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French cuisine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.


French cuisine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. Arguably considered to be the world's most refined cuisine, it evolved from Food Portal
centuries of social and political change. The Middle Ages brought lavish banquets to the upper class with ornate, heavily seasoned food prepared by
chefs such as Guillaume Tirel. The era of the French Revolution, however, saw a move toward fewer spices and more liberal usage of herbs and refined techniques,
beginning with François Pierre La Varenne and further developing with the famous chef of Napoleon Bonaparte and other dignitaries, Marie-Antoine Carême.

French cuisine was codified in the 20th century by Georges Auguste Escoffier to become the modern version of haute cuisine. Escoffier's major work, however, left out
much of the regional character to be found in the provinces of France. Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to bring people to the countryside during the 20th
century and beyond, to sample this rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of France. Basque cuisine has also been a great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of

Ingredients and dishes vary by region. There are many significant regional dishes that have become both national and regional. Many dishes that were once regional,
however, have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day. Cheese and wine are also a major part of the cuisine, playing different roles both
regionally and nationally with their many variations and Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) (regulated appellation) laws.

1 National cuisine
1.1 History
1.1.1 Middle Ages
1.1.2 Ancien régime
1.1.3 17th Century - Early 18th Century
1.1.4 Late 18th century - 19th century
1.1.5 Late 19th century - Early 20th century
1.1.6 Mid 20th century - Late 20th century
1.2 Common dishes found on a national level
2 Regional cuisine
2.1 Paris • Ile-de-France
2.2 Champagne • Lorraine• Alsace
2.3 Nord • Pas de Calais • Picardy • Normandy • Brittany
2.4 The Loire Valley • Central France
2.5 Burgundy • Franche-Comté
2.6 Lyon • Rhône-Alpes
2.7 Poitou-Charentes • Limousin
2.8 Bordeaux • Perigord • Gascony • Pays Basque
2.9 Toulouse • Quercy • Aveyron
2.10 Roussillon • Languedoc • Cévennes
2.11 Provence • Côte d'Azur
2.12 Corsica
3 Specialties by season
4 Ingredients
5 Structure of meals
5.1 Breakfast
5.2 Lunch
5.3 Dinner
5.4 Drink
6 Dining out
6.1 History of the restaurant
6.2 Places to dine out
6.3 Kitchen and dining room staff
6.3.1 Kitchen brigade
6.3.2 Dining room brigade
7 Notes
8 Works cited
9 See also
10 External links

National cuisine
French cuisine has evolved extensively over the centuries. Starting in the Middle Ages, a unique national cuisine began forming. Various social movements, political
movements, and the work of great chefs came together to create this movement. Through the years the styles of French cuisine have been given different names, and have
been codified by various master-chefs. During their lifetimes these chefs have been held in high regard for their contributions to the culture of the country. The national
cuisine developed primarily in the city of Paris with the chefs to French royalty, but eventually it spread throughout the country and was even exported overseas.


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They would supply cooked meat pies and dishes as well as raw meat and poultry. His tombstone represents him in armor. fishmongers. and fall afforded abundance. long pepper (both from vines similar to black pepper). His first position was as a kitchen boy in 1326. then the Dauphin who was son of John II. Duke of Berry enjoying a rabbit. such as the charcutiers and rôtisseurs (purveyors of roasted meat dishes). grains of under a luxurious baldaquin.[4] The most well known French chef of the Middle Ages was Guillaume Tirel. and more modest presentations of pies as individual pastries and turnovers. with Taillevent as his chief cook. Pies were also a common banquet item. wrote Le Cuisinier roïal et bourgeois in 1691. and hyssop which are rarely used grand meal. Food was generally eaten by hand. aged cheese and spiced wine. Multiple courses would be prepared.Early 18th Century France's famous Haute cuisine — literally "high cuisine" — has its foundations during the 17th century with a chef named La Varenne. His book is the first to list recipes alphabetically. dolphin and porpoise were considered to be fish. honey. which developed in the Middle Ages. but served in a style called service en confusion. with pigeon and squab being reserved for the elite. This was not uncommon as the Paris cooks' guild regulations allowed for this movement. so during Lent the salted meats of these sea mammals were eaten. perhaps a forerunner of the first culinary dictionary. for example. but it was necessary to find them a parallel appointment based on their skills after leaving the service of the royal kitchens. the skin and feathers could be kept and filled with the cooked.[9] The dish called cassoulet has its roots in the New World discovery of haricot beans. A guild restricted those in a given branch of the culinary industry to operate only within that field. nutmeg. holding a shield with three cooking pots. rue. and was not employed by any particular household. and birds. banquets were common among the aristocracy. Spices were treasured and very expensive at that time — they included pepper. The Dauphin became Charles V in 1364. and other preservatives. records of banquets show Catherine de' Medici serving sixty-six turkeys at one dinner. he is credited with publishing the first true French cookbook. and typically consisted of dragees (in the Middle Ages meaning spiced lumps of hardened sugar or honey). The sauces of the time were highly seasoned and thick. summer. The Duke is sitting today. and purple came from Crozophora tinctoria or Heures du Duc de Berry. They were not subject to the regulation of the guilds.[5] Ancien régime During the ancien régime Paris was the central hub of culture and economic activity. during the reign of Louis XIV. the feet and beak being gilded with gold. and many items were preserved with salt. and caterers. hare. tended to by (for the affluent) or honey. and one for fasting. On the table to the left of and mushes. in paradise. nuts and root vegetables would be boiled in honey for preservation. to new techniques aimed at creating somewhat lighter dishes. pound and strain mixtures into fine pastes several servants including a carver. or nef.[8] During the 15th and 16th centuries. poulterers. like goose or chicken.