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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO.

4, APRIL 2005 1321

Analysis and Characterization of Switched Reluctance
Motors: Part II—Flow, Thermal, and
Vibration Analyses
K. N. Srinivas1 , Member, IEEE, and R. Arumugam2 , Member, IEEE
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Crescent Engineering College, Chennai 600 048, India
Electrical Engineering Department, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India
This paper presents new approaches for certain mechanical characterizations, such as thermal and vibration analyses, of switched
reluctance motors (SRMs). The paper presents, in three parts, the modeling and simulation procedure for three-dimensional (3-D) finite-
element analysis (FEA)-based flow analysis, flow-analysis-based thermal analysis, and a realistic vibration analysis. Section I documents
a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow analysis procedure for the evaluation of the air velocity distribution inside the SRM at any
speed. Section II presents a prediction method for steady-state and transient thermal characteristics of an SRM, using 3-D FEA. The
convection coefficient at various heat-dissipating surfaces inside SRM, which is not a material property, but a quantity that solely depends
on the air velocity at the respective surfaces, is the major parameter to be evaluated for an accurate simulation of heat distribution. The
results of CFD analysis are used, for the first time on SRM, for this purpose. Windage loss calculation, one of the other applications
of CFD, is introduced. Vibration in electric motors is an inevitable, at the same time undesirable, property that originates from four
major sources: mechanical, magnetic, applied loads and, to a smaller extent, the associated electronic devices. Section III presents: 1) a
thorough numerical study of vibration analysis in SRMs, using 3-D FEA methodology, covering all the above vibration sources except
the electronics; 2) a 3-D modal analysis of SRMs including stator and rotor structures, shaft, end shields, bearings, and housing; 3) an
unbalanced rotor dynamics analysis; 4) associated harmonic analysis; and 5) a stress analysis under various loading conditions. The 3-D
vibration analyses presented in this paper to examine the vibration in SRM as a whole are new additions to SRM vibration analysis.
Section IV concludes the paper. Future work in every section is highlighted.
Index Terms—Air velocity, computational fluid dynamics, switched reluctance motors, thermal characterization, 3-D finite-element
analysis, vibration analysis.

I. FLOW ANALYSIS IN SRM cosity, and a proper assumption and modeling would yield re-
alistic solutions of the complicated numeric equations of CFD.
I N switched reluctance motors (SRMs), a progressive
switching of stator coils in a clockwise direction produces
a magnetic field that enables steady motion of the rotor in a
Throughout this paper, air gap means the gap between the rotor
and stator when they are aligned and air pocket means the air
counter-clockwise direction. The aim is now to trace the path region at the stator or rotor interpolar region (Fig. 1).
and velocity of the air in the interpolar regions (regions be- 2) Governing Equation: The following are the major as-
tween two adjacent poles, called air pockets) of both stator and sumptions made.
rotor during the rotation of the rotor. Let the application of the a) The flow is turbulent since the operating speed is
knowledge of air velocity be considered for thermal analysis, 3000 rpm.
in which this will help in the accurate evaluation of convection b) The air is steady inside the machine.
heat coefficient at different heat dissipating iron surfaces inside c) Incompressible fluid analysis is sufficient.
the machine, which is not a material property, but a quantity Analysis for the determination of the air velocity involves the
that solely depends on the air velocity. determination of the pattern (whirl and turbulence) of the fluid
flow.
A. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) The governing equation is the two-dimensional (2-D) Laplace
equation given by the following:
1) Introduction: CFD (for a good treatment, refer to [1]–[3])
is predicting what will happen, quantitatively, when fluid flows, (A1)
often with the complications of simultaneous flow of heat and
mass transfer, mechanical movement (in the case of electric ma- This Laplace equation is solved by finite-element analysis
chines, the rotor), and stresses in and displacement of immersed (FEA) procedures for evaluating the net velocity vector distri-
or surrounding solids. The “fluid” that flows inside a rotating bution in three dimensions (3-D). With the density
electric machine is the air, which is highly turbulent when the of the whirling fluid being , the governing equation in 3-D
rotor rotates. In the great majority of fluid flow problems, pre- becomes, , that is,
cise analytical determinations of fluid velocities are not pos-
sible, owing to the complex effects upon the flow of fluid vis- (A2)

3) Preprocessing: The fluid (that is the dry air) has a density
of 1.21 kg/m and kinematic viscosity of 17.6 10 . These are
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMAG.2004.843349 set as the material properties. Fig. 2 shows the meshed model
0018-9464/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE
1322 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

Fig. 1. The FEA model of SRM. Fig. 3. Meshed model of the subdivided rotor interpolar air region.

