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4, APRIL 2005 1321

**Analysis and Characterization of Switched Reluctance
**

Motors: Part II—Flow, Thermal, and

Vibration Analyses

K. N. Srinivas1 , Member, IEEE, and R. Arumugam2 , Member, IEEE

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Crescent Engineering College, Chennai 600 048, India

Electrical Engineering Department, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India

This paper presents new approaches for certain mechanical characterizations, such as thermal and vibration analyses, of switched

reluctance motors (SRMs). The paper presents, in three parts, the modeling and simulation procedure for three-dimensional (3-D) finite-

element analysis (FEA)-based flow analysis, flow-analysis-based thermal analysis, and a realistic vibration analysis. Section I documents

a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow analysis procedure for the evaluation of the air velocity distribution inside the SRM at any

speed. Section II presents a prediction method for steady-state and transient thermal characteristics of an SRM, using 3-D FEA. The

convection coefficient at various heat-dissipating surfaces inside SRM, which is not a material property, but a quantity that solely depends

on the air velocity at the respective surfaces, is the major parameter to be evaluated for an accurate simulation of heat distribution. The

results of CFD analysis are used, for the first time on SRM, for this purpose. Windage loss calculation, one of the other applications

of CFD, is introduced. Vibration in electric motors is an inevitable, at the same time undesirable, property that originates from four

major sources: mechanical, magnetic, applied loads and, to a smaller extent, the associated electronic devices. Section III presents: 1) a

thorough numerical study of vibration analysis in SRMs, using 3-D FEA methodology, covering all the above vibration sources except

the electronics; 2) a 3-D modal analysis of SRMs including stator and rotor structures, shaft, end shields, bearings, and housing; 3) an

unbalanced rotor dynamics analysis; 4) associated harmonic analysis; and 5) a stress analysis under various loading conditions. The 3-D

vibration analyses presented in this paper to examine the vibration in SRM as a whole are new additions to SRM vibration analysis.

Section IV concludes the paper. Future work in every section is highlighted.

Index Terms—Air velocity, computational fluid dynamics, switched reluctance motors, thermal characterization, 3-D finite-element

analysis, vibration analysis.

**I. FLOW ANALYSIS IN SRM cosity, and a proper assumption and modeling would yield re-
**

alistic solutions of the complicated numeric equations of CFD.

I N switched reluctance motors (SRMs), a progressive

switching of stator coils in a clockwise direction produces

a magnetic field that enables steady motion of the rotor in a

Throughout this paper, air gap means the gap between the rotor

and stator when they are aligned and air pocket means the air

counter-clockwise direction. The aim is now to trace the path region at the stator or rotor interpolar region (Fig. 1).

and velocity of the air in the interpolar regions (regions be- 2) Governing Equation: The following are the major as-

tween two adjacent poles, called air pockets) of both stator and sumptions made.

rotor during the rotation of the rotor. Let the application of the a) The flow is turbulent since the operating speed is

knowledge of air velocity be considered for thermal analysis, 3000 rpm.

in which this will help in the accurate evaluation of convection b) The air is steady inside the machine.

heat coefficient at different heat dissipating iron surfaces inside c) Incompressible fluid analysis is sufficient.

the machine, which is not a material property, but a quantity Analysis for the determination of the air velocity involves the

that solely depends on the air velocity. determination of the pattern (whirl and turbulence) of the fluid

flow.

A. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) The governing equation is the two-dimensional (2-D) Laplace

equation given by the following:

1) Introduction: CFD (for a good treatment, refer to [1]–[3])

is predicting what will happen, quantitatively, when fluid flows, (A1)

often with the complications of simultaneous flow of heat and

mass transfer, mechanical movement (in the case of electric ma- This Laplace equation is solved by finite-element analysis

chines, the rotor), and stresses in and displacement of immersed (FEA) procedures for evaluating the net velocity vector distri-

or surrounding solids. The “fluid” that flows inside a rotating bution in three dimensions (3-D). With the density

electric machine is the air, which is highly turbulent when the of the whirling fluid being , the governing equation in 3-D

rotor rotates. In the great majority of fluid flow problems, pre- becomes, , that is,

cise analytical determinations of fluid velocities are not pos-

sible, owing to the complex effects upon the flow of fluid vis- (A2)

**3) Preprocessing: The fluid (that is the dry air) has a density
**

of 1.21 kg/m and kinematic viscosity of 17.6 10 . These are

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMAG.2004.843349 set as the material properties. Fig. 2 shows the meshed model

0018-9464/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE

1322 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

Fig. 1. The FEA model of SRM. Fig. 3. Meshed model of the subdivided rotor interpolar air region.