[3] the Duke is a golden salt cellar. on it. and enjoyed a high level of income as well as economic and job security. He was chef to Philip VI. Some with a cardinal at the high table. Meals often ended with an issue de table. Bacon and sausages would be smoked in the chimney. Cucumbers would be brined as well. butchers. Massialot and many other royal cooks received special privileges by association with the French royalty. meats being sliced off large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers. therefore they could cater weddings and banquets without restriction. those who worked in the royal kitchens did fall under the guild hierarchy. Those who reached the level of master chef were of considerable rank in their individual industry. The book contains menus served to the royal courts in 1690. Poultry was kept in special yards. Kitchen gardens provided herbs including some such as tansy. bream. Elaborate and showy dishes were the result. Whale. who sold the same raw materials. cloves. wild boar. eel. but relatively rare. pennyroyal.French cuisine . with one type for 2 of 9 1/2/2008 6:21 AM . Fruits. la Mégisserie. but no longer today in French cuisine are cubebs. minced and seasoned flesh of tastier birds. saucemakers. and mace. Massialot worked mostly as a freelance cook. and gardeners. such as Middle Ages In French medieval cuisine. John. pastrycooks. and galengale. those found along Rue Mouffetard. It is in this book that a marinade is first seen in print. Brilliant colors were obtained by the addition of. pike. and included venison.[11] Another chef. Although they were slow to be adopted. His book includes the earliest known reference to roux using pork fat. with the crust serving primarily as a container. the guilds were regulated by city government as well as by the French crown. La Varenne also published a book on pastry in 1667 entitled Le Parfait confitvrier (republished as Le Confiturier françois) which similarly updated and codified the emerging haute cuisine standards for desserts and pastries.[7] The guilds also served as a training ground for those within the industry. while red came from sunflower. something believed to be highly beneficial to the ability to make use of nutrients. and of a rather unpleasant flavor. and upon his death he was buried in grand style between his two wives. also known as Taillevent. His career spanned sixty-six years. while winter meals were more sparse. the free encyclopedia http://en. often called stews held carp.[1] The ingredients of the time varied greatly according to the seasons and the church calendar. At times. Late spring. His recipes marked a change from the style of cookery known in the Middle Ages. Gold and silver leaf were placed on food surfaces and brushed with egg whites. As author of works such as Cvisinier françois. Visual display was highly prized. such as tourte parmerienne which was a pastry dish made to look like a castle with chicken-drumstick turrets coated with gold leaf. Markets in Paris such as Les Halles. while the tongue and hams were brined and dried. Yellow came from saffron or egg yolk. The degrees of assistant-cook. grain merchants. spices.Wikipedia. tench. rather than as food itself. The book contained two sections. stringy. Those that gave French produce its characteristic identity were regulated by the guild system. marmites. and other fish. which are central to the dish's creation but had not existed outside of the New World until its exploration by Christopher Columbus. François Massialot. full-fledged cook and master chef were conferred. Beef was often salted. and heavily flavored mustards were used. bakers. while greens would be packed in jars with salt. Taillevent worked in numerous royal kitchens during the 14th century.[2] Artificial freshwater ponds. In Paris. French cuisine assimilated many new food items from the New World. those that supplied the raw materials. and it was not until the very end of the Late Middle Ages that the shortcrust pie was developed. To deal with the fact that both these birds are tough. while pork was salted and smoked.[10] 17th Century . one for meat days. Game was highly prized. There were two basic groups of guilds — first. One of the grandest showpieces of the time was roast swan or peacock sewn back into its skin with feathers intact. in the shape of a ship. There were also guilds that offered both raw materials and prepared food. This caused issue with butchers and poulterers. and similar smaller versions in other cities were very important to the distribution of food. which later evolved into the modern dessert. The second group were those that supplied prepared foods.[6] Les Halles market. Heliotropium europaeum. A very common form of food preparation was to finely cook. and as such the most highly skilled culinary craftsmen were to be found there. juices from spinach and the green part illustration from Très Riches of leeks. Sweet-sour flavors were commonly added to dishes by the use of vinegars and verjus combined with sugar front of the fireplace. spices used then. ca 1410. cinnamon. or all at once. Livestock was slaughtered at the beginning of winter.

Marie-Antoine Carême was born in 1784. Dietrich. B. Jean Troisgro and Pierre Troisgro. Additional smaller preparations are included in this edition as well. He published a series of articles in professional journals which outlined the sequence and then finally published his Livre des menus in poultry and feathered game while a second is for fish and shellfish. in favor of seasoning their dishes with fresh herbs. not hide flavors which the heavy sauces and ornate garnishes of the past had. because it effectively abolished the guilds. The basis for his style of cooking came from his sauces. Escoffier took inspiration for his work from personal recipes in addition to recipes from Carême. green vegetables and pâtés was greatly reduced in an attempt to preserve the natural flavors.[17] Le Guide Culinaire deemphasized the use of heavy sauces and leaned toward lighter fumets which are the essence of flavor taken from fish. Although many of his preparations today seem extremely extravagant. François Marin and Menon and even during the 1880s and 1890s to describe Escoffier's cooking. Expensive ingredients would replace the common ingredients making the dishes much less humble. The third characteristic was that the cuisine was made with the freshest possible ingredients. which were extravagant constructions of pastry and sugar architecture. Michel Guérard. the chefs were extremely inventive and created new combinations and pairings. sauces thats function was to add to the flavor of the dish. Fetu. by the mid-1980s some food writers stated that the style of cuisine had reached exhaustion and many chefs began returning to the haute cuisine style of 3 of 9 1/2/2008 6:21 AM . Eighth. it must be remembered that he simplified and codified an even more complex cuisine that had existed beforehand. The 1712 edition.