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Wiping Over The Khuff (Leather Sock), The Jawrab (Sock) and the Na'l (Sandal) Upon The Fiqh of The Imaams of Sunnah

Prepared by Raashid Satbaal al-Hindee

Part I: The Chapter On Wiping Over The Khuffs
(Kitaab at-Tahaarah/Tape 6)

From Buloogh al-Maraam Min Adillati al-Ahkaam of al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr al-'Asqalaani With Selections From the Explanation of Shaikh 'Atiyyah Muhammad Saalim

‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬

58. From al-Mugheerah bin Shu'bah, may Allaah be pleased with him, who said: ((I was with the Prophet  and he performed ablution, so I wanted to remove his khuffs (leather socks) for him, but he said: ((Leave them, for I entered them (his feet into the khuffs) pure)), and he wiped upon them.)) Agreed Upon. 58
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Saheeh. Narrated by al-Bukhaaree (206), and Muslim (274, 79). EXPLANATION: No one has disagreed in regards to wiping over the khuffs except those who opposed Ahl as-Sunnah, for the reports regarding it reach the degree of Tawaatur, coming from approximately eighty of the Sahaabah, as was stated by alBayhaqee and other than him. For this reason, al-Khurkhee said, "I fear Kufr (disbelief) for the one who opposed wiping upon the khuffs." The Aayah in Soorah al-Maa'idah, O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles...[al-Maaidah: 6], was revealed during the Battle of Muraisiyyah. So when Jareer bin 'Abdullaah narrated the Hadeeth of wiping over the khuffs, he was asked: 'Did you see the Prophet  do this after the Aayah being revealed?' So he replied, 'Did I even pronounce my Shahaadah, except after the Aayah of Maa'idah !' It was revealed in the fourth year, for that is when the Battle of Muraisiyyah occurred. And it was reported that 'Alee  said, 'The Book preceded Wiping.' And that which has preceded does not abrogate that which follows it. o The Aayah has been recited with the word Arjulukum (your feet), Majroor (Arjulikum) as well as Mansoob (Arjulakum – and this is the recitation of Hafs bin 'Aasim). o Abu Haneefah's opinion was that it is obligatory to wipe upon the khuffs in the presence of those who oppose this Sunnah. o The opposition towards the wiping upon the khuffs was known as one of the signs of the people of innovation, to the point that some of the Salaf would free themselves from the people of innovation by confirming that they would wipe over the khuffs. 1

59. And for the Four (Abu Dawood, at-Tirmidhee, an-Nasaa'ee and Ibn Maajah) with the exception of an-Nasaa'ee: ((The Prophet  wiped over the khuff and it's underside.)) There is weakness in it's chain of narrators. 59 60. From 'Alee  who said: ((If the religion was (based upon) one's opinion, then the underside of the khuff would be more befitting of being wiped on than the top of it. And I saw the Messenger of Allaah  wipe over the outside (top) of his khuff.)) Related by Abu Dawood with a Hasan chain of narrators. 60
o It is not permissible to wipe upon the khuffs except after having completed Tahaarah. Therefore one does not wear one of the khuffs while washing the other one, for in this case he would have worn that khuff before having completed his ablution.
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Dha'eef. Narrated by Abu Dawood (165), at-Tirmidhee (97), Ibn Maajah (550), and it has a variety of hidden defects, and has been declared weak by a large group from the Imaams (of hadeeth). 60 Saheeh. Reported by Abu Dawood (162) EXPLANATION: The end portion of this hadeeth alone is considered Marfoo' (literally: "Raised", and it comprises all of: a statement of the Prophet , a narration from a Sahabee describing an action of his , a description of the Prophet , and something which occurred in the Prophet's presence which he  approved of). The scholars hold the view that the opinion which is sound and correct does not contradict the religion, just as there is no contradiction between the intellect and the religion. The intellect may fail to comprehend the religion in some matters, but it does not contradict it (so as to openly oppose it and say this is wrong, rather the intellect which is healthy accepts the legislation even when it cannot comprehend the wisdom in it). So were you to find that which appears to be differentiation between two equal things, then know that there is a difference, as in the urine of a boy and a girl (the urine of a boy is not necessary to wash and it suffices to sprinkle water over it), as the the bacteria which is particular to the urine of a girl has been established by science, as we discussed previously. So, it is possible for the intellect to comprehend the wisdom and congruity in wiping over the top of the khuff, for the Prophet  commanded us to perform the prayer while wearing sandals, and to make sure that there is no najaasah (impurity) upon them before praying. And were there any najaasah to be found, then to purify it with dust (therefore the bottom of the khuff is pure by default and is not in need of being wiped except for the removal of any najaasah). And likewise, the command for the women to wear their garments and to not worry about the dragging of the garment if it catches najaasah, for it is then purified by dust which is pure. o The Shaafi'iyyah and Maalikiyyah say that wiping over the top is permissible, but wiping over the top as well as the bottom is preferred, if the khuff is worn within sandals. 2