Fig. 2. Meshed model of the stator interpolar air region.

**of air pocket in the stator interpolar region. The velocity of air
**

according to the operating speed is set as the boundary condition Fig. 4. Flow analysis results indicating the air turbulence and its velocity at

at the outer periphery of the air pocket. different places in the stator interpolar air region at 3000 rpm (5.0265 m/s).

Consider the air boundary in the rotor interpolar region,

which is an arc, as shown in Fig. 3. When velocity of the air 4) Determination of Air Velocity: The interpolar regions of

is set at the rotor interpolar region, care must be exercised to stator and rotor are modeled separately in order to evaluate the

account for this lengthier curvature of the air boundary. The air velocity at different surfaces of SRM for a particular speed.

rotor interpolar arc is divided into suitable equal segments. The The command FLDATA will perform the flow evaluation using

arc is divided into ten segments. The velocity is set at each (A2) to get the whirl and turbulence of the air velocity vector

segment depending on the angle subtended. The velocities in at the considered air pocket. The command PLVECT, V will

the and directions (Fig. 3) will be respectively plot the velocity vector as per its whirl and turbulence direc-

and , where is the rotor velocity at rpm, given tions. /CVAL is a useful command in flow analysis to select a

by , in m/s. is the diameter excluding the air gap particular range of velocities. For instance, consider /CVAL, 5,

length when velocity is calculated for the rotor and is including 7. This will display air velocity regions between 5 and 7 m/s

the air gap length when velocity is calculated for the stator. anywhere inside the SRM. The results of simulation of CFD is

These velocities are set on each segment of the rotor inter- shown in Figs. 4 and 5.

polar arc. This exercise does not arise with the stator inter- For the operating speed of 3000 rpm, the air velocity is

polar air modeling because of the smaller curvature of the air 5.172 m/s. It is observed from the simulation results that at the

boundary due to six stator poles. Since the curvature is almost a surfaces s4, s5, s6, and s7 the air velocity is between 2.299 and

straight line, velocity in direction alone is specified. 3.448 m/s, which is equivalent to the whirl of air between speed

Also, it is important to note that the air at the rotor and stator 1200 and 2000 rpm. A similar observation in the air pocket at

pole surface moves in opposition. The air velocity vector at these the rotor interpolar region shows that the iron surfaces s8 and

surfaces are accordingly set as the boundary conditions. s9 are dissipating heat at the air velocities 2.234 and 3.351 m/s.

SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1323

**analysis, which dates back to early 1920 [4]. An equivalent
**

thermal circuit for induction motor has been reported in [5],

in which different parts of the motor have been represented

as lumped parameters of thermal resistors and capacitors inter-

connected. The steady-state temperature is calculated based on

the thermal resistances representing the different sections of the

motor. Namburi et al. [6] showed how temperature rise is depen-

dent on motor loading by fitting curves with different time con-

stants and different values of output power. Adopting [6]–[8],

Faiz et al., in [9] and [10] determined heat distribution in SRM

for natural and forced cooling using the thermal equivalent cir-

cuit model. The thermal analysis for SRM presented in this sec-

tion is novel in introducing computational fluid dynamics for de-

termining the air velocity distribution inside SRM. The results

of CFD will help to precisely evaluate the convection coeffi-

cient at all the heat dissipating iron surfaces of SRM resulting

Fig. 5. Flow analysis results indicating the air turbulence and its velocity at in a realistic thermal simulation. This section is organized as

different places in the rotor interpolar air region at 3000 rpm (5.0265 m/s). follows: The necessary calculations for thermal analysis using

FEA are given in Section II-B. In Section II-C, implementation

of CFD for thermal analysis is presented. FEA procedure for

steady-state thermal analysis is given in Section II-D, and the

same procedure for transient thermal analysis considering var-

ious duty cycles is elaborated in Section II-E. This section also

presents transient thermal characteristics including eddy-cur-

rent loss distribution and radial fins. Section II-F introduces,

in basic terms, application of flow analysis for windage loss

calculation.