[22] No matter what the origins were. These five stations included the garde manger that prepared cold dishes. the cooking times for most fish. The book was a collaboration with Philéas Gilbert. the entremettier prepared soups. kidney grilled by the rôtisseur. espagnole. Prior to his employment with Talleyrand.Early 20th century Georges Auguste Escoffier is commonly acknowledged as the central figure to the modernization of haute cuisine and organizing what would become the national cuisine of France. His influence began with the rise of some of the great hotels in Europe and America during the 1880s . truffle sauce made by the saucier and thus the dish could be prepared in a much shorter time and served quickly in the popular restaurants. Definitions were also added to the 1703 edition. Central to his codification of the cuisine were Le Marie-Antoine Carême.[12] The successive updates of Le Cuisinier roïal et bourgeois include important refinements such as adding a glass of wine to fish stock."[19] Mid 20th century . noting in the foreword to the book’s first edition that even with its 5.Late 20th century The term nouvelle cuisine has been used many times in the history of French cuisine. He created a system of parties called the brigade system.1890s. strong marinades for meat and game ceased to be used. Often referred to as fonds. game birds. This style of cooking looked to create garnishes. the rôtisseur prepared roasts. The significance of this is to illustrate the universal acceptance by multiple high-profile chefs to this new style of cooking. Ragout. A. A. the free encyclopedia http://en. Sixth. which had a modern version published in 1897. Gault and Millau "discovered the formula" contained in ten characteristics of this new style of cooking. Escoffier's largest contribution was the publication of Le Guide Culinaire in 1903. soufflés appear for the first time. paid close attention to the dietary needs of their guests through their dishes. These chefs were working toward rebelling from the "orthodoxy" of Escoffier's cuisine. Le Cuisinier parsien (1828) and L'Art de la cuisine française au dix-neuvième siècle (1833-5). new techniques were embraced and modern equipment was often used. because progress marches on each day. and was written in a more elaborate style with extensive explanations of technique.[18] Escoffier updated Le Guide Culinaire four times during his lifetime. Fifth. in his writings. and adding a third course to the meal. the chefs Paul Bocuse. Tenth and finally.wikipedia. quality butter. large menus were abandoned in favor of shorter menus. grilled and fried dishes. makes its first appearance as a single dish in this edition as well.[13] Late 18th century . retitled Le Nouveau cuisinier royal et bourgeois. This description was seen in the 1740s of the cuisine from Vincent La Chapelle.Wikipedia. Reboul. Seventh. which separated the professional kitchen into five separate stations. a stew still central to French cookery. while in the new system. Bocuse even used microwave ovens. they stopped using heavy sauces such as espagnole and béchamel thickened with flour based roux.000 recipes the book should not be considered an “exhaustive” text and that even if it was at the point when he wrote the book. velouté. An example used is oeufs à la plat Meyerbeer. meaning foundations. Dubois and ideas from Taillevent's Viander. “it would no longer be so tomorrow. the saucier prepared sauces. which suggests that Massialot was writing for trained cooks. such as pêche Melba and crêpes Suzette. leading to lighter preparations. Each of these sauces would be made in large quantities in his kitchen as they were then capable of forming the basis of multiple derivatives. Maître d'hôtel français (1822). and vinegar. Caillat and others. Ninth. Second. Carême had become known for his pièces montèes. This meant that any one chef could now produce and sell any culinary item he wished. they used regional dishes for inspiration instead of haute cuisine dishes. seafood. The Savoy Hotel owned by César Ritz was an early hotel Escoffier worked at. Suzanne. Carême had over one hundred sauces in his repertoire. Some of the chefs were students of Fernand Point at the Pyramide in Vienne and had left to open their own restaurants. and béchamel are still known today. was increased to two volumes. No quantities are listed in the recipes. five years before the onset of the Revolution.French cuisine . which established the fundamentals of French cookery. vegetables and desserts.[20] The first characteristic was a rejection of excessive complication in cooking.[21] Some have speculated that a contributor to nouvelle cuisine was World War II when animal protein was in short supply during the German occupation. Steaming was an important trend from this characteristic. the eggs would be prepared by the entremettier. but much of his influence came during his management of the kitchens in the Carlton from 1898 until 1921.[15] Late 19th century .[16] Escoffier also simplified and organized the modern menu and structure of the meal. The term came up again however during the 1960s used by two authors Henri Gault and Christian Millau to describe the cooking of Paul Bocuse. veal. which he named mother sauces.19th century The Revolution was integral to the expansion of French cuisine. and the pâtissier prepared all pastry items. The third source of recipes was Escoffier himself who invented many new dishes. prior to that it was listed as a garnish. This system meant that instead of one person preparing a dish on their own. the prior system would take up to fifteen minutes to prepare the dish. lemon juice. Also. E. He spent his younger years working at a pâtisserie until being discovered by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord who would later cook for the French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. Ch. Roger Vergé and Raymond Oliver.[14] More important to Carême's career was his contribution to the refinement of French cuisine. Fourth. This type of service embraced the service á la russe (serving meals in separate courses on individual plates) which Félix Urbain Dubois had made popular in the 1860s. these base sauces. A second source for recipes came from existing peasant dishes that were translated into the refined techniques of haute cuisine. meat and vegetables. now multiple cooks would prepare the different components for the dish.

