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INTRODUCTION

**The ‘Fender’ called as the ‘Mud-Guard’ is used to keep off mud, pebbles,
**

and other road debris from splashing on and scratching the coat of the vehicle and

designed in such a fashion to reduce wind resistance. Fenders also add sufficient

housing for the wheels and suspension linkages[1].Till recently fender torsional

vibration analysis was done by the empirical formulae and iterative procedures,

but the simplifying assumption that a throw of fender has one degree of freedom is

only partially true for torsional modes of vibrations[2].More degrees of freedom

are required to get information about other modes of vibration and stress

distribution. Since last decade advent of powerful finite element analysis (FEA)

packages have proven good tool to accurately analyse them[7]. The complicated

geometry of fender and the complex torque applied by cylinders make their analysis

difficult. But optimized meshing and accurate simulation of boundary conditions

along with ability to apply complex torque, provided by various FEM packages have

helped the designer to carry torsional vibration analysis with the investigation

of critical stresses [2].

FEM enables to find critical locations and quantitative analysis of the

stress distribution and deformed shapes under loads. However detailed modeling and

specialized knowledge of FEM theory are indispensable to perform these analyses

with high accuracy. They also require complicated meshing strategies. Simulation

of actual boundary conditions to equivalent FE boundary conditions has to be done

carefully because a wrongly modeled boundary condition leads to erroneous results.

The solution of such large scale FEM problem requires both large memory and disc

space as computing resources[4].

The main motivation behind the work was to go for complete FEA of fender

rather than empirical formulae and iterative procedures. The specific fender of a

major automobile company is taken as the model for the analysis.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 HISTORY

A vast amount of work has been done on fender torsional vibration analysis

using numerical simulation methods. But a few researches have carried the complete

analysis using FEM. The analysis becomes a CAE analysis if FEM is to be used. The

basic literature available is provided as follows.

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

J Remmy , M. V. Blackwell and C. D. Natale [1] on their work on ‘Corvette Z06

carbon fiber fender – Engineering design and Material selection considerations’

reported that ,fenders used for the new automobiles for the mass reduction

opportunity on painted body panels of the system. The successful implementation of

the carbon fiber hood on the same system is done, and then finds that fenders are

the identified as the best application for the technology given their location on

the front of the vehicle and the amount of mass saved.

K Muniyasamy, R Govindrajan , N Jayaram, K Ravi [2] on their work on

‘Vibration fatigue analysis of motorcycle front fender’ reported that, vibration

analysis is an advanced technique to evaluate the life of the component .Front

fender is a styling component generally made with the plastic material and

undergoes vibrations. Therefore it is very difficult to design the fender based

only on the static load cases. Vibration fatigue analysis using FEM is use to

ensure the durability of the design stage itself.

Yang Hu,Li zhang ,Jian An [3] on their work on ‘Spring back study on a

stamped fender outer’ reported the comparison of measurement and simulated

prediction data is summarized. A method to describe the consistency of measurement

and accuracy to simulation prediction is being proposed. A simple measurement

design fixture is designed for the panel, herein non contact leaser technology is

applied, and then the measurement data are compared with the original cad design

surface and deviation contour maps are plotted.

F Cirak, M. J. Scott, E. K. Antonsson, M Ortiz and P. Schroder [4] on

their work on ‘Integrated Modeling, Finite-Element Analysis, and Engineering

Design for Thin-Shell Structures using Subdivision’ reported that, for engineering

design purposes efficient transition between geometric modeling and mechanical

simulation is essential. For the evaluation of various stress analysis, geometric

modeling, mechanical simulation of thin flexible structures is being required.

Traditionally, geometric modeling, mechanical simulation, and engineering design

are treated as separate modules requiring different methods and representations.

Due to the incompatibility of the involved representations the transition from

geometric modeling to mechanical simulation, as well as in the opposite direction,

requires substantial effort. They propose the use of subdivision surfaces as a

common foundation for modeling, simulation, and design in a unified framework.