Fig. 2. Meshed model of the stator interpolar air region.

of air pocket in the stator interpolar region. The velocity of air
according to the operating speed is set as the boundary condition Fig. 4. Flow analysis results indicating the air turbulence and its velocity at
at the outer periphery of the air pocket. different places in the stator interpolar air region at 3000 rpm (5.0265 m/s).
Consider the air boundary in the rotor interpolar region,
which is an arc, as shown in Fig. 3. When velocity of the air 4) Determination of Air Velocity: The interpolar regions of
is set at the rotor interpolar region, care must be exercised to stator and rotor are modeled separately in order to evaluate the
account for this lengthier curvature of the air boundary. The air velocity at different surfaces of SRM for a particular speed.
rotor interpolar arc is divided into suitable equal segments. The The command FLDATA will perform the flow evaluation using
arc is divided into ten segments. The velocity is set at each (A2) to get the whirl and turbulence of the air velocity vector
segment depending on the angle subtended. The velocities in at the considered air pocket. The command PLVECT, V will
the and directions (Fig. 3) will be respectively plot the velocity vector as per its whirl and turbulence direc-
and , where is the rotor velocity at rpm, given tions. /CVAL is a useful command in flow analysis to select a
by , in m/s. is the diameter excluding the air gap particular range of velocities. For instance, consider /CVAL, 5,
length when velocity is calculated for the rotor and is including 7. This will display air velocity regions between 5 and 7 m/s
the air gap length when velocity is calculated for the stator. anywhere inside the SRM. The results of simulation of CFD is
These velocities are set on each segment of the rotor inter- shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
polar arc. This exercise does not arise with the stator inter- For the operating speed of 3000 rpm, the air velocity is
polar air modeling because of the smaller curvature of the air 5.172 m/s. It is observed from the simulation results that at the
boundary due to six stator poles. Since the curvature is almost a surfaces s4, s5, s6, and s7 the air velocity is between 2.299 and
straight line, velocity in direction alone is specified. 3.448 m/s, which is equivalent to the whirl of air between speed
Also, it is important to note that the air at the rotor and stator 1200 and 2000 rpm. A similar observation in the air pocket at
pole surface moves in opposition. The air velocity vector at these the rotor interpolar region shows that the iron surfaces s8 and
surfaces are accordingly set as the boundary conditions. s9 are dissipating heat at the air velocities 2.234 and 3.351 m/s.
SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1323

analysis, which dates back to early 1920 [4]. An equivalent
thermal circuit for induction motor has been reported in [5],
in which different parts of the motor have been represented
as lumped parameters of thermal resistors and capacitors inter-
connected. The steady-state temperature is calculated based on
the thermal resistances representing the different sections of the
motor. Namburi et al. [6] showed how temperature rise is depen-
dent on motor loading by fitting curves with different time con-
stants and different values of output power. Adopting [6]–[8],
Faiz et al., in [9] and [10] determined heat distribution in SRM
for natural and forced cooling using the thermal equivalent cir-
cuit model. The thermal analysis for SRM presented in this sec-
tion is novel in introducing computational fluid dynamics for de-
termining the air velocity distribution inside SRM. The results
of CFD will help to precisely evaluate the convection coeffi-
cient at all the heat dissipating iron surfaces of SRM resulting
Fig. 5. Flow analysis results indicating the air turbulence and its velocity at in a realistic thermal simulation. This section is organized as
different places in the rotor interpolar air region at 3000 rpm (5.0265 m/s). follows: The necessary calculations for thermal analysis using
FEA are given in Section II-B. In Section II-C, implementation
of CFD for thermal analysis is presented. FEA procedure for
steady-state thermal analysis is given in Section II-D, and the
same procedure for transient thermal analysis considering var-
ious duty cycles is elaborated in Section II-E. This section also
presents transient thermal characteristics including eddy-cur-
rent loss distribution and radial fins. Section II-F introduces,
in basic terms, application of flow analysis for windage loss
calculation.