**B. Fundamentals of Thermal Analysis
**

1) Preprocessing: The governing equation for 2-D finite-el-

ement thermal analysis involving respectively heat dissipation

processes by convection and conduction, in 3-D, is given in the

following:

(B1)

Fig. 6. Result of 3-D FEA flow analysis indicating air velocity distribution on

the whole SRM model.

where

unknown temperature distribution in degrees kelvin;

Velocities less than 2 m/s may be ignored as they are not near

heat conductivity in degrees kelvin per square meter;

the iron surfaces and oriented at the midregion of the air pocket.

heat source in watts per square meter;

Turbulence of air is inherently 3-D, and hence, air flow anal-

ysis in 3-D can only be helpful in predicting the turbulence of heat transfer coefficient;

air inside SRM. Results of such a 3-D flow analysis are shown ambient temperature in degrees kelvin.

in Fig. 6. It has to be noted that in a 3-D flow analysis, results Fig. 1 shows the model of SRM. The material properties of

can also indicate varying pressures at various air pockets. This each component of the machine, such as thermal conductivity,

is obvious as the velocity of air is not constant. As the pressure resistivity, density, Poisson’s ratio, specific heat, etc., are spec-

of air is not of analysis interest, say for thermal analysis, the ified. The stator and rotor are chosen to be steel and the perfect

analyst can safely omit it. The option of animating the air tur- conductor option is given for the windings. The density was as-

bulence when the rotor rotates is possible. signed to be 7866 kg/m . For a steady-state analysis or for a

transient analysis, major material properties necessary are the

II. FLOW-ANALYSIS-BASED THERMAL ANALYSIS IN SRM thermal conductivity and the electric conductivity of the mate-

rials. Thermal conductivity is set as 445 K/m , the resistivity is

A. Review of Previous Works set as 0.021 m/mm , and the ambient temperature is initially

Thermal modeling using thermal equivalent circuit of elec- set as 298 K. After assigning such material properties, the model

tric motors has been extensively done in the past for thermal is meshed, and the next stage is to fix the boundary conditions.

1324 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

The values for all the above data for dry are

W m K and

m s

**b) For the surface s2 (the surface which dissipates the heat
**

upward by natural convection):

(B3)

**where (area/perimeter) .
**

c) For the surface s3 (the surface which dissipates the heat

downward by natural convection:

(B4)

Fig. 7. Location of boundary conditions. The value of convection coefficient at the heat dissipating sur-

faces other than s1, s2, and s3 is usually neglected, which is not

2) Heat Source and the Boundary Condition: In SRM, when true in practice. The heat-dissipating surfaces in the interpolar

one of the phases is conducting, the ( ) copper loss produced regions, that is the regions of air between the adjacent stator

is dissipated as heat. The value of heat flux , evaluated as poles and the adjacent rotor poles, do participate in convecting

power loss in watts per square meter of the surface, is set as heat depending on the velocity of air with which they are in

the surface heat source at four vertical sides of the excited stator contact. Therefore, the convection coefficient at different wall

pole. However, mechanical losses are not considered. portions is to be evaluated using (B2) at the respective air ve-

The developed heat is dissipated mainly through the air locities. The results of air flow analysis are used to find out air

trapped in between the stator and rotor poles, other iron sur- velocity, and hence the convection coefficients, at different sur-

faces in the vicinity of the excited phase which are considerably faces in the machine. The application of , and , and

heated, rotor body, and partly by the outward facing cylindrical are shown in Fig. 7.

yoke. Neglecting the other iron surfaces in the vicinity of the

excited phase, the heat will be dissipated out by the natural C. Tracing Air Velocity Vector in Interpolar Regions

convection process through the surfaces s1, s2, and s3, as shown A detailed CFD [14] methodology to get the distribution of

in Fig. 7. The respective convection coefficients , and the air velocity vector in the interpolar air pockets has to be

are specified at these surfaces. The convection coefficient performed earlier. The various air velocities at the surfaces in

is to be found out for different dissipating surfaces depending the air pocket regions are identified. The respective convection

on the shape of the surface and the velocity of the air in contact coefficients are calculated using (B2). All such ’s are

with the surface of heat dissipation. There are various formulas specified as boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient

available for the evaluation of convection coefficients de- thermal characterization is then carried out.

pending on the shape of the heat-dissipating surface [11]–[13].