61. From Safwaan bin 'Assaal  who said: ((The Messenger of Allaah  would order us to not remove our khuffs were we to be travelling for three days and nights, except in the case of Janaabah, but (not excepting) excrement, urine or sleep.)) Reported by an-Nasaa'ee and at-Tirmidhee, and the wording is his, and Ibn Khuzaymah and he declared it Saheeh. 61 62. From 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib  who said: ((The Prophet  set three days and nights for the traveller, and a day and a night for the resident.)) Meaning, regarding wiping over the khuffs. Reported by Muslim. 62
o The (scholars) are all agreed upon the prayer being permissible after wiping over the top of the khuff, and that it is not permissible after wiping over the bottom alone. Hasan. Reported by an-Nasaa'ee (1/83-84), and at-Tirmidhee (96), and Ibn Khuzaymah (196), and at-Tirmidhee said, "Hasan Saheeh". EXPLANATION: This hadeeth is the source of the ruling upon sleep as being one of the nullifiers of Wudhoo'. However the scholars don't consider sleep in it's essence to be a nullifier of Wudhoo'. Rather it is presumable for one to nullify one's Wudhoo' when he sleeps, for he is not aware of what he does. And it has been narrated, ((Rather Wudhoo' is upon the one who slept laying down.)) [Dha'eef, See Abu Dawood (202)] As for the one sitting, then it is not possible for him to break wind (without knowing), so sleep is the presumable state of being in which there may occur a hadath (that which nullifies one's ablution), and not a hadath in itself. Saheeh. Narrated by Muslim (276), from Shuraih bin Haanee, who said, "I came to 'Aaishah and asked her about the wiping over the khuffs. She said, 'It is upon you to ask 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib, for he used to travel with the Messenger of Allaah . So we asked him, and he said… then he mentioned it (the hadeeth). without the statement, "Meaning, regarding wiping over the khuffs". For this sentence is from al-Haafidh. EXPLANATION: There are those who narrate from Maalik, that he made wiping upon the khuffs to be without any time limit, and he has a source for that opinion, which is the Sahaabee who asked the Prophet  if he could wipe over the khuffs after three days, to which he replied, ((Yes. And (as many days) as you wish.)) (This hadeeth will come later in this chapter). Stated Shaikh al-Ameen (the teacher of Shaikh 'Atiyyah Saalim, the Imaam Muhammad al-Ameen ash-Shanqeetee), in Adhwaa' al-Bayaan, regarding the tafseer of the Aayah of Wudhoo' in Soorah al-Maa'idah, "It is not possible to find a common ground between these texts. And it is found in al-Mughnee, 'Were one to remove his khuffs, perform ablution, and then wear them again, then he is able to do that.'" So he said in reply, "This combining between the texts is not sound, as the text necessitates a change in the time allowed to wear the khuffs, unless it's meaning is 3
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63. From Thawbaan  who said: ((The Messenger of Allaah  sent a Sariyyah, and commanded them to wipe on their 'Asaaib [head coverings] and their tasakheen [that which warms, referring to their khuffs].)) Narrated by Ahmad, and Abu Dawood, and it was authenticated by al-Haakim. 63