B. Fundamentals of Thermal Analysis
1) Preprocessing: The governing equation for 2-D finite-el-
ement thermal analysis involving respectively heat dissipation
processes by convection and conduction, in 3-D, is given in the
following:

(B1)
Fig. 6. Result of 3-D FEA flow analysis indicating air velocity distribution on
the whole SRM model.
where
unknown temperature distribution in degrees kelvin;
Velocities less than 2 m/s may be ignored as they are not near
heat conductivity in degrees kelvin per square meter;
the iron surfaces and oriented at the midregion of the air pocket.
heat source in watts per square meter;
Turbulence of air is inherently 3-D, and hence, air flow anal-
ysis in 3-D can only be helpful in predicting the turbulence of heat transfer coefficient;
air inside SRM. Results of such a 3-D flow analysis are shown ambient temperature in degrees kelvin.
in Fig. 6. It has to be noted that in a 3-D flow analysis, results Fig. 1 shows the model of SRM. The material properties of
can also indicate varying pressures at various air pockets. This each component of the machine, such as thermal conductivity,
is obvious as the velocity of air is not constant. As the pressure resistivity, density, Poisson’s ratio, specific heat, etc., are spec-
of air is not of analysis interest, say for thermal analysis, the ified. The stator and rotor are chosen to be steel and the perfect
analyst can safely omit it. The option of animating the air tur- conductor option is given for the windings. The density was as-
bulence when the rotor rotates is possible. signed to be 7866 kg/m . For a steady-state analysis or for a
transient analysis, major material properties necessary are the
II. FLOW-ANALYSIS-BASED THERMAL ANALYSIS IN SRM thermal conductivity and the electric conductivity of the mate-
rials. Thermal conductivity is set as 445 K/m , the resistivity is
A. Review of Previous Works set as 0.021 m/mm , and the ambient temperature is initially
Thermal modeling using thermal equivalent circuit of elec- set as 298 K. After assigning such material properties, the model
tric motors has been extensively done in the past for thermal is meshed, and the next stage is to fix the boundary conditions.
1324 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

The values for all the above data for dry are

W m K and
m s

b) For the surface s2 (the surface which dissipates the heat
upward by natural convection):

(B3)

where (area/perimeter) .
c) For the surface s3 (the surface which dissipates the heat
downward by natural convection:

(B4)
Fig. 7. Location of boundary conditions. The value of convection coefficient at the heat dissipating sur-
faces other than s1, s2, and s3 is usually neglected, which is not
2) Heat Source and the Boundary Condition: In SRM, when true in practice. The heat-dissipating surfaces in the interpolar
one of the phases is conducting, the ( ) copper loss produced regions, that is the regions of air between the adjacent stator
is dissipated as heat. The value of heat flux , evaluated as poles and the adjacent rotor poles, do participate in convecting
power loss in watts per square meter of the surface, is set as heat depending on the velocity of air with which they are in
the surface heat source at four vertical sides of the excited stator contact. Therefore, the convection coefficient at different wall
pole. However, mechanical losses are not considered. portions is to be evaluated using (B2) at the respective air ve-
The developed heat is dissipated mainly through the air locities. The results of air flow analysis are used to find out air
trapped in between the stator and rotor poles, other iron sur- velocity, and hence the convection coefficients, at different sur-
faces in the vicinity of the excited phase which are considerably faces in the machine. The application of , and , and
heated, rotor body, and partly by the outward facing cylindrical are shown in Fig. 7.
yoke. Neglecting the other iron surfaces in the vicinity of the
excited phase, the heat will be dissipated out by the natural C. Tracing Air Velocity Vector in Interpolar Regions
convection process through the surfaces s1, s2, and s3, as shown A detailed CFD [14] methodology to get the distribution of
in Fig. 7. The respective convection coefficients , and the air velocity vector in the interpolar air pockets has to be
are specified at these surfaces. The convection coefficient performed earlier. The various air velocities at the surfaces in
is to be found out for different dissipating surfaces depending the air pocket regions are identified. The respective convection
on the shape of the surface and the velocity of the air in contact coefficients are calculated using (B2). All such ’s are
with the surface of heat dissipation. There are various formulas specified as boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient
available for the evaluation of convection coefficients de- thermal characterization is then carried out.
pending on the shape of the heat-dissipating surface [11]–[13].
The convection coefficient for the surfaces s1, s2, and s3 are D. Steady-State Thermal Analysis
evaluated using the following formulas.
Once the preprocessing, as explained in Section II-B1 is
a) For the surface s1: The conduction coefficient for the
completed, then the analysis mode can be either selected as
surface s1 is given in the following:
steady-state or transient, respectively, by using commands
(B2) post-processing—analysis—thermal—steady-state or post-
processing—analysis—thermal—transient. The ambient
where temperature was set to be 25 C (298 K) using tamb, 298.
thermal conductivity of dry air, W/m K; The heat flux and the convection coefficients at the sur-
diameter of the stator up to the stator pole arc, m; faces s1–s9 are specified and the steady-state simulation is run.
Reynold’s number The primary data obtainable from the steady-state heat run is
angular velocity which is, at a speed of rpm, the nodal temperature. The data which can be derived out of
2 , rad/s; nodal temperatures are the nodal and element thermal fluxes
kinematic viscocity, m /s; and the nodal and element thermal gradients. To start with, the
Prandtl number; ambient temperature was set as 25 C and a finite-element heat
run was carried out. The simulation resulted in a steady-state
where temperature of 30 C. The steady-state simulation is repeated
again with 30 C as the ambient temperature. The process is
repeated until two successive steady-state temperatures are the
same. The settlement was achieved at a temperature of 35 C.
The model with boundary conditions, results of steady-state
SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1325

