Acknowledging

the Source
Library & Learning Centre 5
0
4
0
7
4
Second Edition
Acknowledging
the Source
Compiled by Marilyn Brooks and Julieanne Paulazzo
on behalf of the Library & Learning Centre
Second Edition
iii Acknowledging the Source
© Canberra Institute of Technology 2005
This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the
Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process
without prior written permission from the Institute. Requests and inquiries
concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the
Copyright Officer, Canberra Institute of Technology, GPO Box 826,
Canberra ACT 2601 or email: library.copyright@cit.act.edu.au
Canberra Institute of Technology
Acknowledging the Source/[Compiled by Marilyn Brookes and
Julieanne Paulazzo on behalf of the Library & Learning Centre]
32p. 25 cm
2005
2nd ed
ISBN 1 876029 47 1
1. Bibliographical citations. 2. Bibliography – Methodology.
Published by External Relations and Marketing,
Canberra Institute of Technology
Printed by Canprint, Canberra
iii Acknowledging the Source
Contents
Introduction 1
What is meant by citation, reference and bibliography? 2
Why acknowledge the source? 3
What information needs to be provided? 4
Where is this information found? 5
Books 5
CD ROMS 8
Online Sources 10
Journals 11
Slides 12
Videos/DVDs 13
How to set out citations 14
Indirect 14
Direct 15
Long Direct 15
How to set out a reference 16
Audiotapes 16
Books 16
Brochures 18
CD ROMS – multimedia 18
CD ROMS – music 18
Conference Papers 19
Online Sources 19
Encyclopedias 20
Electronic Books 20
Government Publications 20
Journals 21
Kits 21
Legislation 22
Maps 22
Newspapers 22
Personal Communications 23
Posters 23
Slides 23
Standards 24
Videos/DVDs 24
Websites 24
How to set out a list of references or a bibliography 25
List Of References 25
Bibliography 25
Annotated Bibliography 27
Bibliography for this publication 28
iv Acknowledging the Source 1 Acknowledging the Source
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the CIT staff who contributed to this publication, especially the teachers
who provided editorial advice and encouragement and library staff who have contributed to
many drafts. Our thanks also to External Relations and Marketing for their design and typesetting
of the book.
In addition, the following publishers and creators have generously given permission to use
examples from their publications.
Alchemist, The eve of the war, CD ROM.
Allen & Unwin, How to organize and operate a small business in Australia, by John English, first
published 1981, St. Leonards, N.S.W.
The Australian newspaper, 29 July 2002.
The Bulletin with Newsweek, Vol. 120, no. 6309.
Educational Media Australia, A history of Australian architecture, slides
New Holland Publishers, A field guide to insects in Australia by Paul Zbrowski
Research School of Social Sciences, ANU & Melbourne University Press.
Australian Dictionary of Biography, CD ROM.
UNSW Press, Scandals: media, politics and corruption in contemporary Australia by R Tiffen,
cover design by Di Quick.
Video Education Australasia, Teamwork: human resource management at Rebel Sport,
videorecording.
The views and opinions expressed in this document are those of the author(s) and do not
necessarily reflect the views of Canberra Institute of Technology.
iv Acknowledging the Source 1 Acknowledging the Source
Introduction
This booklet has been prepared by the Canberra Institute of Technology Library & Learning
Centre, in consultation with CIT teaching staff, for use by CIT students.
The aim of this booklet is to present a practical approach to acknowledging information for
your assignments, why it is necessary, what information is needed, where to find it and how to
present it.
In this publication we have covered a broad range of information sources available through
CIT Library and Learning Centre. For further details on citations and references refer to the
Bibliography for this publication, at the back of this booklet.
This second edition reflects changes in the style manual for authors, editors and printers. It also
acknowledges the increased use and availability of, electronic information.
There are numerous systems for acknowledging and presenting information. This booklet is
based on the Harvard or author/date system. It is one of the most widely and easily used
systems. It doesn’t matter which system is selected BUT it is important to be consistent once one
is chosen. Finally, it is best to check with your teacher that this is the system they want you to use.
2 Acknowledging the Source 3 Acknowledging the Source
What is meant by citation, reference
and bibliography?
There is often confusion about terms such as ‘Citation’, ‘Reference’ and ‘Bibliography’, which
tend to be used interchangeably.
For the purposes of this booklet:
Citation: is the practice of referring to the works of others in the body of the assignment and
usually consists of a brief reference to support the views or opinions being put forward in your
assignment.
Reference: is the detailed bibliographic information which expands the information given in
your citations.
List of references: is the complete list of works used directly in your assignment. It is presented
as a list arranged in alphabetical order at the end of your assignment. The list of references and
citations in your assignment should complement each other.