Subdivision surfaces provide a flexible and efficient tool for arbitrary topology

free-form surface modeling, avoiding many of the problems inherent in traditional

spline patch based approaches.

SY Fukuhara, H Hamane, K Uchida ,Y Hasegawa, K Baba and Y Ishikawa[5] on

their work on ‘Development of Plastic Fender for New DELICA D5’reported that,

the use of on-line paintable, highly heat-resistant, electro conductive plastic

enabled the integration of fender parts, thus reducing vehicle weight by

approximately 4 kg and suppressing cost. Furthermore, the flexibility of plastic

remarkably improved the product resistance to low-intensity collision damage. The

new plastic fender is molded at the plastic parts factory and installed to the

vehicle body on the body welding and assembling line, painted through the paint

process, and finally its fitting is adjusted in the trim fitting process in a

vehicle. CAE analysis was performed for the thermal behavior of the fender in the

painting process to optimize the locations of fixing points and the shapes of

parts. Based on the results of actual line trials and laboratory experiments,

optimal molding conditions were established.

A. K. Johnson and J. J. McGlone [6] in their work on ‘Fender design and

insulation of farrowing huts, Effects on performance of outdoor sows and piglets’

reported that when two studies assessed sow and litter performance , design

features of farrowing huts varied how their structure has been changed. A fender

is a structure that extends out the front of the hut to create a veranda that

prevents young piglets from leaving. In lactating sows and their litters were used

to assess litter performance and the time required to process litters for two

fender designs. A significant fender insulation interaction was observed for

total litter weaning weight. So in fender design, fender fronts, and insulation

effects did not have large influences on sow and litter performance in a West

Texas environment

Dr. Moujalli Hourani ,Mr. Reeves Whitney, Mr. Raymond and Gizzi P.E [7]

on their work on ‘Fender System Selection Using ANSYS’ reported the, complete

investigations of the analysis and design of a proposed fender system. Finite

elements analysis using ANSYS were performed on a wood fender system and a steel

fender system subjected to impact load caused by a vessel collision. The impact

load was converted into equivalent static load. The selection of the most

efficient fender system is based on the principle on energy absorption of the

system to the impact load. The ANSYS program was chosen to perform the analysis

because it has an excellent feature that calculates the potential energy of the

material.

B Marc,L Jan and V L Tom[8] on their work on ‘Validation of automotive

component FE models by means of test analysis correlation and model updating

techniques’ reported on the test analysis correlation and model updating

activities carried out on HPC-VAO. The central aim of the work is to implement the

CAE environment to support design optimization in the field of NVH engineering.

The objective is to cover the validation of simulation models that are used in

automotive components.

2.3 COMMENTS

Front fender is a styling component generally made with the plastic

material and undergoes vibrations. Fender has been designed on the basis of

vibrations occurred on the roads. Then vibration fatigue analysis has been

reported for the two wheeler front fender. Now we have to analyze the fender of

three wheeler for its stresses, the analysis is of two types modal and

structural .Then the frequency and stresses found out by FEA has been validated by

using FFT analyzer and strain gauges .The existing model fender is made of SMC 506

type of plastics. Optimization of the fender material has to be done among the

five types of different plastics.

2.4 OBJECTIVES

The project aims at detail stress analysis of fender. The following are the

main objectives of the project.

1. Building a 3-D Solid parametric model of fender, in Catia V 5.

2. Meshing the model by Tetrahedral Solid 45 elements in Hypermesh.

3. Then the finite element analysis has been done in FEA.

4. Experimental validation of modal analysis has to be carrying out using FFT

analyser.

5. Behaviour of torsional modes, bending modes and combined modes of vibration

we have to study for the system.

6. Then optimization of the fender material has to be done among the five types

of different materials.

3. GENERIC OVERVIEW OF FENDER

**The ‘Fender’ called as the ‘Mud-Guard’ is used to keep off mud, pebbles,
**

and other road debris from splashing on and scratching the coat of the vehicle and

designed in such a fashion to reduce wind resistance. Fenders also add sufficient

housing for the wheels and suspension linkages. They are designed in different

size, shape and colors for vehicles depends upon individual requirement. Various

materials are used for fenders depends on the strength and life requirements from

it and to meet this different manufacturing methods are used with respect to

material used. More preferred materials are sheet metal, plastic and fiber

reinforced plastic. Plastic preferred because of its light weight characteristic

but strength is a problem over sheet metal fender [1].

