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kosár|o Cação

Car|os Lucas de Ire|tas
Modeling Critical Factors of
Quality in e-Learning
A Structural Equations Model Test
ICALT 2012 –Rome, 4-6 July
1. lnLroducuon
2. CuallLy ln e-learnlng as a mulu-dlmenslonal concepL
3. A Lhree-facLor model of quallLy ln e-learnlng
4. Lmplrlcal research
• Þurpose sLaLemenL
• 1he paruclpanLs
• 1he lnsLrumenL
• 1he measuremenL model
• 1he sLrucLural model: regresslon welghLs and paLh esumaLes
• Model ñL
3. Concluslons and fuLure work
Agenda
- CuallLy ls one of Lhe keys Lo buslness success and compeuuve
advanLage.
1. Introducnon
We have tested, and confirmed, an existing model that
represents the perception of quality in e-learning
- 1here ls no unlque or wldely accepLed undersLandlng of
whaL quallLy ls, and how Lo measure lL and Lhere ls a lack of
consensus abouL whaL quallLy ln e-learnlng ls.
2. Çua||ty |n e-|earn|ng as a mu|n-d|mens|ona| concept
3. A three-factor mode| of qua||ty |n e-|earn|ng
Cação, 8., & llguelredo, A. u. d. (2010). luLure uullLy as a key dlmenslon ln e-learnlng quallLy. !"#$%"&'("&) +(,%"&) (-
!"-(%.&'(" &"/ 01$%&'("2 3&"&4$.$"# 5/,6&'("7 8(4), 322-336.
3. A three-factor mode| of qua||ty |n e-|earn|ng
• lL ls conslsLenL wlLh !uran's (1931) vlew of quallLy as !"#$%% '() *%$
Why have we used th|s mode|?
• It provides a long-term approach to the concept of quality, as it
includes, not only effective uses or outcomes, but also expected uses
• It places the trainees at the center of the concept of quality and
emphasizes their role in the construction of knowledge and quality
• It is based on the opinion of real customers, not on the opinion of
experts, potential customers, or even on the researchers' opinion
• The final structure of the dimensions of quality was grounded on
statistical evidence and on data reduction techniques
Þurpose sLaLemenL
4. Lmp|r|ca| research
To develop a measurement model and test a structural model
made up of three constructs that affect the trainees'
perception of quality in e-learning: training process, training
attitudes, and training utility
We have used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the
model with a new sample of data.
4. Lmp|r|ca| research
2741 answers
64% were women
The participants
Customers of a Portuguese provider of
asynchronous e-learning for professional
training, with ten years of experience in the
consumer e-learning market and an
accumulated count of over 60.000 clients
from 29 countries.
The company offers around 200 short-term
courses ranging in length between 1 and 9
weeks.
1he lnsLrumenL
4. Lmp|r|ca| research
• Global satisfaction
• Fulfillment of expectations
• Initial motivation
• Final motivation
• Fulfillment of training objectives
• The platform and its functions
• Training contents
• The trainer’s expertise
• The contribution of the forum for the learning process
• The dynamics and help of the trainer in the forum
• Competence, kindness, and promptness of the staff
• Immediate professional utility
• Future professional utility
• Global quality perception
A 1 to 10 scale, online survey, at the end of the courses, where 10 is the
highest value.
1he measuremenL model
4. Lmp|r|ca| research
1he measuremenL model lncluded Lhree consLrucLs represenung
laLenL varlables:
• +),-#-#. /)(0$%% lncluded bellefs Lhe Lralnees have Loward Lhe day-Lo
-day of Lhe course
• +),-#-#. ,1"*2$% represenLed reacuons and bellefs Lhe Lralnees have
Lowards Lhe Lralnlng course
• +),-#-#. *34-"5 was Lhe exLenL Lo whlch Lhe Lralnees feel LhaL Lhe
course wlll have lmpacL on Lhelr personal and professlonal llfe,
conslderlng boLh Lhe shorL and Lhe long Lerm
1he measuremenL model
4. Lmp|r|ca| research
We have deñned a recurslve model wlLh Lhe followlng hypoLheslzed
sLrucLural relauonshlps:
P
1
: 9%&:":"4 1%(6$22 ls posluvely relaLed Lo Lhe percepuon of ;,&):#< :" $=
)$&%":"4
P
2
: 9%&:":"4 &>#,/$2 are posluvely relaLed Lo Lhe percepuon of ;,&):#< :" $=
)$&%":"4
?