Bibliography: a comprehensive list of all works consulted while researching and writing your
assignment, but not necessarily used. It is presented as a list arranged in alphabetical order at
the end of your assignment.
2 Acknowledging the Source 3 Acknowledging the Source
Why acknowledge the source?
It is important to keep in mind why you acknowledge your source. You are telling the reader
where you found the information to support the points, opinions, arguments and conclusions
expressed in your work. You need to provide enough accurate information for a reader to locate
your sources of information.
Failure to make quite clear which are your own ideas and words, and which are borrowed from
other works, means that you are passing off another person’s work as your own. This is a form of
theft or cheating called plagiarism, which could result in disciplinary action.
The CIT student handbook outlines your responsibility in this situation and possible disciplinary
action if you don’t acknowledge your sources of information.
In December 2000, the Copyright Amendment (Moral Rights) Act 2000 came into effect.
It looks after the personal rights of creators. This new legislation recognised the personal
connection of creators to their work and the significance of both attribution and creative
integrity to their labours. This makes correct referencing not only good habit, but almost a legal
requirement.
4 Acknowledging the Source 5 Acknowledging the Source
What information needs to be provided?
Similar information needs to be provided for all resources regardless of their format, including:
Author(s) names
Date of publication
Title
Edition
Publisher’s name
Place of publication
4 Acknowledging the Source 5 Acknowledging the Source
Where is this information found?
Books
The correct place to find the author’s name and title is on the title page of the publication.
While these are also on the cover and/or spine of the book, sometimes the details given there
are incomplete or inaccurate.
Title
Publisher
Place of publication
Date of publication
For information on the date of publication, publisher’s name and place of publication,
look at the ‘verso’. This is the inside page usually on the back of the title page.
Author’s name
6 Acknowledging the Source 7 Acknowledging the Source
To enable your reader to follow up your references it is important to refer them to the exact
edition that you used. Don’t be confused by dates of publication given for different editions and
don’t confuse editions with reprints. A book may be reprinted many times without alterations,
and in this case you would give the date of the most recent edition even if there had been
several more recent reprints. A new (or revised) edition contains new or updated information.
The edition is also included on the verso. If the information does not mention a specific edition,
you can assume that it is the first one, and this does not need to be noted in your reference.
Edition
6 Acknowledging the Source 7 Acknowledging the Source
Sometimes the book will have been published by a number of different publishers at different
times, or a particular publisher may be located in a number of countries. If you are in doubt, a
good double-check is to look on the spine or on the title page for the publisher’s name. Always
give the first place of publication listed where a number of places are given.
Publisher
Place of publication
8 Acknowledging the Source 9 Acknowledging the Source
CD ROMS
Music CD: The cover of the CD will usually contain the main performer/group, the title of the
CD, where it was produced and by whom, and the date of production. This may also be
printed on the CD itself.
Production details/date of production
Performer/group
Title
8 Acknowledging the Source 9 Acknowledging the Source
Multimedia CD: Individual multimedia CD’s may have the title, publisher, place of publication
and date either on the cover or on the CD itself. Sometimes it is necessary to get these details
from the opening frames of the CD – this will also apply to CD’s that are accessed from a
network where the individual CD is not available.
Publisher/place/date of publication
Title
10 Acknowledging the Source 11 Acknowledging the Source
Online Sources
Online sources include websites, email, journals published online, journal articles retrieved from
a database and electronic books.
For articles found on the Internet, there is usually an author written near the title of the article,
often with a date of publication of that article.
Name and place (if given) of the sponsor of site is generally at the top of the web page.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or web address is found in the Address box at the top of the
page of the host website.
Date
URL
Sponsor/
Owner of
site
Title
Author
10 Acknowledging the Source 11 Acknowledging the Source
Journals
The title page of a journal is usually one or two pages inside the front cover, and often contains
the contents page as well. Here you will find the title of the journal, the volume and issue
number and/or the date of issue. The author and title of the article you have referred to will be
found at the beginning of the article.
Title
Volume and issue numbers
12 Acknowledging the Source 13 Acknowledging the Source
Slides
Sometimes slides will have an accompanying leaflet or other published information which gives
the title, publisher, place and date of publication. Otherwise, the box itself or the title slide
and final slide of the series should contain that information.
Publisher/place/date of publication
Title
12 Acknowledging the Source 13 Acknowledging the Source
Videos/DVDs
Unless the presenter/producer is well-known, videos are generally listed under title. The accurate
title is not always the one shown on the container or even on the label of the videorecording/
DVD itself. You need to look at the opening titles of the program on the video/DVD. Similarly,
the closing credits of the program give the details of where, by whom and when the program
was produced. If you are still unsure, it may be possible to check by looking up the details of
the item in the library catalogue.