Fig. 10. Isotherm plot showing the different temperature zones in SRM.

Fig. 8. Meshed 3-D model of SRM in FEA scenario with the boundary
conditions specified.

Fig. 11. Pattern of the intermittent load.

write the above sequence of LS files as a single file to perform
transient thermal analysis. The command outres, all, all must
be given before simulation to make the final result of th LS
file as the starting values for the th LS file.
An example of intermittent load is considered for illustration
(Fig. 11). The ON and OFF periods are 900 s each. The heat flux,
in W/m , is proportional to 7 A at all the ON periods. It is zero
Fig. 9. Steady-state temperature distribution. at all the OFF periods. This alternative variation of heat flux and
the respective time duration are is sequentially stored in an LS
simulation, and thermal gradients under steady-state conditions file, and the transient thermal simulation is run. The results of
are shown in Figs. 8–10. simulation showing temperature rise from 0 to 10 000 s at stator
is shown in Fig. 12.
E. Transient Thermal Analysis 2) Thermal Analysis Considering Eddy-Current Loss: The
1) Simulation Procedure and Results: The transient thermal core loss distribution in SRM is another considerable factor for
analysis, in which the temperature varies with respect to time, is heat production. Before the boundary conditions are set as de-
simulated for different duty cycles. The setting up of boundary tailed in this paper for thermal analysis, an iron loss analysis
conditions has certain steps to be followed using “load step” has to be performed to take into account the core loss distri-
(LS) files. The value of is set on the meshed model of excited bution. Fig. 13 depicts the results of eddy-current loss distri-
stator poles according to the load pattern. For instance, consider bution as obtained by FEA [15]. The thermal analysis made
the intermittent load as shown in Fig. 11. The load step (LS) files on this model will be a simulation considering copper loss and
are sequentially created to take care of the changes in and the eddy-current loss. The results of simulation conducted on this
respective time period, using solution—time-step—sub-step model, showing temperature rise from 0 to 7200 s at stator, for
command. The execution of this command will require the re- the continuous load of 7 A, is shown in Fig. 14, which indicate
spective values of changing load and time, which has to be sys- that the steady-state temperature is attained at 356 K, whereas
tematically input. Finally, write LS command will be used to without considering the eddy-current loss, it was 350 K.
1326 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

Fig. 12. Transient temperature-time curve of stator body for the intermittent load.

temperature rise is usually selected for the end product. Table I
is the summary of steady-state thermal analysis performed on
varying fin dimensions. The fin with a thickness of 2 mm and a
length of 3.5 mm is declared for the end product as it produced
the least steady-state temperature of 329.893 K. Figs. 16 and 17
respectively represent the results of steady-state and transient
thermal analyses on the SRM with radial fins.