The convection coefficient for the surfaces s1, s2, and s3 are D. Steady-State Thermal Analysis

evaluated using the following formulas.

Once the preprocessing, as explained in Section II-B1 is

a) For the surface s1: The conduction coefficient for the

completed, then the analysis mode can be either selected as

surface s1 is given in the following:

steady-state or transient, respectively, by using commands

(B2) post-processing—analysis—thermal—steady-state or post-

processing—analysis—thermal—transient. The ambient

where temperature was set to be 25 C (298 K) using tamb, 298.

thermal conductivity of dry air, W/m K; The heat flux and the convection coefficients at the sur-

diameter of the stator up to the stator pole arc, m; faces s1–s9 are specified and the steady-state simulation is run.

Reynold’s number The primary data obtainable from the steady-state heat run is

angular velocity which is, at a speed of rpm, the nodal temperature. The data which can be derived out of

2 , rad/s; nodal temperatures are the nodal and element thermal fluxes

kinematic viscocity, m /s; and the nodal and element thermal gradients. To start with, the

Prandtl number; ambient temperature was set as 25 C and a finite-element heat

run was carried out. The simulation resulted in a steady-state

where temperature of 30 C. The steady-state simulation is repeated

again with 30 C as the ambient temperature. The process is

repeated until two successive steady-state temperatures are the

same. The settlement was achieved at a temperature of 35 C.

The model with boundary conditions, results of steady-state

SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1325

Fig. 10. Isotherm plot showing the different temperature zones in SRM.

**Fig. 8. Meshed 3-D model of SRM in FEA scenario with the boundary
**

conditions specified.

Fig. 11. Pattern of the intermittent load.

**write the above sequence of LS files as a single file to perform
**

transient thermal analysis. The command outres, all, all must

be given before simulation to make the final result of th LS

file as the starting values for the th LS file.

An example of intermittent load is considered for illustration

(Fig. 11). The ON and OFF periods are 900 s each. The heat flux,

in W/m , is proportional to 7 A at all the ON periods. It is zero

Fig. 9. Steady-state temperature distribution. at all the OFF periods. This alternative variation of heat flux and

the respective time duration are is sequentially stored in an LS

simulation, and thermal gradients under steady-state conditions file, and the transient thermal simulation is run. The results of

are shown in Figs. 8–10. simulation showing temperature rise from 0 to 10 000 s at stator

is shown in Fig. 12.

E. Transient Thermal Analysis 2) Thermal Analysis Considering Eddy-Current Loss: The

1) Simulation Procedure and Results: The transient thermal core loss distribution in SRM is another considerable factor for

analysis, in which the temperature varies with respect to time, is heat production. Before the boundary conditions are set as de-

simulated for different duty cycles. The setting up of boundary tailed in this paper for thermal analysis, an iron loss analysis

conditions has certain steps to be followed using “load step” has to be performed to take into account the core loss distri-

(LS) files. The value of is set on the meshed model of excited bution. Fig. 13 depicts the results of eddy-current loss distri-

stator poles according to the load pattern. For instance, consider bution as obtained by FEA [15]. The thermal analysis made

the intermittent load as shown in Fig. 11. The load step (LS) files on this model will be a simulation considering copper loss and

are sequentially created to take care of the changes in and the eddy-current loss. The results of simulation conducted on this

respective time period, using solution—time-step—sub-step model, showing temperature rise from 0 to 7200 s at stator, for

command. The execution of this command will require the re- the continuous load of 7 A, is shown in Fig. 14, which indicate

spective values of changing load and time, which has to be sys- that the steady-state temperature is attained at 356 K, whereas

tematically input. Finally, write LS command will be used to without considering the eddy-current loss, it was 350 K.