While designing the fender following factors should be considered. The

fender should provide sufficient cover to the wheel and suspension linkages, it

should have sufficient strength to withstand loads and vibration under all

operating conditions. Apart from normal loads the fender is subjected to different

handling conditions during repair and maintenance of the vehicle. The vehicle is

normally handled by mechanics during repair and maintenance with the help of

fender for which it is not designed and manufactured. The manufacturer of the

vehicle now came to know that the fender design and they modified for handling

during repair and maintenance.

3.2 FENDER VIBRATIONS

In fender various types of excitation forces exist. These directly or

indirectly affect the fender dynamics. Fender is associated various vibrating

stresses because of high speed of the vehicle. Then because of this vibrations the

fender vibrates at very fast rate. It is capable of vibrating in several different

ways under the excitation forces. The major types of these vibrations are

discussed here [3].

3.2.1Torsional vibrations .

In fender it is being fitted on the front side above the front wheel .The

torque is applied to the fender by the vehicle body where it has been fitted. This

torque is of varying nature because of variation in road irregularities. The

fluctuating torque at the causes the twisting and untwisting periodically. Hence

the torsional vibrations are induced. This is the severe mode of vibration and

fender vibrates rigorously at some critical speed. These vibrations need good

analysis and damping requirements [13].

3.2.2 Flexural vibrations

The lateral periodic motion of fender under the fluctuating forces

exerted because of speed breakers cause bending vibrations of fender. This mode

shape generally has many nodes because the bending vibrations are strongly reacted

at the fender connection. This mode produces a lot of noise and causes damage to

running fender [13].

3.2. Axial vibrations

The torsional vibrations can cause axial vibration in the twisting and

untwisting motion. Also radial forces at bolts cause some axial movement of wheel

throw. These vibrations are observed at very high engine speeds and are

comparatively less harmful. These vibrations are common in large fenders.

3.3.4Coupled vibrations

In general, however the various modes of vibration are coupled so that

vibrations of one type can't occur without an accompanying vibration of the other

type. These are not troublesome if there is considerable spread between the

natural frequencies of the modes of vibration involved; i.e. the modes get weakly

coupled.

3.3 INFLUENCE OF FENDER VIBRATIONS

1. The torsional vibrations cause the angular velocities of the entire fender to

vary but not in the same proportions. The portion away from the node has maximum

effects compared to portion near the node. This affects the balancing.

2. Due to same reason discussed above, stresses of varying intensity are generated

in whole length of the fender. These are also fluctuating in nature and hence

cause fatigue of fender, reducing its life. The stresses induced are dangerous at

fillet or bolt locations [2].

So because of this various types of vibrations and stresses during lifting

for the existing fender it has overcome all the types stress for the SMC 506 type

of plastic .And now we have to optimize a another type of plastic material from

five different types plastics which give better results than SMC 506 for different

type of vibration and stresses. The analysis should be carried out to find the

various natural frequencies so that the resonant frequency can be avoided.

4. FEM APPROACH

4.1 INTRODUCTION

It is not always possible to obtain the exact analytical solution at any

location in the body, especially for those elements having complex shapes or

geometries. Always what matters are the boundary conditions and material

properties. In such cases, the analytical solution that satisfies the governing

equation or gives extreme values for the governing functional is difficult to

obtain. Hence for most of the practical problems, the engineers resort to

numerical methods like the finite element method to obtain approximate but most

probable solutions [7].

**4.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD
**

In any analysis we always select a mathematical model of a physical problem,

and then we solve that model. Although the finite element method is employed to

solve very complex mathematical models, but it is important to realize that the

finite element solution can never give more information than that contained in the

mathematical model [16].