F. Another Application of Flow Analysis
One another major application of flow analysis is windage
loss calculation. Windage or air friction is the term generally
used to denote the loss due to fluid drag on a rotating body. The
accurate prediction and reduction of windage loss is becoming
more important with the growing development of high-speed
machinery. Information published in the open literature is sparse
and addresses cases of large machinery at lower speeds. This
section attempts to introduce a flow analysis based procedure,
to calculate the windage loss in high-speed SRM.
Fig. 13. Eddy-current distribution model for thermal analysis.
Two approaches available in the reference for the evaluation
of air friction, that is the windage, loss are used. In the first
3) Thermal Analysis Considering Fins: The temperature method (complete derivation in [16]), the air friction loss is cal-
rise of the electric machines is kept under permissible limits by culated using
providing fins. It is possible to increase the heat energy transfer
between the outer surface of the machine and the ambient air watts (B5)
by increasing the amount of the surface area in contact with where the friction factor is determined as
the air. Fins are the corrugations provided throughout the outer
(B6)
surface of the frame. When fins are provided on the outer frame
of the machine, as shown in Fig. 15, the surface area of heat Equation (B5), termed as head loss in fluid dynamics, is equiv-
dissipation gets increased, thus effecting the heat dissipation. It alent to the fluid friction (that is windage) loss. Air friction loss
is of the kind called radial fin with rectangular profile. is evaluated individually at all the heat dissipating walls of the
In order to increase the fin effectiveness, various possible air pockets at the respective air velocities. The summation will
combinations of fin dimensions are to be considered. Steady- then yield the total windage loss.
state thermal analysis has to be carried out for each combina- In the second method (full derivation of the formula in [17]),
tion. The fin dimension which produces the least steady-state the formula of (B7) is used to determine the air friction loss
SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1327

Fig. 14. Transient heat distribution in stator considering copper loss and eddy-current loss distribution.

TABLE I
STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR VARIOUS
DIMENSIONS OF RADIAL FINS

Fig. 15. Model of SRM with fins and terminal box.

at various wall portions in the air pockets, at the respective air
velocities. The summation of all the air friction losses at the
walls of the air pockets at the respective air velocities will give
the total windage loss

watts (B7)
calculations mentioned in this section, will help to fine-tune the
However, this is an overall introduction to emphasize that the results. This can be considered as a future work to elevate this
knowledge of air velocity at every air portion of a machine will section.
yield windage loss which will be far from approximations. Ulti- Similarly optimizing the insulations used in various parts of
mately, from an electrical point of view, all of the windage loss the machine, which depends on the heat dissipating capacity of
results in drag on the rotor. A careful prediction of forces on the the machine and which in turn is an air-velocity-dependent, is
rotor to get the drag, in conjunction with the air-velocity-based also a notable extension of air flow analysis.
1328 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

sidering the stator frame alone. Although the stator is the major
portion of noise production, there are contributions from other
parts such as rotor core, end rings, bearings, shaft, and applied
loads which were believed to be negligible in the above earlier
attempts. A 3-D FEA is capable of accounting for all these parts.
Section III-B describes the modal analysis on SRM in 3-D con-
sidering the rotor, shaft, end shields, bearings, and housing.
Section III-C records the simulation procedure for unbal-
anced rotor dynamic analysis on SRM, which is essential to
verify whether the vibration of rotor including housing is within
the acceptable limits. This section also reports on the harmonic
analysis to identify the frequencies at which the vibration is
maximum due to the rotor eccentricity.
Vibration due to machine coupling with a load, pulley, and
belt tension, and mounting of SRM on foundation is examined in
Section III-D. This is simulation of load test on SRM. Modeling
of different auxiliaries and consideration of different loads are
(a) the highlights of the section.

B. Modal Analysis Including Housing
The SRM model under consideration and the meshes formed
during FEA are shown in Fig. 18. The length of the stator stack
is 90 mm. The end shield has thickness of 10 mm. The shaft has
a diameter of 25 mm. The main values set during simulation
are: The Young’s modulus N/m ; specific mass of
winding kg/m ; total mass density kg/m ;
Poisson’s ratio .
In the SRM, it is found that resonance occurs if the phase
frequency or add harmonics coincides with the stator natural
frequency, resulting in a peaking of the stator frequency. The
phase frequency is given by [25]
(C1)
where is the speed in radians/s and is the number of rotor
poles. Vibration is maximum if any of the frequencies
(C2)
(b)
are coincident with the natural frequency of the machine given
Fig. 16 (a) Steady-state temperature distribution in SRM with fins (a) at full by [25]
load and (b) at twice the full load.