1326 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

Fig. 12. Transient temperature-time curve of stator body for the intermittent load.

**temperature rise is usually selected for the end product. Table I
**

is the summary of steady-state thermal analysis performed on

varying fin dimensions. The fin with a thickness of 2 mm and a

length of 3.5 mm is declared for the end product as it produced

the least steady-state temperature of 329.893 K. Figs. 16 and 17

respectively represent the results of steady-state and transient

thermal analyses on the SRM with radial fins.

**F. Another Application of Flow Analysis
**

One another major application of flow analysis is windage

loss calculation. Windage or air friction is the term generally

used to denote the loss due to fluid drag on a rotating body. The

accurate prediction and reduction of windage loss is becoming

more important with the growing development of high-speed

machinery. Information published in the open literature is sparse

and addresses cases of large machinery at lower speeds. This

section attempts to introduce a flow analysis based procedure,

to calculate the windage loss in high-speed SRM.

Fig. 13. Eddy-current distribution model for thermal analysis.

Two approaches available in the reference for the evaluation

of air friction, that is the windage, loss are used. In the first

3) Thermal Analysis Considering Fins: The temperature method (complete derivation in [16]), the air friction loss is cal-

rise of the electric machines is kept under permissible limits by culated using

providing fins. It is possible to increase the heat energy transfer

between the outer surface of the machine and the ambient air watts (B5)

by increasing the amount of the surface area in contact with where the friction factor is determined as

the air. Fins are the corrugations provided throughout the outer

(B6)

surface of the frame. When fins are provided on the outer frame

of the machine, as shown in Fig. 15, the surface area of heat Equation (B5), termed as head loss in fluid dynamics, is equiv-

dissipation gets increased, thus effecting the heat dissipation. It alent to the fluid friction (that is windage) loss. Air friction loss

is of the kind called radial fin with rectangular profile. is evaluated individually at all the heat dissipating walls of the

In order to increase the fin effectiveness, various possible air pockets at the respective air velocities. The summation will

combinations of fin dimensions are to be considered. Steady- then yield the total windage loss.

state thermal analysis has to be carried out for each combina- In the second method (full derivation of the formula in [17]),

tion. The fin dimension which produces the least steady-state the formula of (B7) is used to determine the air friction loss

SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1327

Fig. 14. Transient heat distribution in stator considering copper loss and eddy-current loss distribution.

TABLE I

STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR VARIOUS

DIMENSIONS OF RADIAL FINS

Fig. 15. Model of SRM with fins and terminal box.

**at various wall portions in the air pockets, at the respective air
**

velocities. The summation of all the air friction losses at the

walls of the air pockets at the respective air velocities will give

the total windage loss

watts (B7)

calculations mentioned in this section, will help to fine-tune the

However, this is an overall introduction to emphasize that the results. This can be considered as a future work to elevate this

knowledge of air velocity at every air portion of a machine will section.

yield windage loss which will be far from approximations. Ulti- Similarly optimizing the insulations used in various parts of

mately, from an electrical point of view, all of the windage loss the machine, which depends on the heat dissipating capacity of

results in drag on the rotor. A careful prediction of forces on the the machine and which in turn is an air-velocity-dependent, is

rotor to get the drag, in conjunction with the air-velocity-based also a notable extension of air flow analysis.

1328 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

**sidering the stator frame alone. Although the stator is the major
**

portion of noise production, there are contributions from other

parts such as rotor core, end rings, bearings, shaft, and applied

loads which were believed to be negligible in the above earlier

attempts. A 3-D FEA is capable of accounting for all these parts.

Section III-B describes the modal analysis on SRM in 3-D con-

sidering the rotor, shaft, end shields, bearings, and housing.

Section III-C records the simulation procedure for unbal-

anced rotor dynamic analysis on SRM, which is essential to

verify whether the vibration of rotor including housing is within

the acceptable limits. This section also reports on the harmonic

analysis to identify the frequencies at which the vibration is

maximum due to the rotor eccentricity.

Vibration due to machine coupling with a load, pulley, and

belt tension, and mounting of SRM on foundation is examined in

Section III-D. This is simulation of load test on SRM. Modeling

of different auxiliaries and consideration of different loads are

(a) the highlights of the section.

