador); Andiroba (Brazil,
Peru)
Bari, Leche de Maria (Mexico);
Calaba (Panama); Aceite Maria
through Central America (Colombia); Edaballi kurahara.
to northern part of (Guyana) ; Balsa Maria (Bolivia);
South America Guanandi , Jacareuba (Brazil)
Roble - Tabebuia rosea, West Indies, south of Roble (Spanish-speaking Latin
T. heterophylla Mexico to Ecuador America); Amapa, Roble blanco
and Venezuela (Mexico) ; Roble blanco, Roble de
sabana (Costa Rica); Roble do1
rio (Colombia); Apamate
(Venezuela)
.
,
Table 2. Characteristics of woods from Acariguara
(Minquartia guianensis) and Jacareuba (Calophyllum brasiliense)
Properties Acariquara Jacareuba
-
Specific mass (density)
at 12% humidity
Volumetric shrinkage,
green-dry
Static bending strength
at 12% humidity
- Rupture modulus (MOR)
- Elastic modulus (MOE)
Compression strength along
the grain at 12% humidity,
maximum strength
Natural durability for fungus
and termite attack
Preservability
912 kg/m2
14%
135 MPa
16,840 MPa
69 MPa
Very durable
Not treatable
624 kg/m2
12.3%
I-
101 MPa
12,630 MPa
48 MPa
Moderately durable
Sapwood treatable;
heartwood not
treatable
Easiness of mechanical
fixing
Other observations
Regular
Difficult to work
Good
Tendency to split
and to warp
Source : Tropical Woods, No. 94 (1954) and No. 103 (1955).
Note : You can compare the characteristics of these types of wood with
those of wood found in your area.
Table 3. Requisites for each type of use
Beams
than
High to very high mechanical properties:
Bending strengh
Rupture modulus 121 MPa
Elastic modulus 15,000 MPa
Parallel compression
maximum strength 56 MPa
Durability: high, resistant to more
12 years in contact with ground
Floor frame
Preservability: easy; permeable
Mechanical fixation: easy
Medium to high specific mass
500 kg/m3
Medium to very high mechanical
properties:
Bending strength
Rupture modulus 86 MPa
Elastic modulus 12,000 FlPa
Parallel compression
maximum strength 56 MPa
Durability: high, resistant to more than
12 years in contact with ground
Joists, windows and doors,
joists’ header boards,
inter-panel finishing boards,
inter-panel studs, facias,
purlins, beams, rafters
and posts
Preservability: easy/permeable
Mechanical fixation: easy
Medium to low specific mass
700 kg/m3
Volumetric shrinkage (percentage of the
dimension of green wood): 13.5 x
Medium mechanical properties
Bending strength
Rupture modulus 86 MPa
Elastic modulus 12,000 MPa
Use
Requisites
Piles High specific mass 700 kg/m3
-
Use Requisites
Durability: high, resistant to more
than
12 years in contact with ground
Preservability: easy/permeable
Mechanical fixation: easy
Workability: moderate to very easy
Source : Grupamento de Madeira da Amazbnia por similaridade de
caracteristicas e usos (Sudam, Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas, 1981).
Printed in Austria
V.84-94020-March 1985-3.500 I D/330