4.2.1 Physical Problems, Mathematical Models And FE Solution [7].

The physical problem typically involves an actual structure or structural

component subjected to certain loads. The idealization of the physical problem to

a mathematical model requires certain assumptions that together lead to

differential equations governing the mathematical model. The finite element

analysis solves this mathematical model. Since the finite element solution

technique is a numerical procedure, it is necessary to access the solution

accuracy. If the accuracy criteria are not met, the numerical solution has to be

repeated with refined solution parameters (such as finer meshes) until a

sufficient accuracy is reached.

4.3 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING AND ANALYSIS

4.3.1 Three Phases Of Analysis

For determining stresses and deflections the following steps of the

analysis are essential:

a) Preparation of input data: The requisite data for the given problem is geometry

(i.e. model), material properties and boundary conditions (i.e. loads and

constraints).

b) Solution: This involves solving the necessary equations to calculate the

unknown parameters.

c) Arrangements of results: The results obtained for stress analysis may be

presented in the form of tables or graphical images like stress patterns,

displacement patterns.

4.3.2 Steps Followed In Ansys Program [7]

The three important steps in ANSYS programming are:

a) Preprocessing

b) Solution

c) Post processing.

**a) Preprocessing: This phase consists of making available the input data
**

such as geometry, material properties, meshing of the model, boundary conditions

and has the following steps 1) Set up: Here we enter the analysis type, the

material properties, and the geometry (i.e. prepare the model). The model may be

built parametrically or a model from other software package can be imported. 2)

Create FE model: In this step we divide the total volume into small simple regular

volumes, which can be easily meshed. Then we define the mesh size for each small

volume by virtually dividing all the edges of the small volume into same

divisions.3) Loading: In this step the boundary conditions are imposed, i.e.

forces and constraints, on the model are defined.

b) Solution: In this phase a solver is used to solve the basic equation

for the analysis type and to compute the results.

c) Postprocessing: This is the phase where the results are reviewed for the

analysis done, by obtaining graphic displays, vector-plots and tabular reports of

stress and displacement, etc.

4.4 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS [4]

The dynamic analysis is the analysis of the system under consideration when

forces are acting on the system. It considers external excitation forces and

inertia forces. FEM approach is widely used to solve dynamic analysis problems.

The dynamic analysis is divided into two types either transient or frequency

response. In case of transient response the forcing functions are defined as

functions of time. While in frequency response they are functions of frequency. In

the project it is possible to use any one of the above but the transient response

requires a very small time step of the order of 0.001 sec. to have better

accuracy. This is not possible as far as available resources are considered. So

the frequency analysis is adopted in the project. To convert time dependent forces

to frequency dependant, fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used. The frequency

response analysis is of two types either direct or modal frequency response.

4.5 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS [4]

It is a method to compute structural response to steady state oscillatory

excitations. Examples are the rotating m/c. The steady state response occurs at

same frequency of loading. The response may be shifted in time due to damping in

the system. This shift is called phase shift. Two different numerical methods are

employed in frequency response analysis, direct and modal.

5. SOLID MODELING OF FENDER

**To carry out FEM analysis of any component, the solid model of the same is
**

essential. It is also called body in white. So the solid model of FENDER is

require and this can be done in special CAD package Catia V5. It is proposed to

use FBM using Catia V5 because of its advantages over other methods and

availability of parameterisation functions.

5.2 MODELING DETAILS [7]

5.2.1 2-D Drawing

For generation of a 3-D model, 2-D orthographic views are required.

The fender 2 D drawing is being as shown in fig 5.1

5.2.2 3-D Model

Using 2-D drawings one can prepare isometric views of a component and

using that, solid model is generated. A feature based modeling technique is used

for every individual part. These parts are assembled to get complete fender. After

the assembly, fine fillets and chamfer details at ends, transition sections,

joint between parts etc. are created by surface generation techniques. Another

intricate and difficult part is the creation of oil holes.. This parts are placed

at the exact location using point object ‘move’ technique. Finally boolean

operation is performed to extract the required geometry. This process is repeated

for each orientation of ribs.Using similar techniques complete fender assembly is

generated in 3-D model. Fig. 5.2 shows a 3-D plot of the model used for a specific

vehicle.