Producer/date of production
Team Work
Human Resource Management
at
REBEL SPORT
Title
An
Image Link Production
for
Video Education Australasia
© Copyright Video Education Australasia 2000
14 Acknowledging the Source 15 Acknowledging the Source
How to set out citations
All quotes, whether direct or indirect, need a reference providing your reader with enough
information to be able to locate your original source. The details you give in the text of your
assignment must be sufficient to identify the full bibliographic details from the list of references
you provide at the end of your assignment. Keep the information brief so that it does not break
up the continuity of your discussion or argument.
Any reference to sources must be identified at the appropriate point in the text by giving the
author’s surname, publication date and page number or numbers. The date and the page
number(s) are enclosed in brackets, separated by a comma and the abbreviation p. or pp. is
used to indicate page number(s). Page numbers make it easier to check to see whether they
agree with your interpretation of the original material, and the date ensures that the reader
knows which edition of the title you mean.
For citations from the Internet and other online sources such as an online journal, you
would give the author and date, and paragraph or page number if possible. If no author is
acknowledged, give the journal title, the fact that it is online and the date, paragraph or page
number. If citing from a website give the author or site sponsor, and date if possible. For any
online source, give full details in your list of references.
When citing from personal communications such as email, letters and interviews include all
identifying information in the text, e.g. the source of the information, the date and the form of
communication. This applies to both indirect and direct quotes.
Indirect quotes
This is where you express the author’s ideas in your own words. Usually the author has been
acknowledged in the text, so that the only other details needed in the citation are the date of the
relevant publication and the page number(s). Giving the author’s name at the beginning of the
indirect quote and ending with the citation is a way of making quite clear which are your own
ideas and which are “borrowed”. Where there is no author, give brief details of the publication,
and the page number(s).
Tiffen suggests that newsworthiness is subject to fashion and trends, and once
a scandal is created it feeds upon itself (1999, p. 90).
A recent study by the Australian Bureau of Statistics claims that a factor contributing
to salinity is the raised water tables resulting from irrigation (2001, p. 61).
Pockley reports that one of the problems facing future fire research is that it does
not seem to meet the criterion of commercial outcomes (2002, p. 21).
Lick urges us to be constantly aware of the inspiration in everyday events (2005).
Le Rossignol supports the idea that customers’ experiences with the employees in the business
has more influence in forming their impressions than any other factor (2002, p. 201).
14 Acknowledging the Source 15 Acknowledging the Source
Goldstein argues that even if asthma sufferers do have a genetic predisposition, some
environmental factors must activate the condition (2002, p. 295).
Mr. Brown’s email dated 20 June 2001 revealed inaccuracies in financial processes.
Direct quotes
This is where you use the author’s words to express or illustrate ideas. The direct quote is
acknowledged in the same way as the indirect except that the author’s name is included in the
citation.
Following are examples of how to set out direct quotes.
‘The referral of a scandal to judicial or semi-judicial adjudication is a double-edged sword ‘
(Tiffen 1999, p. 56).
The CSIRO bushfire research team ‘has to raise 35% of its funding externally’
(Pockley 2002, p. 20).
‘So it is with ideas. We can find them everywhere, they cost nothing, and most last only an
instant, but you never know when that grand idea will emerge…‘ (Lick, 2005).
Managers who hope to change organizations by altering only one or two things are searching
for a “magic bullet”’ (Miller 1998, p. 317).
It can be argued that ‘too much policy can be as stifling as wrong policy or as chaotic as no
policy’ (Thompson & Strickland 2001, p. 382).
‘The future for integrating mapping technology with intelligent communication capabilities is
tremendous’ (Collins 2002, p. 30).
In an interview conducted with Mr. Smith on 30 September 2001 he said “………”.
Long direct quotes
In general it is better to avoid stringing together a series of long direct quotes in your assignment
or essay as it does not demonstrate to the reader your opinion or any original thought. It is
preferable to use your own words to acknowledge the author’s ideas.
If your direct quote is a passage of approximately more than 30 words, you should indent the
text. The text should also be in a size smaller than that of the rest of the text. Citations are as for
a brief direct quotation.
Faulkner is skilled at the use of language to create a mood:
For a long while we just stood there, looking down at the profound and fleshless
grin. The body had apparently once lain in the attitude of an embrace, but now the
long sleep that outlasts love, that conquers even the grimace of love, had cuckolded
him. What was left of him, rotted beneath what was left of his nightshirt, had
become inextricable from the bed in which he lay. (Brooks 1979, p. 227).
16 Acknowledging the Source 17 Acknowledging the Source
How to set out a reference
The standard format for referencing a publication is:
Author’s surname, First name or Initials Publication date, Title (in italics OR if your work is
handwritten underline the title), Publisher, Place of publication.
Example: Tiffen, R 1999, Scandals: media, politics & corruption in contemporary Australia,
UNSW Press, Sydney.