**B. Modal Analysis Including Housing
**

The SRM model under consideration and the meshes formed

during FEA are shown in Fig. 18. The length of the stator stack

is 90 mm. The end shield has thickness of 10 mm. The shaft has

a diameter of 25 mm. The main values set during simulation

are: The Young’s modulus N/m ; specific mass of

winding kg/m ; total mass density kg/m ;

Poisson’s ratio .

In the SRM, it is found that resonance occurs if the phase

frequency or add harmonics coincides with the stator natural

frequency, resulting in a peaking of the stator frequency. The

phase frequency is given by [25]

(C1)

where is the speed in radians/s and is the number of rotor

poles. Vibration is maximum if any of the frequencies

(C2)

(b)

are coincident with the natural frequency of the machine given

Fig. 16 (a) Steady-state temperature distribution in SRM with fins (a) at full by [25]

load and (b) at twice the full load.

(C3)

**where is the stator iron thickness in meters, is the mass
**

III. 3-D VIBRATION ANALYSES OF SRM

density of the material in kilograms/cubic meter, and is the

A. Introduction mean radius of the stator shell in meters given by

where is the outer diameter of the stator.

When a phase is excited, the magnetic flux from the excited

The governing Laplace equation that is solved iteratively to

stator pole crosses the air gap in a radial direction producing

find the modal frequencies is

large radial forces on the excited stator poles, which deform

the stator into an oval shape, called ovalization. It is impera- (C4)

tive to know the frequencies (called the modal frequencies) at

which the radial forces are induced, as the coincidence of the where is the modal vector, and is the frequency of vibra-

natural frequency of the stator with any of the modal frequencies tion. The solution is the th mode shape and is the corre-

will cause resonance resulting in vibration and noise. A modal sponding natural frequency.

study will yield the possible frequencies (and hence the respec- The 3-D modal analysis reveals certain modes which are

tive speeds) to be skipped for a quiet operation of the machine. producing vibration (and the associated acoustic noise) in

There are major papers available in the literature to investigate SRM due to rotor and housing structures. The mode fre-

vibrations in SRM, from the machine’s side and also from the quency of 231.154 Hz (3467 rpm), shown in Fig. 19(a), is

controller’s side [18]–[24], based on 2-D modal analysis con- observed to produce twist of rotor. Modal frequency of 160 Hz

SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1329

Fig. 17. Transient temperature distribution in SRM with fins for a continuous load.

**Fig. 19. 3-D modal analysis results at mode frequencies (a) 231.154, (b) 160,
**

(c) 364.5, and (d) 231.134 Hz.

Fig. 18. 3-D model of SRM with stator, rotor, shaft, end shield, housing, and [Fig. 20(a)], 1910 Hz [Fig. 20(b)], and 161 Hz [Fig. 20(c)],

bearing.

the housing also gets involved in contributing vibration. The

rotor rocks up and down causing it to strike against the stator,

[Fig. 19(b)] causes shaft bend with a severity at the shaft-rotor transmitting the vibration till housing and foundation. The shaft

edge. Frequency of 364.5 Hz causes rotor structure and rear bends. The drive may not be able to handle any load at these

shaft vibration [Fig. 19(c)] and at 231.15 Hz [Fig. 19(d)], the speeds. At 900 Hz [Fig. 20(d)], the housing with foundation

rotor deforms at an angle. At modal frequencies of 3089 Hz undergoes vibration.

1330 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

Fig. 20. 3-D modal analysis results at mode frequencies (a) 3089, (b) 1910, (c) 161, and (d) 900 Hz.