Flanders. Oils are used in the cooking here. snails. Charolais cattle. Paris • Ile-de-France Paris and Ile-de-France are central regions where almost anything from the country is available as all train lines meet in the city. Kir and Crème de Cassis are popular liquors made from the blackcurrants. The northern areas of this region especially Nord. Normandy is also home to a large population of apple trees. sugar beet and chicory. Hainaut)-Picardy List of dishes unique to Normandy List of dishes unique to Brittany The Loire Valley • Central France High quality fruits come from the Loire Valley and central France. river crabs.[27] List of dishes unique to Loire Valley/Central France Burgundy • Franche-Comté Burgundy is well known for its wines. the free encyclopedia http://en. blackcurrants.[29] List of dishes unique to Rhône-Alpes Poitou-Charentes • Limousin 4 of 9 1/2/2008 6:21 AM . Below are lists of a few of the more common dishes available in France on a national level. Alsace is heavily influenced by the German food culture as such the wines and beers made in the area are very similar to the style of bordering Germany. The Chartreuse Mountains are in this region. sea bass. Smoked meat and specialties are produced in the Jura[28] List of dishes unique to Burgundy Lyon • Rhône-Alpes Fruit and young vegetables are popular in the cuisine from the Rhône valley. Over 5. calves.wikipedia. types include nut oils and rapeseed oil. Fine fruit preserves are known from Lorraine as well as the famous Quiche Lorraine. Celebrated chefs from this region include Fernand Point. but others are regional dishes that have become a norm across the country. which is where this dish originated. Paris area is expanded (inset at left). Many come from haute cuisine in the fine-dining realm. Thick stews are found often in these northern areas as well. Tomme and Vacherin.000 restaurants exist in Paris and almost any cuisine can be had here. lamb. The produce of these northern regions is also considered some of the best in the country including cauliflower and artichokes. guinea fowels from Drôme and fish from the Dombes lakes and mountain in Rhône-Alpes streams are key to the cuisine as well. Pike. Young vegetables are used often in the cuisine as are the specialty mushrooms of the region. Normandy has top quality seafood like scallops and sole. Géline fowl. herring.[26] List of dishes unique Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Artois.French cuisine .[23] Common dishes found on a national level There are many dishes that are considered part of the nation's national cuisine today. crayfish and mussels. Dijon mustard is also a specialty of Burgundy cuisine. and high quality goat cheeses. the Troisgros brothers and Alain Chapel. Paul Bocuse. The strawberries and melons are also of high quality. poultry from Bresse. grow ample amounts of cooking. monkfish. Buckwheat grows widely in Brittany as well and is used in the regions galettes called jalet. Poultry from Bresse. which is used in dishes as well as cider and calvados. Common breads found on a national level Common savory dishes found on a national level Common desserts and pastries found on a national level Common canned food found on the national level Regional cuisine French regional cuisine is characterized by its extreme diversity and style. Lyon and Savoy supply high quality sausages while the Alpine regions supply their specialty cheeses like Abondance. High-quality Michelin Guide rated restaurants proliferate here. Vinegars from Orléans are a specialty ingredient used as well. perch. Mères lyonnaises are a particular type of restaurateur relegated to this region that are the regions bistro. while Brittany has a supply of lobster. champignons de Paris. Reblochon.[25] The 22 regions and 96 departments of List of dishes unique to Lorraine metropolitan France include Corsica List of dishes unique to Alsace (Corse. including cherries grown for the liqueur Guignolet and the Belle Angevine pears. although much of the lighter presentations and new techniques remained. Nord • Pas de Calais • Picardy • Normandy • Brittany The coastline supplies many crustaceans.[24] Champagne • Lorraine• Alsace Game and ham are popular in Champagne as well as the special sparkling wine simply known as Champagne. Chaource and Epoisses cheese are all specialties of the local cuisine of both Burgundy and Franche-Comté. redcurrants. each region of France has its own distinctive cuisine accepted by both its bourgeoisie and peasants and other general citizenry of the regions.Wikipedia. Charolais beef or game. Traditionally. honey cake. Fish are seen in the cuisine as well as wild game. lower right). and the famous liquor Chartreuse is produced in a monastery there.

vegetables and fruits and herbs. but they are still observed because in some cases it's the law. tarragon. The Cahors area produces a high quality specialty "black wine" as well as high-quality truffles and mushrooms. air-dried sausage. lamb. especially the Pays Basque deep-sea fishing of the North Sea. Ingredients 5 of 9 1/2/2008 6:21 AM . In summer. oregano. trapping in the Garonne and stream fishing in the Pyrenees. are used to produce flour which in turn is used to make bread. and eau-de-vie de châtaigne. honey. Limousin is home to the high quality Limousin cattle as well as high quality sheep. Cheeses are also produced with brocciu being the most popular.[36] Moreover. the free encyclopedia http://en. and beef are also popular here. Chestnuts. figarettu (smoked and dried liverwurst) and prisuttu (farmer's ham). basil. Greengrocers prefer to sell their fruit and vegetables at lower prices if needed. cakes and polenta. lamb. bacon. Panzetta. lonzu (dried pork fillet). which are central to the dish Cassoulet. sometimes known as jambon de montagne is produced. confits and magrets. chestnuts. Rice can be found growing in Camargue which is the most-northerly rice growing area in Europe. Goat cheese is of high quality in this region and in the Vendée is grazing ground for Parthenaise cattle. rosemary. Cognac is also produced in the region along the Charente River. high quality mushrooms. turkey. to be served in the restaurants of Bouzigues. The woodlands offer game. sage. Corse also offers a variety of fruit wines and liqueurs. growing in the Castagniccia forest. The islands pork is used to make fine hams.Wikipedia. capon. mushrooms become plentiful and appear in stews everywhere in France. have a very short season and it's illegal to take them outside that time. With the advent of deep-freeze and the air-conditioned hypermarché. The cuisine uses a large amount of vegetables for lighter preparations. Beef cattle in the region include the Blonde d'Aquitaine. savory. Fishing is popular in the region for the cuisine. Crayfish. cakes. Snails are also plentiful and are prepared in a specific Catalan style known as a cargolade. Catalan influence can be seen in the cuisine here with dishes like brandade made from a purée of dried cod which is then wrapped in mangold leaves. Shellfish are at their peak as winter turns to spring. rather than see them rot in the heat. The cuisine of the region is often heavy and farm based. The southern area around Brive draws its cooking influence from Périgord and Auvergne to produce a robust cuisine. Lavender is used in many dishes found in the Haute Provence. Clementines (hold an AOC designation). This is one of the regions famous for its production of foie gras or fattened goose or duck liver. Haricot beans are also grown in this area. liquer de myrte. berries. Bazardaise. figatella. Rappu. these seasonal variations are less marked than hitherto. High quality Roquefort comes from the brebis (sheep) on the Larzac plateau. they do not survive freezing very well. and Garonnaise. fennel. Other important herbs in the cuisine include thyme. game. sausages. Also in the Languedoc jambon cru. vins de fruit.