The order and spacing of the layout is important, in particular:
Author’s Name: As a general rule, use only the author’s initials even where the full first name(s)
are given, unless it is necessary to give the full first name for the reader to
identify the author more easily.
Capitalisation: The first letter the title should be capitalised, and any proper names, places,
etc. All other words should be in lower case, except for names of journals or
newspapers, where the major words in the title should be capitalised.
Punctuation: No full stops or spaces are used with the author’s initials. The author’s name
and intial(s) are separated from the date of publication by a space. All other
parts of the reference are separated by commas, and the reference should end
with a full stop.
Abbreviations: Where the abbreviation and the full form of the word end in a different letter,
the abbreviation is followed by a full stop, for example ed. for editor, p. for
page. Where the abbreviation and full form of the word end in the same letter,
the full stop is not added, for example eds for editors, edn for edition.
Following are examples of how to set out a reference for a variety
of formats:
Audiotapes
Hot and cold sweets and desserts 1996, sound recording, Canberra Institute
of Technology, School of Tourism and Hospitality, Canberra.
Blogs
See Personal Communication
Books
1–3 authors Include all names and use ‘&’ rather than ‘and’ between names
Connoley, R & Rock, P 1999, Managing Australian business: corporate,
human resources, operations, 3rd edn, VCTA Publishing, South Melbourne.
16 Acknowledging the Source 17 Acknowledging the Source
More than Include the first listed author’s name followed by the abbreviation et al.,
meaning ‘and all the others’
Singh, S et al. 2001, Aboriginal Australia & the Torres Strait islands: guide to
indigenous Australia, Lonely Planet, Hawthorn, Victoria.
Editor Where the work has an editor rather than an author, use the abbreviation
“ed.” in brackets after the editor’s initials or first name
Whitehead, G (ed.) 2001, Planting the nation, Australian Garden History
Society, Melbourne.
More than If there is more than one editor, the format follows the example given for
multiple authors, and “eds” is placed in brackets
McMahon, A, Thomson, J & Williams, C (eds) 2000, Understanding the
Australian welfare state: key documents and themes, Tertiary Press, Croydon,
Victoria.
No Author/ If no author or editor is acknowledged, the citation should begin with the
title of the book
Gas installation code 1998, Australian Gas Association, Highett, Victoria.
Edition Any edition apart from the first edition should be indicated immediately
after the title
Connoley, R & Rock, P 1999, Managing Australian business: corporate,
human resources, operations, 3rd edn, VCTA Publishing, South Melbourne.
No date If no date of publication is given, substitute n.d. (no date) after the author’s
name or the title
Australian goat world gems, n.d., Victorian Branch, Goat Breeders Society of
Australia, Pearcedale, Vic.
Date Uncertain If date is uncertain but can be estimated, the letter ‘c’ (meaning circa or
“about”) may be placed before estimated year of publication
Pfaffenberger, B c2001, Webster’s new world computer dictionary, 9th edn,
Hungry Minds, New York.
one Editor
Editor
3 Authors
18 Acknowledging the Source 19 Acknowledging the Source
Place of If the place of publication is uncertain, it is often possible to guess the location
from other information. If this is not possible, indicate n.p. (no place).
In the following example, the book is published by a Canberra-based society,
so Canberra is a reasonable suggestion as a place of publication.
Twigg-Paterson, J 2001, Australian plants for Canberra region gardens and
other cool climate areas, Society for Growing Australian Plants Canberra
Region Inc., Canberra.
Brochures
Taxing questions: the arts guide to income tax 1996, Arts Law Centre of
Australia, Woolloomooloo, New South Wales.
CD ROMS – multimedia
List by author (if given), date of production, title, then type of material, name of producer/
production company and place of production.
Author Lieberman, P 2001, December 11, Through a glass darkly, CD ROM,
Sydney Morning Herald 2001 Quarterly on CD ROM, John Fairfax Group,
Melbourne.
No author Natspec Toolbox 2000, CD ROM, Construction Information Systems Australia,
Milsons Point, New South Wales.
CD ROMs – music
List by author (if given), date of production, title, then type of material, name of producer/
production company and place of production.
Single If there is a single performer/artist, list the CD alphabetically using the
performer’s name as the ‘author’.
Gaye, M c2001, What’s going on, CD ROM, Motown, Los Angeles, Calif.
Collection If it is a collection of performers, list by title, then type of material, etc.
Triple J hottest 100 2001, CD ROM, Australian Broadcasting Corporation,
Australia.
Groups Musical groups are treated as an author by the group’s name, and listed
alphabetically by the name of the group.
Alchemist 1998, Eve of the war, CD ROM, Alchemist & D.W. Norton,
Australia.