changed to something else." The scholars say, if two texts differ, then either the history is known, so the latter abrogates what came before it. Or it is not known, and it is possible to find a common ground between them. And if there is no common ground between them, then we have to seek tarjeeh (looking for the more correct of the two). So Shaikh al-Ameen explained that the more correct text is that which sets a limit for the number of days one can wipe on the khuffs, and that is more suitable for taking as worship, as the chains of narrators of those texts are more in number and stronger. Saheeh. Narrated by Ahmad (577), and Abu Dawood (146), and al-Haakim (169), and the hadeeth has defects which do not degrade it. EXPLANATION: A Sariyyah: is any group which is sent in battle in which the Messenger of Allaah  was not himself present, and were he to be present then it would be called a Ghazw. This particular Sariyyah complained of the cold to the Messenger of Allaah , though that is not taken as a condition for wiping over the khuffs. al-Isaabah (the singular of 'Asaaib) is a term for anything used to cover the head, and from that is the turban. So it comprises all that which is used to cover the head. From this hadeeth, the scholars expanded that which can be worn upon the feet (and wiped upon), so there is the khuff, the Mooq, the Jarmooq, and there is the Jawrab (sock), and the Na'l (sandal). And there is no hadeeth which mentions the sandal, except along with socks being worn with them, for the sandal does not cover the foot. It is a condition that the khuff which is being wiped upon covers the area which is washed when performing the ablution (up to the ankles). And the sandal does not cover the foot. Some said that the khuff must be of leather, since it is a concession, and the concession is not to be substituted by another. So then there came this hadeeth (in clarification). So if one was to wear a Mooq, or a Jarmooq, and they are bigger than the khuff, there is no problem in wiping over them. Then there is the issue of the Jawrab (sock). ash-Shaafi'ee said that the Jawrab is not to be wiped upon unless it is thick, and like a sandal, meaning it has a leather like bottom to it, and resembles a khuff in it's being possible to walk while wearing it. And they are agreed upon all (the types of footwear) that permit walking while wearing them, that it is permissible to wipe over them. According to the Ahnaaf (plural of Hanafee), then every Jawrab which is worn is wiped over, while others said, 'No, the origin in that is the khuff.' So that which takes the characteristics of a khuff, even it be a Jawrab of other than leather, or even of cotton. And an-Nawawee went to the point of saying, "It is not necessary for the khuff to cover the body (the foot) from vision." Meaning, were that which were inside to be visible despite the fabric, then that is not a problem, as long as it's thickness prevents water from reaching through the fabric. Since if it were to be thin 4
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64. From 'Umar – Mawqoof (not attributed to the Prophet ) – and Anas – Marfoo' (attributed to the Prophet ): ((If one of you were to perform ablution, and wear his khuffs, then let him pray in them, and not remove them if he wished except for Janaabah.)) Narrated by ad-Daaraqutnee, and al-Haakim, and he authenticated it. 64 65. From Abee Bakrah (or Bakarah)  from the Prophet  : ((Three days and nights are conceded for the traveler; and for the resident, a day and a night: If he were to purify himself, then wear his khuffs, that he wipe over them.)) Narrated by ad-Daaraqutnee, and authenticated by Ibn Khuzaymah. 65