(C3)

where is the stator iron thickness in meters, is the mass
III. 3-D VIBRATION ANALYSES OF SRM
density of the material in kilograms/cubic meter, and is the
A. Introduction mean radius of the stator shell in meters given by
where is the outer diameter of the stator.
When a phase is excited, the magnetic flux from the excited
The governing Laplace equation that is solved iteratively to
stator pole crosses the air gap in a radial direction producing
find the modal frequencies is
large radial forces on the excited stator poles, which deform
the stator into an oval shape, called ovalization. It is impera- (C4)
tive to know the frequencies (called the modal frequencies) at
which the radial forces are induced, as the coincidence of the where is the modal vector, and is the frequency of vibra-
natural frequency of the stator with any of the modal frequencies tion. The solution is the th mode shape and is the corre-
will cause resonance resulting in vibration and noise. A modal sponding natural frequency.
study will yield the possible frequencies (and hence the respec- The 3-D modal analysis reveals certain modes which are
tive speeds) to be skipped for a quiet operation of the machine. producing vibration (and the associated acoustic noise) in
There are major papers available in the literature to investigate SRM due to rotor and housing structures. The mode fre-
vibrations in SRM, from the machine’s side and also from the quency of 231.154 Hz (3467 rpm), shown in Fig. 19(a), is
controller’s side [18]–[24], based on 2-D modal analysis con- observed to produce twist of rotor. Modal frequency of 160 Hz
SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1329

Fig. 17. Transient temperature distribution in SRM with fins for a continuous load.

Fig. 19. 3-D modal analysis results at mode frequencies (a) 231.154, (b) 160,
(c) 364.5, and (d) 231.134 Hz.

Fig. 18. 3-D model of SRM with stator, rotor, shaft, end shield, housing, and [Fig. 20(a)], 1910 Hz [Fig. 20(b)], and 161 Hz [Fig. 20(c)],
bearing.
the housing also gets involved in contributing vibration. The
rotor rocks up and down causing it to strike against the stator,
[Fig. 19(b)] causes shaft bend with a severity at the shaft-rotor transmitting the vibration till housing and foundation. The shaft
edge. Frequency of 364.5 Hz causes rotor structure and rear bends. The drive may not be able to handle any load at these
shaft vibration [Fig. 19(c)] and at 231.15 Hz [Fig. 19(d)], the speeds. At 900 Hz [Fig. 20(d)], the housing with foundation
rotor deforms at an angle. At modal frequencies of 3089 Hz undergoes vibration.
1330 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

Fig. 20. 3-D modal analysis results at mode frequencies (a) 3089, (b) 1910, (c) 161, and (d) 900 Hz.

C. Unbalanced Rotor Dynamics throughout the outer housing surface and to the front and rear
A harmonic frequency analysis has been performed to iden- bearings.
tify whether the vibration of rotor and housing is within safe This is a constant force applied over a frequency range. The
range. The aim is to obtain the SRM structure response at sev- frequency range was assumed to be 400, which is on the upper
eral frequencies with respect to displacement. Peak responses side. The “harmonic analysis” to identify the possible high vi-
are identified and plotted as a graph. Stresses are reviewed at brating and noise producing speed bandwidth which is skipped
these frequencies. fast during accelerations, is performed on this model using the
FE package. The unbalance force , at a frequency , is
The weight of the rotor (w) is 3.75 kg. The balancing quantity
. But, the force which the FE package finds will be at . It
( ) and the damping ratio ( ) were assumed to be 2.5 and 0.02,
has to be converted as , using a small program.
respectively, which are the usual standard values for high-speed
The result of the simulation is shown in Fig. 21.
machines. The rated speed is 3000 rpm. The centrifugal force is
It can be observed that the rotor eccentricity reaches a max-
calculated using the formula
imum of 6 m only, that is, 6 10 mm whereas that of outer
(C5) frame is 1 10 mm. As this eccentricity is of negligible mi-
crometers, it is conclusive that the rotor dynamics of the consid-
As all the units are in millimeters, the g used is 9810, which ered SRM is in acceptable limits.
gives the centrifugal force, , as 0.3. This is applied to the
center node of the rotor, as a lateral load. Arresting the nodes at D. Static Stress Analysis
the foundation forms one of the boundary conditions to model 1) Methodology: Static analysis is simulating a load test on
that the SRM is bolted to the foundation. In case of SRM, SRM for observations in limit violations of stress and deforma-
the whole housing also sit on the bearings. So, the is set tion at different places. Additional models required are bearings
SRINIVAS AND ARUMUGAM: ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS 1331