Publication
Uncertain
performer
18 Acknowledging the Source 19 Acknowledging the Source
Conference Papers
Referencing of conference papers is similar to that described for journals. The title of the
conference proceedings is in italics, not the title of the paper.
Conference Books and bytes: technologies for the hybrid library: proceedings,
10th biennial conference and exhibition, 16–18 February 2000, Victorian
Association for Library Automation Inc., Melbourne, Victoria.
Conference Lodge, GM 2004, Ant theft of Sirosa phalaris pasture seeds in Northern New
South Wales, Pastures in farming systems – meeting the challenge: proceedings
of the 19th annual conference of the Grassland Society of N.S.W. Inc.,
Grassland Society of NSW Inc., Gunnedah, NSW, pp. 135–136.
Conference Darwin, S 2004, Vocational teacher education: bridging the teaching divide
toward lifelong learning, Lifelong Learning: whose responsibility and what is
your contribution? proceedings, 3rd International Lifelong Learning Conference,
13–16 June 2004, Central Queensland University, Yeppoon, Queensland,
viewed 1 April 2005, <http://lifelonglearning.cqn.edu.au>.
Online Sources
References to information obtained from online sources follow the same principles as those from
print versions. The information needs to be a consistent and accurate description of the way the
information was located. Additional details need to be included to allow the reader to identify
and access the source of information. Keep in mind that in comparison to print material, online
sources can easily change or disappear completely.
It is important to ensure that you record the information accurately, paying particular attention to
punctuation and spacing.
Online sources are continually expanding. Typical examples include websites, email, journals
published online, journal articles retrieved from a database, and electronic books. In all cases
the source needs to be identified clearly.
When using material from an online source, the following additional details need to
be included:
Date of viewing: The date you accessed the site, written: viewed Day Month Year.
Web Address: The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) or web address gives the exact Internet
address of the resource you have located. It may be necessary to shorten
the URL address for the site you consulted if the address is very long or
complicated, however it is important to ensure that the complete address for
the main site is included. You need to provide enough additional information
for your reader to locate the same source. The address is enclosed in angle
brackets < >.
Paper (print)
Paper (online)
Proceedings
20 Acknowledging the Source 21 Acknowledging the Source
Examples of online sources are included throughout this section see Web sites, Personal
Communications, Journals, Standards, Encyclopedias, etc.
Electronic Books (ebooks)
Referencing an electronic book is similar to that described for print books, and also include
Supplier/database, Date accessed/viewed (written: viewed Day Month Year), URL <enclosed
in angle brackets>.
Shinder, DL 2001, Computer networking essentials, Cisco Press,
Safari Tech Books Online, viewed 26 April 2005,
<http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com>.
Encyclopedias
The name of the encyclopedia is in italics, and the publisher’s name and place of publication is
followed by the volume number and the page number(s)
Author Where an author is acknowledged for an item in an encyclopedia, that author
should also be acknowledged in the citation.
Valentine, JW 1997, Animal evolution, In McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of
Science and Technology, 8th edn, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York,
vol. 1, pp.675–681.
No author The title of the article is entered first.
Mythology, 1996, In World Book Encyclopedia, 5th edn, World Book
International, London, vol.13, pp. 751–766.
Online Follow the same proceedure as print and include Supplier/database, Date
accessed/viewed (written: viewed Day Month Year), URL <enclosed in angle
brackets>.
Milius, S 2004, Toxin takeout: frogs borrow poison for skin from ants, in
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Online, Access
Science, viewed 28 April 2005, <www.accessscience.com>.
Government publications
Publications produced by government departments or agencies generally follow the same
guidelines for books, but may be confusing where the work is the responsibility of both an author
and an agency, or a government department and an agency. Detailed information on citation
of government publications may be found in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers
which is available in your library.
20 Acknowledging the Source 21 Acknowledging the Source
Print Implementation of the recommendations of the Royal Commission into
aboriginal deaths in custody: implementation report: November 1997–
November 1998, c1999, ACT Government for Chief Minister’s
Department, Canberra.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001, Agriculture Australia 1999–2000, cat.
no. 7113.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.
Online Integrated Nature Conservation Plan June 2004, A planning framework for
natural ecosystems of the ACT and NSW Southern Tablelands, Environment
ACT, viewed 2 March, 2005, <http://incp.environment.act.gov.au/
planningframework/index.aspx>.
Internet
See Websites
Interviews
See Personal Communications
Journals
Referencing of journal articles is similar to that described for books, except that the name of the
journal is in italics, not the title of the article.
Pockley, P 2002, Bushfire research smoulders, Australasian Science, vol. 23,
no. 2, March 2002, pp. 20–21.
Sometimes a journal will have a date or month of issue instead of a volume/issue number and
some have both! This information is followed by the page number(s).