[31] Toulouse • Quercy • Aveyron Gers in this region offers high quality poultry. while La Montagne Noire and Lacaune area offers high quality hams and dry sausages.[35] Specialties by season French cuisine varies according to the season. The Pyrenees also support top quality lamb such as the "Agneau de Pauillac" as well as high quality sheep cheeses. sausage and other unique items including coppa (dried rib cut). High quality free-range chickens. Goat cheeses. including Cap Corse. a cornmeal porridge. salumu (a dried sausage) salcietta. Cédratine. Unpasteurized ewe's milk is used to produce the Roquefort in Aveyron. Poitou and Charente purportedly produce the best butter and cream in France. ragouts and roasts. Gascony and Perigord cuisines includes high quality patés. Tielles and Rouille de seiche. High quality produce comes from the regions hinterland. and oysters appear in restaurants in large quantities. while Cantal is produced in Laguiole. The Les Cévennes area offers mushrooms. Seafood proliferates in this area in all areas.wikipedia. The region also produces the largest amount of olives and thus creates superb olive oil. goose and duck prevail in the region as well. the region is one of the largest supplier of all these ingredients in France. Mussels are commonly seen here in addition to fish specialties of Sète. Bourride. while and the aforementioned brocciu and chestnuts are also used in desserts. while poultry is raised in Challans. salads and fruit dishes are popular because they're refreshing and the produce is inexpensive and abundant. Bonapartine. which also finds its way into their version of Cassoulet of Toulouse. and kids and lamb are used to prepare dishes such as stufato. Mineral waters are produced in high volume in this region as well. fresh fish and seafood are common in the cuisine as well. for example. often in very elaborate dishes that celebrate the success of the hunt. This region also produces milk-feed lamb. White corn is planted heavily in the area both for use in fattening the ducks and geese for foie gras as well as the production of millas. Wild boar can also be found in the more mountainous regions of the Midi. Oysters come from the Etang de Thau. The forest also provides acorns which are used to feed the pigs which provide most of the protein for the island's cuisine. Boeuf de Challose. as it is throughout the southwest of France with certain areas offering specialty grapes for its wines. marjoram. Meze.French cuisine . terrines. pâtés and goat cheeses. Game of all kinds is eaten. and Sète.[34] List of dishes unique to Provence/Côte d'Azur Corsica Goats and sheep proliferate on the island of Oysters come from the Oléron-Marennes basin while mussels come from the Bay of Aiguillon.[30] Bordeaux • Perigord • Gascony • Pays Basque Bordeaux is well known for its wine. As Corse is an island. Nectarines and figs are grown there and candied citron is used in nougats. Garlic and anchovies can be seen in many of the sauces in the region and Pastis can be found in many of the bistros of the area. The finest sausage in France is commonly acknowledged to be the saucisse de Toulouse. The Salers cattle produce quality milk for cheese as well as beef items. The hunting season starts in September and runs through February. with red rice being a specialty. The volcanic soils create flinty cheeses and superb lentils.[32] List of dishes unique to Aveyron List of dishes unique to Toulouse Roussillon • Languedoc • Cévennes Restaurants are popular in the area known as Le Midi. Armagnac is also from this region as are high quality prunes from Agen. and bay leaf Honey is another prized ingredient in the region. At the end of summer. pigeon.[33] List of dishes unique to Languedoc Provence • Côte d'Azur The Provence and Côte d'Azur region is rich in quality citrus. Truffles are commonly seen in Provence during the winter.

Breakfast of some kind is always served in cafés opening early in the day. Finally.French cuisine . hors d'oeuvre or entrée (introductory course often soup). Structure of meals Breakfast Le petit déjeuner (breakfast) is often a quick meal consisting of bread. Street markets are held on certain days in most localities. In smaller cities and towns.[39] Restaurants often open at 7:30pm for dinner and stop taking orders between the hours of 10:00pm and 11:00pm.[38] In large cities a Cafés often offer Croissants majority of working people and students eat their lunch at a corporate or school cafeteria. raspberry redcurrant calamari blackberry frog's legs grape blackcurrant Herbs and Seasonings vary by region and include: Meats consumed include: fleur de sel herbes de Provence chicken tarragon rosemary Smoked and salted horse squab meat on a sandwich. which normally serve complete meals as for breakfast. Dinner Le dîner (dinner) often consists of three courses. Lunch Le déjeuner (lunch) was once a two hour mid-day meal but has recently seen a trend toward the one hour lunch break. eggs or ham along with coffee or tea. Main meat courses are often served with vegetables along with rice or pasta. Fruit juice consumption has risen from 25. the free encyclopedia http://en.The common folk often has meat and vegetables and for desert they have fruits and cake. canned and fresh peaches tuna. some working people leave their workplaces to return home for lunch.6% in 1996 to 31. some towns have a more permanent covered market enclosing food shops. oyster mushrooms. Many restaurants close on Saturday and Monday during lunch. In some smaller towns the two hour lunch may still be customary. Wine consumption has been dropping recently in young people.wikipedia. as well as fish and meat can be purchased either from supermarkets or specialty shops. such as: beef veal potatoes pork haricot verts (A type of French green bean) mutton and lamb carrots rabbit An entire foie gras (partly leeks quail prepared for a terrine). The meal is often accompanied by bread. Yogurt may replace the cheese course.02 tomatoes cod coin as scale). generating four rush hours during the day. wine and mineral water. Many restaurants close for dinner on Sundays. turkey marjoram duck lavender goose thyme foie gras fennel sage Fresh fruit and vegetables.[40] Drink 6 of 9 1/2/2008 6:21 AM . and a cheese course or dessert. It is common for white-collar workers to be given lunch vouchers as part of their employee benefits. canned and fresh apricots salmon apples trout pears mussels plums herring cherry escargot (snails) strawberry oysters shrimp Black Périgord Truffle. Sunday lunches are often longer and are taken with the family. Children often drink hot chocolate along with their breakfast. cèpes (porcini) Truffles (Tuber (genus)) omelette shallots hard-boiled with mayonnaise Scrambled plain or haute cuisine preparation Common fruits include: Escargot cooked with Fish and seafood commonly consumed include: garlic and parsley butter oranges in a shell (with a €0. The famous fleur de sel from Guérande. turnips horse aubergine (eggplant) courgette (zucchini) Eggs are fine quality and often eaten as: Mushrooms.[37] Restaurants normally open for lunch at 12:00pm and close at 2:30pm. it is therefore not usual for students to bring their own lunch food. These have better shelter than the periodic street markets. tangerines sardines. described French regional cuisines use locally grown vegetables. an also popular alternative especially among blue-collar workers is to lunch on a sandwich possibly followed with a dessert. supermarkets and traiteurs. sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert. however workers having lunch in this way typically do not eat all three dishes of a traditional lunch due to price and time considerations. These can be used in most restaurants. plat principal (main course). butter and jam. both dishes can be found ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets for budget prices. especially meat and fish retailers.6% in 2002. while a normal everyday dessert would be fresh fruit.Wikipedia.