**C. Unbalanced Rotor Dynamics throughout the outer housing surface and to the front and rear
**

A harmonic frequency analysis has been performed to iden- bearings.

tify whether the vibration of rotor and housing is within safe This is a constant force applied over a frequency range. The

range. The aim is to obtain the SRM structure response at sev- frequency range was assumed to be 400, which is on the upper

eral frequencies with respect to displacement. Peak responses side. The “harmonic analysis” to identify the possible high vi-

are identified and plotted as a graph. Stresses are reviewed at brating and noise producing speed bandwidth which is skipped

these frequencies. fast during accelerations, is performed on this model using the

FE package. The unbalance force , at a frequency , is

The weight of the rotor (w) is 3.75 kg. The balancing quantity

. But, the force which the FE package finds will be at . It

( ) and the damping ratio ( ) were assumed to be 2.5 and 0.02,

has to be converted as , using a small program.

respectively, which are the usual standard values for high-speed

The result of the simulation is shown in Fig. 21.

machines. The rated speed is 3000 rpm. The centrifugal force is

It can be observed that the rotor eccentricity reaches a max-

calculated using the formula

imum of 6 m only, that is, 6 10 mm whereas that of outer

(C5) frame is 1 10 mm. As this eccentricity is of negligible mi-

crometers, it is conclusive that the rotor dynamics of the consid-

As all the units are in millimeters, the g used is 9810, which ered SRM is in acceptable limits.

gives the centrifugal force, , as 0.3. This is applied to the

center node of the rotor, as a lateral load. Arresting the nodes at D. Static Stress Analysis

the foundation forms one of the boundary conditions to model 1) Methodology: Static analysis is simulating a load test on

that the SRM is bolted to the foundation. In case of SRM, SRM for observations in limit violations of stress and deforma-

the whole housing also sit on the bearings. So, the is set tion at different places. Additional models required are bearings

SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1331

**weight of pulley kg; belt prestress and housing kg.
**

The full load of 3.63 N m is considered. As the assignment of

load, etc., are in force units, the equivalent kgf m is

kgf m. Using the radius of the shaft and converting all

quantities to a single unit, the force is kg.

This force is spread over all the finite-element nodes at the shaft

end. It is observed that there are 12 nodes. Thus, the equiva-

lent force applied to each of the 12 nodes in direction is

5.1. Further, the sum of the weight of pulley and belt loading

mechanism, belt’s prestress and the housing with stator, which

amounts to 7.85 kg, is divided to all the 12 nodes in a similar

way and applied at the direction, as they act downwards.

At this full-load model, a “stress analysis” is run whose output

is shown in Fig. 22. Winding weight is considered as net mass

along with the weight of the stator.

The material considered has a maximum tensile stress of

45 kg/mm . The stress in the SRM on full load is simulated

to be 21 kg/mm . It can readily be observed that the factor of

safety is for the full-load case. Thus, the SRM

can be operated at full load without any mechanical threat. This

analysis can be extended for any load by a suitable application

of boundary conditions.

Fig. 21. Results of unbalanced rotor dynamic analysis.

IV. CONCLUSION

**This paper, made up of three parts, discussed respectively,
**

flow analysis, flow-analysis-based thermal analysis, and vibra-

tion analysis, all by 3-D FEA procedure (using FEA package

ANSYS v. 6.0), for the first time for SRM. A procedure to trace

the velocity distribution inside SRM is presented in Section I of

the paper. Section II presented a procedure to simulate steady-

state and transient thermal characterization using the knowledge

of air velocity distribution inside the machine obtained using

the air flow analysis. It may be noted that an accurate thermal

analysis would not have been possible had the air flow anal-

ysis been not conducted because, in such a nonflow analysis,

the convection coefficient could only be specified at air gap

regions, and not in the interpolar air regions, which will approx-

imate the simulation results to a greater extent. The fact of lam-

inated stator and rotor is neglected. The results were presented

by considering the excitation of one phase. The temperature in-

ternal to SRM is uniform and that all of the temperature rise

is from the ambient air surrounding the machine inside to the

stator’s outer surface. It has been observed that the steady-state

Fig. 22. Result of static stress analysis at full load.

temperature is 350 K considering only copper loss, whereas it

reaches 359 K considering the eddy loss also. Provision of fins

and pulley. Bearing is the element in SRM to hold the housing enhances the heat dissipation; the steady-state temperature is

and the rotor mass at the shaft. So, bearing is simulated as four then 333 K. Notable future works are inclusion of iron and me-

springs attached to the housing from the bearing locations (front chanical losses, fine tuning the analysis by considering the lam-

and rear). The node at the front bearing location and four nodes inations and, on these improvements, a dynamic heat run. In

at the housing each displaced by 90 in and axes are se- Section III, the stator, stator frame, rotor, end-rings, bearings,

lected and joined. A similar procedure is repeated at the rear shaft, pulleys, and applied loads have been modeled in 3-D to

side of the shaft. The spring stiffness (21 000) is assigned and study the vibration in SRM as a whole [26], [27]. The eccen-

bearing is thus modeled. The pulley is modeled by assigning its tricity in the SRM rotor including housing is found to be much

weight at the end of the front shaft. less from the rotor dynamic study. From the static stress anal-