Nikas, C 2001, Retail: weathering the storm?, Ragtrader, 922 November, p. 9.
Online journal articles may be from a database or from an online journal. In either case,
the format is the same for print and also include Supplier/database, Date accessed/viewed
(written: viewed Day Month Year), URL <enclosed in angle brackets>.
The URL takes the reader to the database/supplier homepage, and the other details provide
enough information to search for the exact article.
Eindhoven, BF 2004, Hi-fi failure helps to brighten beer, New Scientist, July
10, 2004, vol.183, issue 2455, p. 21, Infotrac, viewed 16 March 2005,
<http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/cit_tafe>.
Kits
Your farm business and the GST 2000, kit, Ausinfo, Canberra.
22 Acknowledging the Source 23 Acknowledging the Source
Legislation
The titles of legislation should be referenced exactly as written. Include exact spelling and
capitalisation. Detailed information on referencing and citing legislation can be found in the
Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers which is available in your library.
Print Crimes (Amendment) Act 1999, No.32 of 1999, 1999, A.C.T. Government,
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
Online Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) (Reprint) Reprint date 1 January 2005, Scaleplus,
viewed 8 April 2005, <http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/html/pasteact/0/244/
top.htm>.
Australian Passports Act (Cth) No. 5 of 2005, Scaleplus, viewed 8 April
2005, <http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/html/comact/12/6919/top.htm>.
Freedom of Information Regulation 2000 (NSW) (Reprint) Reprint date 1
January 2005, Austlii, viewed 8 April 2005, <http://www.austlii.edu.au/
au/legis/nsw/consol_reg/foir2000313/index.html>.
Maps
Maschmedt, DJ 1987, Soils and land use potential, Onkaparinga, South
Australia, map, Department of Agriculture, Adelaide, scale 1:50,000.
Tasmania 1997, map, Australian Geographic, Terrey Hills, New South Wales.
Newspaper articles
These follow a similar procedure to that for journals. The author, if any, is acknowledged first,
then the date of the publication, the title of the article, the name of the newspaper in italics, and
the page number(s).
Author Cronin, D 2002, May 7, Crisis in childcare; workers call for enquiry,
The Canberra Times, p.3.
No author Barcelona rises up on the shoulders of giants, 2002, January 19, Australian
Financial Review, p. 43.
Online For online newspaper articles, also include Supplier/database, Date
accessed/viewed (written: viewed Day Month Year), URL <enclosed in angle
brackets>.
22 Acknowledging the Source 23 Acknowledging the Source
Hannaford, S 2005, April 8, Cappuccinos frothing over as rental rises loom,
The Canberra Times, Yourguide, viewed 28 April 2005,
<http://canberra.yourguide.com.au>.
Philipson, G 2005, April 21, Revenge of the machine, The Age, p. 8, Fairfax,
viewed 17 May 2005, <http://newsstore.f2.com.au>.
Personal communications
Interviews, phone conversations, letters etc. do not need to be included in a list of references,
as all identifying information, eg. senders name and date sent are included in the text of your
assignment. Refer to How to set out citations section in this publication.
Emails, List-serv, Usenet groups, Blogs etc. are dealt with in the same way unless it is considered
that further details may be useful to the reader, in which case the email address should be
included in the list of references.
If it is considered important to include an email address in your list of references it should never be
included without the permission of the owner.
The standard format for referencing an email is:
Senders name Year of posting, email, Day Month of posting, <email address>
Brown, J 2001, email, 20 June, <jbrown@library.nsw.edu.au>.
The standard format for referencing a blog, list-serv, Usenet group is:
Author’s surname, First name or Initials, Author’s identifying details usually email address
Date of posting, Title of posting, Description of posting, Name of list/group/blog owner,
Date of viewing (written: viewed Day Month Year), <URL> <enclosed in angle brackets>
Weil, A 20 March 2005, Top 10 antioxidant-rich foods, article posted to this
site from Dr. A Weil’s own website, Really useful fitness blog, viewed 3 March
2005, <http://fitfaq.com/blog.html>.
Posters
Heart food n.d., poster, National Heart Foundation and Liveworm Studios, Qld
College of Art, Queensland.
Slides
Chomley, F c1989, Families, flirtations and four footed friends, slide, Women’s
Art Register, Richmond, Victoria.
Sydney and Canberra, c1995, slide, World Microfilms Publications & Pidgeon
Audio Visual, London.
24 Acknowledging the Source 25 Acknowledging the Source
Standards
Print Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand 2000, Code of Practice for
Bungy Jumping (AS/NZS 5848:2000), Standards International, Sydney.
Online Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand 2000, Code of Practice for
Bungy Jumping (AS/NZS 5848:2000), Standards International, Sydney,
Standards online Premium, viewed 22 April 2005,
<http://onlinestandards.com.au/online>.