a brasserie is open all day. and chocolat à l'ancienne (a popular chocolate drink) offered as well. By law. but usually drunkenness is not displayed in public. diners who wished to "dine out" would visit their local guild member's kitchen and have their meal prepared for them. but most serve wines from Alsace such as Riesling. in the period leading up to the French Revolution. These establishments serve beer.[44] Places to dine out Restaurant . in Vieux Salon de Thé . including sausages. There are about twenty officially certified traditional bouchons. The guest would be offered the meal table d'hôte. Many offer simple snacks. but a larger number of establishments describing themselves using the term.French cuisine . The legal alcohol purchase age is 16. liquors.000 in Paris alone. parents tend to prohibit their children from consuming alcohol before these children reach their early teens. salads. The following is a list of positions held both in the kitchen and dining rooms brigades in France.Wikipedia. The limited foods sometimes offered include croque-monsieur. although high-class restaurants may try to conceal the fact. Dining out History of the restaurant The modern restaurant has its origins in French culture. Many feature a regional cuisine. Usually. France has been a culture of wine consumption. These locations serve cocktails. Sylvaner. confit de canard. The Guide Michelin rates many of the better restaurants in this category. while others offer a modern styled menu.[45] Bouchon . This step took place during the 1760's . Public consumption of alcohol is legal.[41] These guild members offered food in their own homes to steady clientele that appeared day-to-day but at set times.Often smaller than a restaurant and many times using chalk board or verbal menus. Teas. even today. Students and young adults are known to drink heavily during parties. Notable dishes include coq au vin.[45] Bistro(t) .[46] Brasserie . and led to the full restaurants that were completely legalized with the advent of the French Revolution and abolition of the guilds. these establishments were created in the 1870's by refugees from Alsace-Lorraine.[42] The first steps toward the modern restaurant were locations that offered restorative bouillons. as well as play various indoor games. While this characteristic has lessened with time.. duck pâté or roast pork. sometimes none at all. These locations were meant more as meal replacements for those who had "lost their appetites and suffered from jaded palates and weak chests.These locations are more similar to cafés in the rest of the world. one could order basic regional dishes. Other restaurants were opened by chefs of the time who were leaving the failing monarchy of France. hot chocolate. and heavily oriented around meat. The most popular dishes are Sauerkraut and Seafood dishes.[45] In general. This system was created by Georges Auguste Escoffier This structured team system delegates responsibilities to different individuals that specialize in certain tasks. These locations often open just prior to noon for lunch and then close late afternoon. These locations were open at all times of the day. while others take pride in offering a full range of vintage AOC wines.[45] Bistrot à Vin .Found in Lyon.[45] Estaminet . It was these restaurants that expanded upon the limited menus of decades prior. of cakes and do not offer alcoholic drinks. the free encyclopedia http://en. pastis and other alcoholic drinks. with varying levels of prices and menus.Primarily locations for coffee and alcoholic drinks."[43] In 1782 Antoine Beauvilliers. Few French restaurants cater to vegetarians. and normally closed one day of the week. pot-au-feu. or cider. ham and cheese. they produce traditional Lyonnaise cuisine. Some offer inexpensive alcoholic drinks. such as sausages. mine or textile workers to meet and socialize. an aniseed flavoured beverage drunk diluted with cold water. featuring ornate tableware and reasonable prices. The consumption of low-quality wines during meals has been greatly reduced. opened one of the most popular restaurants of the time — the Grande Taverne de Londres — in the arcades of the Palais-Royal. and prices marked up somewhat en terrasse. offering the same menu. Beer is especially popular with the young. Open at certain times of the day. guild members were limited to producing whatever their guild registry delegated them to. or restaurants — these words being the origin of the name Traditionally. Other popular alcoholic drinks include pastis.[48] Kitchen brigade 7 of 9 1/2/2008 6:21 AM .Based on the American style.wikipedia. a prix-fixe menu must be offered. These tearooms often offer a selection Lyon. These estaminets almost disappeared.[45] A bouchon.Typical of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. but are now considered a part of Nord-Pas-de-Calais history. The dishes can be quite fatty. many were built at the beginning of the 20th century. However. while others offer dishes similar to what can be found in a bistro.1770's. pastry chef to the future Louis XVIII.Over 5. calves' liver and entrecôte. and sandwiches. many French people drink wine daily. Kitchen and dining room staff Larger restaurants and hotels in France employ extensive staff and are commonly referred to as either the kitchen brigade for the kitchen staff or dining room brigade system for the dining room staff. which is a meal offered at a set price with very little choice of dishes. whiskey.[45] Bar . and therefore preserved and promoted.French for brewery. This and the substantial discretionary income of the French Directory's nouveau riche helped keep these new restaurants in business.[47] Café .). Cafés often open early in the morning and shut down around nine at night. Le tablier (the apron). Alongside the usual beverages (beers. and Gewürztraminer. Some offer regional menus. these small bars/restaurants used to be a central place for farmers.. Prior to the late 18th century. but driving under the influence can result in severe penalties.Similar to caberets or tavernes of the past in France. salads. Tables and chairs are usually set outside. moules-frites (mussels and pommes frites) when in season. The foods in some are simple. Patrons select items from a printed menu.