and flimsy, it will allow water to reach the foot, and then your wiping over it would be as if you were wiping your foot, and it is legislated for the foot to be washed (not wiped). So here it is said, any type of footwear that covers up to the ankles, which is the legislated limit for washing the foot, and is strong and thick, then it is permissible to wipe over it, whatever type it may be. And if it were possible for it to be, as an example, of glass or paper (the Shaikh gave both of these examples separately in the explanation), and it is strong, then there is no problem and it is permissible to wipe over it. As for the socks which are worn in the summertime, which have very thin pores, to the point that they don't inhibit water from reaching the foot, then these should not be relied upon, and should not be wiped upon. And Allaah knows best.
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See ad-Daaraqutnee (103, 204, and al-Haakim (181). EXPLANATION: There are those who spoke in criticism of al-Haakim's authentication of this hadeeth from Anas, and it has also been said that 'Umar returned from this view and adopted the time limit and spoke with it. In any case, there came many narrations specifying the time limit which are sounder in their chain of narrators as has preceded. So this narration is from the evidence used by Maalik and those other than him who have the opinion of there not being a time limit. And that which is foremost is leaving what causes doubt, and also that which causes differing (for the Muslims in this case may differ with the Imaam if he has extended the time limit etc.) and take that which there is no doubt in it or any cause for differing.
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Hasan. Narrated by ad-Daaraqutnee (194), and Ibn Khuzaymah (192), and even though it's chain is weak, but it has supporting witnesses, due to which al-Bukhaaree considered it Hasan, as at-Tirmidhee narrated from him in al-'Ilal. EXPLANATION: The name of the Sahabee Abu Bakrah or Bakarah, is written in both ways, and they differed about which one was his name. Bakrah is a she-camel in it's early youth, while Bakarah is a tool used to draw water. It is said that he descended from his hometown of Taaif to the Prophet  on a Bakrah. And Allaah knows best.

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66. From Ubay bin 'Imaarah  who said: (('O Messenger of Allaah, do I wipe over my khuffs? He said: "Yes". He (Ubay) said, 'For a day?' He said, "Yes." He (Ubay) said, And two days?' He said, "Yes." He (Ubay) said, And three days?' He said, "Yes, and that which you wish.")) Narrated by Abu Dawood, and he said: "Not strong." 66

Dha'eef. Narrated by Abu Dawood (158). EXPLANATION: This is the source of Maalik's opinion in regards to the time limit, and it is "not strong" as Abu Dawood said, and he is a Naaqid (one able to criticize the chains of narration). And it is said that the origin of this hadeeth is the narration, ((The Sa'eed (dust) is a purification for the Muslim, even if he were to not find water for ten years.)) The scholars said that the narration's (number 66) significance is it being a confirmation of the concession (that wiping over the socks is something correct and allowed). So, in summary, the narrations which confirm the time limit are: 1. Sounder in regards to their chains of narrators. 2. More widely supported. 3. Better fulfilling of the Muslims' covenant (by leaving that which is doubtful). 4. Better of a safeguard of (the validity of) one's prayer. 5. Give one a clear conscience. And in any case, it is not possible to take the statement "And that which you wish" literally without any restriction, to the point where one does not remove his khuffs even when he is Junub (upon Janaabah). o Having holes in one's khuffs: The majority opinion is that wiping upon such khuffs is permissible. According to Abu Haneefah, if the holes in the khuff altogether cover as much as a quarter of the khuff then it is not correct to wipe over it. And the majority consider it permissible without specifying any limit. Shaikh al-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah said, "Were the khuffs of the Sahaabah all new without any holes in them? And were not according to their individual conditions (as it is known many of the Sahaabah did not possess abundant wealth)?" So the reality of their lives indicates to us that they must have been those from them who had holes in their khuffs, and so it is permissible to wipe over them. o When does the time limit for wiping over the khuffs begin? From the point that you wear them while being pure, or from having a hadath after the Wudhoo' (which was made before wearing them), or from when you wipe over them after having the hadath? The popular opinion: From the first time you wipe over them after a hadath, for the command is to wipe over the khuffs for a day and a night. And there are those who say it is from when they are first worn. o When does the time limit end? The majority say that it is not permissible to pray after the day and night are over (after 24 hours from first wiping over the khuffs), even if one did not have a hadath (and is upon Wudhoo' from the last time he wiped over the khuffs), for the wiping is a concession. 6