Videos/DVDs
The same basic principles apply as for books, journals etc. The main difference is that after the
title and date of production, a description of the type of material is entered, then the producer or
distributor of the video/DVD and the place of production follow.
No Author Teamwork: human resource management at Rebel Sport 2000,
videorecording, Video Education Australasia, Bendigo, Victoria.
Author De Botton, A. 2004, Status Anxiety, DVD, Channel Four Television
Corporation, UK.
Multipart series If it is part of a multi-part series, give the series title, date of production, the type
of material, the part number and part title, then the producer’s name, and place
of production.
Walk on by: the story of popular song 2001, videorecording, episode 3,
The road to rock ‘n’ roll, BBC, Bristol.
Web sites
The standard format for referencing a web site is:
Author (person/organization) responsible for site, Year the site was created or last updated,
Title of document/article (in italics), Name and place (where given) of sponsor, Date
accessed/viewed (written: viewed Day Month Year), URL <enclosed in angle brackets>
The date the site was created or last updated is often placed at the bottom of the Internet page.
Name and place of sponsor of site is the person/organisation which manages the site and is
similar to the publisher/place of publication.
Author Lick, S 2005, Capture those ideas before they float away, AbsoluteWrite,
viewed 23 February 2005, <http://www.absolutewrite.com/novels/lick02-
09-05.htm>.
No Author Hair Expo Australia 2005, Hair Expo Australia, viewed 16 May 2005,
<http://www.hairexpo.com.au/>.
24 Acknowledging the Source 25 Acknowledging the Source
How to set out a list of references
or a bibliography
List of references
Full bibliographic details of citations used in your assignment are recorded at the end of your
assignment. The order of your references in this list is important.
Generally references should be listed in alphabetical order by author, or by title if there
is no author.
ALSO
if title begins with A, An, or The, ignore and file by next word if more than one author with
exactly the same name, file by publication date if multiple works by the same author with the
same publication date are cited, use a, b, c etc after the publication date eg. 1997a, 1997b
Bibliography
A bibliography is a comprehensive list of all the sources you consulted and found useful while
preparing to write your assignment. These sources are not restricted to those cited in your
assignment.
The order of the sources in your bibliography is the same as for your list of references.
Many of the examples given in the section on ‘Citation’ have been included in the sample list
below.
SAMPLE LIST OF REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alchemist 1998, Eve of the war, CD-ROM, Alchemist & D.W. Norton, Australia.
The anti-bias approach in early childhood, 2001, Pearson Education Australia, Frenchs Forest,
New South Wales.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001, Agriculture Australia 1999–2000, cat. no. 7113.0,
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.
Brooks, C c1979, Understanding fiction, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Collins, B 2002, Mapping earth’s final frontier, GeoWorld, vol. 15, no. 2, Feb. 2002,
pp. 28–31.
Eindhoven, BF 2004, Hi-fi failure helps to brighten beer, New Scientist, July 10,
2004, vol.183, issue 2245, p. 21, Infotrac, viewed 16 March 2005, <http://
infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/cit_tafe>
Goldstein, I & Goldstein M 2002, How much risk? A guide to understanding environmental
health hazards, Oxford University Press, New York.
26 Acknowledging the Source 27 Acknowledging the Source
A guide for operating a small business, 2001, Small Business Development Corporation, Perth,
Western Australia.
An introduction to digital color prepress 1997, Agfa Prepress Education Resources,
Mt. Prospect, Ill.
Le Rossignol, K 2002, Your new business: the pathway to success, Tertiary Press,
Croydon, Victoria.
Lick, S 2005, Capture those ideas before they float away, AbsoluteWrite,
viewed 23 February 2005, <http://www.absolutewrite.com/novels/lick02-09-05.htm>.
Miller, A 1998, Strategic management, 3rd edn, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, Boston, Mass.
Pockley, P 2002, Bushfire research smoulders, Australasian Science, vol. 23, no. 2,
March 2002, pp. 20–21.
Roberts, J 1993, Marketing for the hospitality industry, Hodder & Stoughton, London.
Roberts, J 1997, Basic principles of organic chemistry, W.A.Benjamin, Menlo Park, Calif.
Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand 2000, Code of Practice for bungy jumping
(AS/NZS 5848:2000), Standards International, Sydney.
Teamwork: human resource management at Rebel Sport 2000, videorecording, Video
Education Australasia, Bendigo, Victoria.
Tiffen, R 1999, Scandals: media, politics and corruption in contemporary Australia,
UNSW Press, Sydney.
Valentine, JW 1997, Animal evolution, In McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology, 8th edn, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, vol.1, pp. 675–681.
Williams, R 1995a, And now for something completely different, Viking, Ringwood, Victoria.
Williams, R 1995b, This is the science show, ABC Books, Sydney, New South Wales.