The dining room is separated into sections called rangs. poultry and sometimes fish. this person brings the different courses from the kitchen to the table.Prepares fish and seafood dishes. This position may also be performed by the sous-chef de partie.[48] Grillardin (Grill cook) . including vegetable dishes and egg dishes.[51] Directeur de restaurant (Restaurant manager) .Many times they are students gaining theoretical and practical training in school and work experience in the kitchen.Commonly in charge of service for the full dining room in larger establishments.In larger restaurants takes care of all the pots and pans instead of the plongeur.Welcomes guests.Responsible for the operation of the restaurant dining room which includes managing staff. They may also prepare pasta for the restaurant.Responsible for managing a given station in the kitchen where they specialize in preparing particular dishes.wikipedia. fills water glasses and assists the chef de rang. cakes and breakfast pastries in larger restaurants instead of the pâtissier.Prepares bread.[51] 8 of 9 1/2/2008 6:21 AM . They perform preparatory work and/or cleaning work.[49] Boucher (Butcher) .(Back waiter) . trains apprentices and maintains a sanitary and hygiene environment for the preparation of food.[51] Dame du vestiaire . the free encyclopedia http://en.[51] Maître d'hotel .responsible for preparation of cold hors d'oeuvres.[50] Friturier (Fry cook) .[48] Commis (Junior cook) . make purchases of raw food items.[50] Garde manger (Pantry supervisor) .This position is an independent one where they usually prepare specific dishes in a station.In larger kitchens this person reports to the entremetier and prepares the soups.[49] Saucier (Saucemaker/Sauté cook) .[50] Chef de rang .[51] Serveur de restaurant (Waiter) .org/wiki/French_cuisine Chef de cuisine (Kitchen chef) . this position can be combined into the maître d'hotel position.[48] Plongeur (Dishwasher) . [48] station.[50] Communard . This person also advises the guest on wine choices and serves it.[50] Glacier .[49] Entremetier (Entrée preparer) .Prepares sauces.Clears plates between courses and the table at the end of the meal.Prepares desserts and other meal end sweets and for location without a boulanger also prepares breads and other baked items.Prepares soups and other dishes not involving meat or fish.[50] Legumier (Vegetable cook) .Coat room attendant who receives and returns guests coats and hats. they also over see the hiring.[51] Barman (Bartender) . Larger establishments will have a team of sommeliers that are managed by the chef sommelier or chef caviste. They also supervise the service staff.Moves throughout kitchen assisting other positions in kitchen Pâtissier (Pastry cook) .Wikipedia.[49] Dining room brigade Directeur de la restauration (General manager) .[48] Chef de partie (Senior chef) . prepares salads.[48] Cuisinier (Cook) . They may also be referred to as a cuisinier de partie.[49] Confiseur .Prepares show pieces and specialty cakes in larger restaurants instead of the pâtissier.[48] Potager (soup cook) .[50] Chef de vin or Sommelier (Wine waiter) . They supervise staff. but reports directly to the chef de partie and takes care of the tools for the Cooks at work. Apprenti(e) (Apprentice) . It is this person that commonly deals with complaints and verifies patron bills.[50] Garçon de cuisine .In larger establishments.Responsible for overall management of kitchen. catering and other events.[51] Responsible de bars (Bar manager) .Prepares candies and petit fours in larger restaurants instead of the pâtissier.[48] Marmiton (Pot and pan washer) . and seats them at tables. Also manages multiple bars in a hotel or other similar establishment.[50] Aboyeur (Announcer/ expediter) .Serves alcoholic drinks to guests.Prepares frozen and cold deserts in larger restaurants instead of the pâtissier.In larger kitchen this person also reports to the entremetier and prepares the vegetable dishes.In a larger kitchen this person prepares the grilled foods instead of the rôtisseur.butchers meats.[48] Tournant (Spare hand/ roundsman) . Each rang is supervised by this person to coordinate service with the kitchen. completes meat dishes and in smaller restaurants may work on fish dishes and prepares sautéed items.[50] Poissonnier (Fish cook) . May also be in charge of breading meat and fish items.Clears plates between courses if there is no commis débarrasseur. hiring and firing staff.[50] Commis débarrasseur .[51] Commis de suite . broils and deep fries dishes.Performs preparatory and auxiliary work for support in larger restaurants.[51] Chef d'étage (Captain) . This position may be combined with the chef de rang in smaller establishment. organizes large buffet displays and prepares charcuterie items.Cleans dishes and utensils and may be entrusted with basic preparatory job.[50] Décorateur .Prepares the meal served to the restaurant staff.Manages a team of cooks that roasts. warm hors d'oeuvres. In larger establishments there may be an assistant to this position who would replace this person in their absence. training of staff and economic duties of the such matters.[48] Rôtisseur (Roast cook) .In larger kitchens this person prepares fried foods instead of the rôtisseur.[50] Boulanger (Baker) .Explains the menu to the guest and answers any questions. Those that work in a lesser station are commonly referred to as a demi-chef.[48] Sous-chef de cuisine (Deputy kitchen chef) .Oversees economic and administrative duties for all food related business in large hotels or similar facilities including multiple restaurants. This is one of the most respected positions in the kitchen brigade.Takes orders from dining room and distributes them to the various stations.[51] Chef de salle . This person often performs the tableside food preparations.Manages the bar in a restaurant which includes ordering and creating drink menus. bars.Also works in a specific station.This position found in smaller establishments performs the multiple duties of various positions in the larger restaurants in the service of food and drink to the guest. create menus and new recipes with the assistance of the restaurant manager.French cuisine .Receives orders directly from the chef de cuisine for the management of the kitchen and often represents the chef de cuisine when he or she is not present.Manages wine cellar by purchasing and organizing as well as preparing the wine list.[51] Demi-chef de rang or commis de rang . training and firing of barmen.