weight of pulley kg; belt prestress and housing kg.
The full load of 3.63 N m is considered. As the assignment of
load, etc., are in force units, the equivalent kgf m is
kgf m. Using the radius of the shaft and converting all
quantities to a single unit, the force is kg.
This force is spread over all the finite-element nodes at the shaft
end. It is observed that there are 12 nodes. Thus, the equiva-
lent force applied to each of the 12 nodes in direction is
5.1. Further, the sum of the weight of pulley and belt loading
mechanism, belt’s prestress and the housing with stator, which
amounts to 7.85 kg, is divided to all the 12 nodes in a similar
way and applied at the direction, as they act downwards.
At this full-load model, a “stress analysis” is run whose output
is shown in Fig. 22. Winding weight is considered as net mass
along with the weight of the stator.
The material considered has a maximum tensile stress of
45 kg/mm . The stress in the SRM on full load is simulated
to be 21 kg/mm . It can readily be observed that the factor of
safety is for the full-load case. Thus, the SRM
can be operated at full load without any mechanical threat. This
analysis can be extended for any load by a suitable application
of boundary conditions.
Fig. 21. Results of unbalanced rotor dynamic analysis.

IV. CONCLUSION

This paper, made up of three parts, discussed respectively,
flow analysis, flow-analysis-based thermal analysis, and vibra-
tion analysis, all by 3-D FEA procedure (using FEA package
ANSYS v. 6.0), for the first time for SRM. A procedure to trace
the velocity distribution inside SRM is presented in Section I of
the paper. Section II presented a procedure to simulate steady-
state and transient thermal characterization using the knowledge
of air velocity distribution inside the machine obtained using
the air flow analysis. It may be noted that an accurate thermal
analysis would not have been possible had the air flow anal-
ysis been not conducted because, in such a nonflow analysis,
the convection coefficient could only be specified at air gap
regions, and not in the interpolar air regions, which will approx-
imate the simulation results to a greater extent. The fact of lam-
inated stator and rotor is neglected. The results were presented
by considering the excitation of one phase. The temperature in-
ternal to SRM is uniform and that all of the temperature rise
is from the ambient air surrounding the machine inside to the
stator’s outer surface. It has been observed that the steady-state
Fig. 22. Result of static stress analysis at full load.
temperature is 350 K considering only copper loss, whereas it
reaches 359 K considering the eddy loss also. Provision of fins
and pulley. Bearing is the element in SRM to hold the housing enhances the heat dissipation; the steady-state temperature is
and the rotor mass at the shaft. So, bearing is simulated as four then 333 K. Notable future works are inclusion of iron and me-
springs attached to the housing from the bearing locations (front chanical losses, fine tuning the analysis by considering the lam-
and rear). The node at the front bearing location and four nodes inations and, on these improvements, a dynamic heat run. In
at the housing each displaced by 90 in and axes are se- Section III, the stator, stator frame, rotor, end-rings, bearings,
lected and joined. A similar procedure is repeated at the rear shaft, pulleys, and applied loads have been modeled in 3-D to
side of the shaft. The spring stiffness (21 000) is assigned and study the vibration in SRM as a whole [26], [27]. The eccen-
bearing is thus modeled. The pulley is modeled by assigning its tricity in the SRM rotor including housing is found to be much
weight at the end of the front shaft. less from the rotor dynamic study. From the static stress anal-
The required data are: the radius of the shaft mm; outer ysis, the reviewed stresses reveal that the stresses are under safe
diameter of pulley mm; thickness of pulley mm; limit at full load.
1332 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

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tion for the Advancement of Modeling & Simulation Techniques in En- held in the USA, received the best contribution award by the IEEE industrial
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cies of Stator of switched reluctance motor,” in Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Elec- power systems engineering from the College of Engineering, Guindy, Chennai,
tric Machines and Drives, 1997, pp. 81–85. India, in 1969 and 1971, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electric machine
[20] C.-Y. Wu and C. Pollock, “Analysis and reduction of vibration and analysis and design from Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, in 1987.
acoustic noise in the switched reluctance drive,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., He is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at Anna University, Chennai,
vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 91–98, Jan./Feb. 1995. India. He is currently the Director of the Electrical and Electronics Engineering
[21] P. Pillay and W. Cai, “An investigation into vibrations in switched re- Department, where he leads a team of engineers in electric machines and drives.
luctance motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 589–596, He is actively involved in industrial consultancy with major Indian industries
Mar./Apr. 1999. such as TVS Luacs Ltd., BPL Telecom Ltd., and Tamilnadu electricity board.