8
@ 9%&:":"4 ,'):#< ls posluvely relaLed Lo Lhe percepuon of ;,&):#< :" $=
)$&%":"4
We have followed a Lwo-sLep SLM process, l.e., we have LesLed ñrsL Lhe ñL and Lhe
consLrucL valldlLy of Lhe measuremenL model (Palr $# &), 1992, pp. 717-718).
1he esumauon Lechnlque used was Lhe 26&)$=-%$$ )$&2# 2;,&%$2 $2'.&#$2 because
Lhe measures revealed severe non-normallLy.
1he sLrucLural model
4. Lmp|r|ca| research
Variable Training
Process
Training
Attitude
Training
Utilities
X
6
0.786
X
7
0.903
X
8
0.853
X
9
0.725
X
10
0.844
X
11
0.832
X
1
0.928
X
2
0.902
X
3
0.584
X
4
0.863
X
5
0.899
X
12
0.904
X
13
0.917
Standardized regression weights
Hypo
-
thesis
Causal Path Standardized
Path
Coefficient
H
1
Training process ! perception of
quality in e-learning
0.42
H
2
Training attitudes ! perception
of quality in e-learning
0.33
H
3
Training utility ! perception of
quality in e-learning
0.22
Standardized paths of the
hypothesized model
4. Lmp|r|ca| research
Model ñL
4. Lmp|r|ca| research
CIA
mode|
Structura|
mode|
Chl-square (!
2
)
Chl-square 29.941 30.716
uegrees of freedom 62 72
AbsoluLe ñL measures
Coodness-of-ñL lndex (Cll) 0.996 0.996
8ooL mean square resldual (8M8) 0.121 0.114
lncremenLal ñL lndlces
normed ñL lndex (nll) 0.993 0.996
8elauve ñL lndex (8ll) 0.994 0.993
Þarslmony ñL lndlces
Þarslmony normed ñL lndex (Þnll) 0.791 0.788
Ad[usLed goodness-of-ñL lndex (ACll) 0.994 0.993
- Cur research enabled us Lo conñrm a model of quallLy
ln e-learnlng composed by Lhree facLors.
- Accordlng Lo Lhls model, Lhe percepuons of quallLy ln
e-learnlng can be explalned, wlLh comforLable
goodness-of-ñL, by Lhree facLors: Lhe #%&:":"4 1%(6$22,
Lhe #%&:":"4 &>#,/$2, and Lhe #%&:":"4 ,'):'$2.
S. Conc|us|ons and future work
1he model provldes e-learnlng companles wlLh a concepLual
framework Lo beuer undersLand whaL quallLy ls.
- lL makes clear LhaL lmprovlng quallLy lmplles worklng on Lwo
dlsuncL and addluonal areas, besldes Lhe #%&:":"4 1%(6$22,
- lL emphaslzes Lhe valuauon of Lhe Lralnlng ouLcomes, as well as
Lhe role of Lhe Lralnees' amLudes ln Lhe consLrucuon of Lhe
percelved quallLy.
S. Conc|us|ons and future work
1he model can also be used Lo classlfy and organlze Lhe
muluple dlmenslons of quallLy proposed ln Lhe llLeraLure and
Lo deLermlne speclñc courses of acuon lnLended Lo lmprove
quallLy percepuons ln a speclñc facLor of quallLy.
kosár|o Cação
mracQde|.uc.pt
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