5.3 BUILDING CLEAN GEOMETRY [5]

In short, clean geometry can be defined as a solid CAD model that maximizes

the possibility for a’ mesh which in turn captures the features required for

correct results. Two key points are made in this statement. First, the geometric

features must not prevent the mesh from being created and must also contain

surfaces of consistent size and shape ratios to prevent forcing high, aspect ratio

elements and/or transitions between element edges that may compromise accuracy.

Second, simplification or manipulation of features in an attempt to clean up the

geometry should not reduce the structural integrity of the part. The best mesh is

the smallest model that yields correct data. Consequently, manipulation of the

model, either by adjusting dimensions or suppressing features far from any area of

interest, is acceptable, as effects local to the simplification will most likely

not affect the global behavior of the system. However, care should be taken when

adjusting a model near an area of concern.

The best safeguard against the need to clean up geometry near an area of

interest is to not create a problem in the first place. Many designers make

dimensions and feature size choices based on convenience. Consequently, it is not

surprising that short edges or sliver surfaces appear randomly in a model. If the

feature choices are made with the knowledge of downstream needs, many of the

modeling issues that plague the automeshers and analysts can’ be avoided.

Essentially, automeshers pave or seed the outer surfaces of a part with

triangles, and then fill towards the center of the volume. Unless local mesh

refinement is employed the automeshers will try to space nodes on edges first and

then within surfaces at the defined nominal element size. However, most meshers

are constrained to use every point or edge on the part. Consequently, when a short

edge is encountered, it will space the two legs of the triangle that are not on

the offending edge to full element size and limit the edge length of the third to

the physical geometric edge. This short edge will affect at least two elements in

a tet model and may affect more depending on your tool’s algorithms for

transitioning.

Limiting the size of small edges to no less than one-third of the expected

nominal element size is good practice. This is great on paper, but difficult in

practice. Educating geometry providers on the needs of FEA will help. Planning and

evaluating features as they are created will also help in this case.

The primary causes of short edges are the misalignment of features and the

proximity of fillet edges to other edges. Some commonly created short edges that

could have been eliminated with proper planning of geometry are shown in the three

illustrations appearing in this section.

6. FE MESH GENERATION [4]

**After modeling next step is generation of Finite Element Mesh. For the
**

fender solid elements are used for meshing. A very fine mesh creates the hardware

space problem because the computations become voluminous. As the number of nodes

increases, the total degrees of freedom of the model increases Hence a designer

has to model it optimally i.e. placing fine mesh only at critical area; and coarse

mesh at other. So that the run time is less and also the accuracy is not much

affected.

6.1 Mesh Refinement:

After generation of coarse mesh, it is refined as per the geometry and

critical sections of the model. It can be refined in different ways .

6.2 Mesh Transition:

Mesh transition occurs when refined mesh interfaces with coarse mesh. It

connects different types of elements. One common method of performing a transition

is to use an intermediate belt of different elements.

6.3. Mesh Generation:

6.3.1 Introduction

In order to carry out a finite element analysis, the model we are using

must be divided into a number of small pieces known as finite elements. Since the

model is divided into a number of discrete parts, FEA can be described as a

discretization technique. In simple terms, a mathematical net or “mesh” is

required to carry out a finite element analysis. If the system under investigation

is 1D in nature, we may use line elements to represent our geometry and to carry

out our analysis. If the problem can be described in two dimensions, then a 2D

mesh is required. Correspondingly, if the problem is complex and a 3D

representation of the continuum is required, then we use a 3D mesh.

6.3.2 Area Meshing

Area elements can be triangular or quadrilateral in shape. The selection of

the element shape and order is based on considerations relating to the complexity

of the geometry and the nature of the problem being modelled. Membrane elements

don’t have any thickness. As a consequence they have no bending stiffness; loads

can only be carried in the element plane. Plate & shell elements are used to model

thin walled regions in 3D space.