^ Wheaton. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Dominé ^ Dominé. Translated by H. 23. 30. ^ Mennell. ^ Dominé. 3. 26.Wikipedia. 28. 159-160. ^ Wheaton. 33. 82. ^ Foder's. ^ Wheaton.410.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.185. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Dominé. Evelyne and Jean-Marc Boudou.416. 47. ^ Spang. service continu tout au long de la journée. ^ Mennell. The Invention of the Restaurant.442. 114-120. ISBN 978-0471290162 Foder's. ^ Wheaton. 2006. ^ Foder's. 155. et demi par semaine. 349. Ross. ^ Wheaton. Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press. seven days a 12. Harvard University Press. ^ Mennell. ^ a b c d e Dominé. 342. ISBN 978-0252064906 Spang Rebecca L. ^ Steele. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. 13-15. 9-12. 295. André (ed. The Professional Chef.French cuisine . See it France. 342. All Manners of Food: eating and taste in England and France from the Middle Ages to the present.. ^ Mennell. 40." Category: French cuisine This page was last modified 10:38. 24. ^ Spang. ^ Mennell.230. 30. 32. ^ Wheaton. ^ Dominé. 15-16. 2002.166. 149-154. (Brasseries have the advantage of 11. 48. ^ Escoffier. Foreword.aftouch-cuisine. ^ Dominé. 25. 2nd ed. 71-72. and of being open for the after-theatre crowd. 82. 1-7. ^ Spang. ^ Dominé.org/wiki/French_cuisine Voituriers (Valet) . 153. 8th ed. 27. 435. ^ Spang. L. les clients après le spectacle et d'être ouvertes sept 9. 38. ^ Wheaton.404. jours sur sept. 1996. Kaufmann. 18.S. 37. ISBN 978-0684818573 See also Larousse Gastronomique Le Répertoire de la Cuisine French paradox List of recipes List of French cheeses Catalan cuisine External links Soup Recipes around the World : French Cuisine (http://soupesdumonde. 1998. 34. 2nd edition. 33. INC. 36. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 31. ^ Mennell. (See Copyrights for details. 109-110 42.chez-alice. ISBN 978-0764557347 Wheaton. 22. 13. 9 of 9 1/2/2008 6:21 AM . 30 December 2007. d'accueillir 8. ^ Hewitt.). Mediterranean Lifestyles: French Cooking (http://www. 55 45. with translator) Provençal Cuisine Guide and Recipes (http://www. whereas restaurants are closed two and a half days of 14. 2. ^ Wheaton. 237. 17. 51. 2nd edition. 21.[51] Notes 1.php?rubrique92) Eating the French way (http://www. Seyssinet : Libris. 13. ^ Mennell. 39. ^ Dominé. 160-162. 4. from Pakistan. Cracknell and R. offering uninterrupted service all day. 50. 163-164. 44. 2003. 73. 8 feb 15.cp-pc. the week) — (Jean-Claude Ribaut in Le Monde. 46. The Culinary Institute of America. 35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m The Culinary Institute of 20. 72-73. 157-159. Les bonnes recettes des bouchons lyonnais. 43. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. ISBN 978-0521794657 Mennel. 8. 8-10.normandie-heritage. 163-164... week. ^ Imported crayfish are unrestricted. 313. New York:Foder's Travel Publications. Works cited Boudou. 30-31. 5. New York: McGraw-Hill. ^ Dominé. and many arrive 2007) 16. 259. ISBN 978-3833111297 Escoffier.wikipedia. Barbara Ketcham. ^ Wheaton.htm) Traditionnal Normandy Cuisine (http://www. The Cambridge Companion to Modern French Culture. ^ (fr.156.html) historical and cultural review of French cuisine Retrieved from "http://en. 144-145. 81. Hewitt. ^ Dominé. quand les restaurants ferment deux jours 10.Parks guests cars and retrieves them upon the guest exiting the restaurant. 2nd ed. ^ Wheaton. 19. ^ Dominé.ca/english/france/eating. 163-164. 197. ^ Dominé. ^ Wheaton. 18-21. 49. 29. Escoffier: The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery. 33. ISBN 978-2847990027 Dominé. 129. 2006. The French Way. ^ Steele. ^ Mennell. Culinaria France. Inc. the free encyclopedia http://en. ^ Dominé.html) The regional French food (http://www. 93. Nicholas. 34-35. ^ Boudou 6.360. ISBN 978-0674006850 Steele. 2001. 1996. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. New York: First Touchstone. 32. ^ Wheaton. 387. America.441.wikipedia. ^ a b c d e f g Dominé. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken. Cologne: Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbh. Savoring the Past: The French Kitchen and Table from 1300 to 1789. ^ Dominé. a U. 85..mediterrasian. Stephan. ^ Les brasseries ont toujours l'avantage d'offrir un 7. 2006.403. Georges Auguste.J.