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Part II: The Permissibility of Wiping Over The Socks And The Sandals
From al-Mugheerah bin Shu'bah, who said: ((The Prophet  wiped over the socks and the sandals.)) 67 Narrated by Abu Dawood, at-Tirmidhee and Ibn Maajah.
And it is upon one to renew his Wudhoo' if he were to remove the khuffs after wiping over them. For wiping requires that the feet constantly be upon purity (by being covered). 67 Saheeh. See Irwaa' al-Ghaleel (101), Abu Dawood (159), at-Tirmidhee (99) and Ibn Maajah (559) In al-Mughnee: "Ahmad stated, 'The wiping upon the Jawrabain is mentioned by seven or eight from the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah . And Ibn alMundhir stated, 'And the permissibility of wiping on the Jawrabain has been narrated upon the authority of nine from the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah , 'Alee, 'Ammaar, Ibn Mas'ood, Anas, Ibn 'Umar, al-Baraa', Bilaal, Ibn Abee Awfaa and Sahl bin Sa'd , and that is what 'Athaa', al-Hasan, Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyib, an-Nakha'ee, Sa'eed bin Jubair, al-A'mash, ath-Thawree, al-Hasan bin Saaleh, Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ishaaq, and Ya'qoob and Muhammad upheld. As for Abu Haneefah, Maalik, alAwzaa'ee, Mujaahid, 'Amr bin Deenaar, al-Hasan bin Muslim and ash-Shaafi'ee: 'It is not permissible to wipe over them (the socks), except if they are worn with sandals, since it is not possible to walk while wearing them, so it is not permissible to wipe over them, just as the raqeeqayn (thin socks). However it suffices us: that which was narrated by al-Mugheerah bin Shu'bah, ((The Prophet  wiped over the socks and the sandals.)) at-Tirmidhee said, 'The hadeeth is Hasan Saheeh'. … Stated alQaadhee ('Ayaadh), 'The sock and the sandal are to be wiped over as came in the hadeeth, and that which is apparent is that the Prophet  wiped over the strap(s) of the sandal which were on the top of the foot…'" o Stated the Muhaddith, al-'Allaamah Muhammad Naasir ad-Deen al-Albaani: "[Chapter] Wiping Over the Jawrabain (socks). It is established on him  that he wiped over the Jawrabain, and it is an authentic hadeeth and whoever declared it to be defective has no proof with him... And the Jawrabain take the place of the khuffs as was stated by Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyib and other than him, as is in al-Muhalla (2/86), so they take their ruling. And it is not a condition that they have leather soles, or that they be strong and durable in themselves. And because of that Ahmad stipulated the permissibility of wiping upon the Jawrabain even if they were not in themselves strong and durable. Rather, if they were worn with sandals (so as to be strong and durable while being worn with the sandals), then it is permissible to wipe over them, as narrated by Shaikh al-Islaam in al-Fataawa (1/262) and upon that it is permissible to wipe over the thin socks if they were strengthened with rubber straps as are worn these days. And Ibn Hazm (2/81) considered it permissible even if it were made of silk, especially for women. 7

And it is also established that he  would wipe over the sandals. Abu Dawood narrated the hadeeth from al-Mugheerah, and it was reported by Ahmad (4/9,10) from the hadeeth of Awn ibn Abee Aws, and so by Tabaraanee in al-Kabeer, both of them from the chain of Hammaad bin Salamah from Shareek, and both of them from Ya'laa bin 'Athaa' from Aws bin Abee Aws, who said: ((I saw my father performing ablution one day and he wiped over his sandals. So I asked him, "Do you wipe over them ?" He said, "That is how I saw the Messenger of Allaah  do.")).
ath-Thamar al-Mustathaab (1/15-17)

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