The required data are: the radius of the shaft mm; outer ysis, the reviewed stresses reveal that the stresses are under safe

diameter of pulley mm; thickness of pulley mm; limit at full load.

1332 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

**REFERENCES [22] P. Pillay, R. M. Samudio, M. Ahmed, and P. T. Patel, “A chopper-con-
**

trolled SRM drive for reduced acoustic noise and improved ride through

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[7] S. E. Zocholl, “Thermal protection of induction motors enhanced by in- analyses of switched reluctance motors including bearings, housing,

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Elect. Mach. Power Syst., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 77–91, 1998. K. N. Srinivas (M’03) received the Diploma in electrical and electronics en-

[11] F. Kreith and M. S. Bohn, A Text Book on Procedure of Heat gineering (DEEE) from Chengalvarayan Polytechnic, Chennai, India, in 1985

Transfer. New York: Huper and Row, 1986, p. 341. with high first class honors, the M.E. degree from Annamalai University, India,

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Charts. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976. versity, India, in 2004.

[13] J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer. New York: McGraw Hill, 1976. He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Electrical Engineering Depart-

[14] J. D. Anderson, Jr., Computational Fluid Dynamics: Mc-Graw Hill In- ment at Crescent Engineering College, Chennai, India. He visited Japan, Sin-

ternational Editions, 1995. gapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and the United States during his research period to

[15] K. N. Srinivas and R. Arumugam, “Eddy current characterization of present his findings at IEEE international conferences. His contribution in the

switched reluctance motors through finite element analysis,” Associa- IEEE international conference, IECON 2000, held in Japan, and IECON 2003,

tion for the Advancement of Modeling & Simulation Techniques in En- held in the USA, received the best contribution award by the IEEE industrial

terprises (A.M.S.E.), vol. 75, no. 1, 2, pp. 41–51. electronics society which includes a citation and fellowship. He has more than

[16] R. W. Fox and A. T. McDonald, Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, 4th ed: 19 international journal and conference publications. His technical interests are

Wiley, 1972, p. 327. electric machines and drives and their performance evaluation through simu-

[17] [Online]. Available: www.brainstandley.com.ee.lab/fil/ee320-exp4-full. lations and power system state estimation, unit commitment, and contingency

pdf analysis.

[18] C. G. C. Neves, R. Carlson, N. Sadowski, J. P. A. Bastos, N. S. Soeiro,

and S. N. Y. Gerges, “Vibrational behavior of switched reluctance motors

by simulation and experimental procedures,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol.

34, no. 5, pp. 3158–3161, Sep. 1998.

[19] C. Yongxiao and W. Jianhua, “Analytical calculations of natural frequen- R. Arumugam (M’03) received the B.E. degree and the M.Sc. degree (Engg.) in

cies of Stator of switched reluctance motor,” in Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Elec- power systems engineering from the College of Engineering, Guindy, Chennai,

tric Machines and Drives, 1997, pp. 81–85. India, in 1969 and 1971, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electric machine

[20] C.-Y. Wu and C. Pollock, “Analysis and reduction of vibration and analysis and design from Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, in 1987.

acoustic noise in the switched reluctance drive,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., He is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at Anna University, Chennai,

vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 91–98, Jan./Feb. 1995. India. He is currently the Director of the Electrical and Electronics Engineering

[21] P. Pillay and W. Cai, “An investigation into vibrations in switched re- Department, where he leads a team of engineers in electric machines and drives.

luctance motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 589–596, He is actively involved in industrial consultancy with major Indian industries

Mar./Apr. 1999. such as TVS Luacs Ltd., BPL Telecom Ltd., and Tamilnadu electricity board.

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