Your farm business and the GST 2000, kit, Ausinfo, Canberra.
26 Acknowledging the Source 27 Acknowledging the Source
Annotated bibliography
Sometimes you are required to compile an annotated bibliography. Annotated bibliographies
include a brief abstract or summary of the source and it’s significance to your topic, after
the citation.
If your bibliography is going to be a considerable size then you might consider further
organising your sources in sections under headings for material types eg. books, videos,
journals, Internet sites etc or subjects. The following is an example of an annotated bibliography.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY VIDEO RESOURCES
Falls in the workplace videorecording, c2000, Safetycare Australia, Melbourne.
Provides an understanding of the subject of falls in the workplace and specifically identifies
control measures that will prevent fall type accidents. It covers five different categories of falls,
contributing factors to falls and two basic reasons that falls occur.
Handling and storage of hazardous substances c1999, videorecording, Vocam, Niddrie,
Victoria.
The program explains the virtal key points to safe work with hazardous substances.
It covers the definition of a hazardous substance, how to identify hazardous
substances and workplace training. It aims to increase awareness and reduce the
risks involved in the handling and storage of hazardous substances.
Manual handling for the hospitality industry 1997, videorecording, Channel 1 Training Videos,
Wantirna, Victoria.
Demonstrates how and why most manual handling injuries occur, and how they can be
prevented by redesigning tasks and the use of mechanical aids.
Office ergonomics c2000, videorecording, Vocam, East Melbourne, Victoria.
Ergonomics is the study of the human body at work, understanding how a person’s
senses, size and skills interact with their working environment. This program looks
at some of the common health problems experienced by workers and then explores control
measures which can be introduced to reduce the risk of injury.
Portable fire extinguishers c2001, videorecording, Safetycare Australia, Melbourne.
Looks at firefighting techniques of starvation, smothering, cooling and stopping
the chemical chain reaction. Examines extinguishing agents such as water, foam,
carbon dioxide and dry powder, and suitable fire extinguishers for ordinary
combustibles, flammable and combustible liquids, flammable gases, combustible
metals, electrically energised equipment and cooking oils and fats. Also discusses
the classification of fires and the operation of fire extinguishers.
28 Acknowledging the Source
Bibliography for this publication
The following are useful sources of information that we consulted in preparing this publication.
Betts, K & Seitz, A 1994, Writing essays and research assignments in the social sciences,
Nelson, Melbourne.
Choy, R c1994, Using Harvard referencing, School of Management and Marketing, Curtin
Business School, South Bentley, Western Australia.
Clanchy, J & Ballard, B 1997, Essay writing for students – a practical guide, 3rd edn, Addison
Wesley Longman, Melbourne.
Citation style for Internet and other electronic resources, 1999, University of Canberra, viewed
23 March 2005, <http://www2.canberra.edu.au/computing/usernotes/un54.html>.
Greenhill, A & Fletcher, G 1996, A proposal for referencing Internet resources, Australian
Universities’ Review, 1/1996, pp. 34–36.
Guide to citing Internet sources 2004, Bournemouth University, viewed 8 February 2005,
<http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/using/guide_to_citing_internet_sourc.html>.
Guides to referencing print, non-print and online sources using Harvard for print and non-print
sources, Harvard for online sources…, 2005, University of Southern Queensland, viewed
23 March 2005, <http://www.usq.edu.au/library/infoabout/ref_guides/default.htm>.
Hansen, WR 1991, Suggestions to authors of the assignments of the United States Geological
Survey, 7th edn, U.S. Government Printing Office.
Harmon, R 1998, Elements of a bibliography: a guide to information sources and practical
applications, 3rd edn, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland.
How to acknowledge what you’ve read (citing and referencing), 2004, Monash University
Library, viewed 23 March 2005, <http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/vl/cite/citecon.htm>.
Li, X & Crane, NB 1996, Electronic styles: a handbook for citing electronic information,
Information Today Inc., Medford,N.J.
References/bibliography Harvard style 2002, University of Queensland Cyberlibrary, viewed
26 March 2005, <http://www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/harvard.html>.
References – the Harvard system 2005, University of Western England, viewed 8 February
2005, <http://www.uwe.ac.uk/library/resources/general/info_study_skills/harvard2.htm>.
Referencing – Harvard system 2004, Newcastle University Library, viewed 23 March 2005,
<http://www.newcastle.edu.au/services/library/bio11030/ref_harvard.html>.
Referencing – the ’in-text’ or Harvard system, Internet sources, 2004, University of New South
Wales, viewed 26 March 2005, <http://www.lc.unsw.edu/au/onlib/ref4.html>.
Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, 2002, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.
Wright, M 1996, Citing online material, Stylewise, vol. 2 no. 2.
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