The plate element is formulated around plate theory, which assumes

that the load is carried via bending. Shell elements are used to model shells,

where there is combination of flexure & membrane action. Plate elements are

considered applicable where the out of plane distortion is little more than the

plate thickness. There are also special elements, which facilitate accurate

modelling of thick plates. If the deflection is greater than the plate thickness,

membrane action should be considered, and so shell elements should be used. Shell

element nodes have five degrees of freedom; the missing is the in-plane rotational

freedom (sometimes referred to as the drilling freedom). Solid elements come in

different varieties. Axisymmetric elements are used to describe the cross-section

of an axially symmetric part. Plane strain elements are used to describe section

of long objects (such as a shaft or wall cross-section). The strain in the out-of-

plane direction is taken to be zero, reflecting the assumption that the strain is

in one Plane stress elements are used to describe sections of thin objects (such

as a wrench). The stress in the out-of-plane direction is taken to be zero,

reflecting the assumption that the stress is in one plane. The two dimensional

elements are shown in fig .6.1 .

1) Fender

· SOLID 92- Element Description:

We done the solid meshing using SOLID-92 10 NODE 92 element

Surface meshing by Triangular 6 node element

Ø Element edge length – 1.5 mm for fender.

Because in this fender model chamfer width is 3 mm, so for better results

**We can take two elements in this area.
**

SOLID92 has a quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to model

irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). The element is

defined by ten nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in

the nodal x, y, and z directions. The element also has plasticity, creep,

swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities.

(Fig. 6.3)

6.3.4 Mesh Density:

The art of using FEM lies in choosing the correct mesh density required

to solve a problem. If the mesh is too coarse, then the element will not allow a

correct solution to be obtained. Alternatively, if the mesh is too fine, the cost

of analysis in computing time can be |out of proportion to the results obtained.

In order to define a relevant mesh, some idea of parameter distributions (stress,

temperature, pressure, etc.) within the component is required. If the answer is

known, then a good mesh can be defined. A fine mesh is required where there are

high parameter gradients and strain and a course mesh is sufficient in areas that

have result contours of reasonably constant slope.

Ø Refinement of Mesh:

It ensures finer mesh around fillets and bolt locations. Theses are the

areas of concern because the load gets applied over them. Finer mesh model caused

hardware disc space problem for final dynamic response analysis. It required more

than 4 GB space on disc. To solve this problem, a coarse mesh was generated.

After first solve with finer mesh it was observed that only fillet area is

critical. So the finer mesh in other areas was replaced by coarse mesh for this,

original fillet area mesh part, which was fine, was attached with coarse part by

applying ‘displacement constraints’ at interface between finer mesh and coarse

mesh. These constraints will ensure that at interface both nodes will be having

same rotation component of displacement.

7. FEA RESULTS FOR THE FENDER.

**Keeping in mind the different mode of vibration for the fender as
**

discussed in chapter no 3; we are interested in the study the following system.

The effect of different assembled components on the fender mode shape and natural

frequency is our objective.

· System : A simple fender

7.1 ANSYS ROUTINE SOLUTION

Fender

Center of mass, Mass, and Mass moments of inertia Calculations assume

element mass at element centroid

Total mass = 0.13000e-01

Ø Mass summary by element type ( Table 7.1)

Type Mass

21 0.129995E-01

In the table 7.2 Frequencies From Block Lanczos are being shown.

From the various frequencies applied for the fender we have to find out such

a frequency that will be a quiet appropriate such that torsion and bending are

takes place. Then from these frequencies obtained in the table 7.1 there is such a

specific frequency such as 690E-03 to 0.143809 Hz are the higher and lower

frequencies .Then applying such a different frequencies we are going to obtain

such a results.

**Deformation Plot For first bending mode for FENDER( fig 7.7).
**

For the frequency 61.847 Hz the first bending mode is being takes place

during that bending, the various deflection values are as follows. From plot we

found the maximum deflection is 25.977 mm and minimum deflection is 0.019637 mm.

**Deformation For first torsion mode for FENDER( fig 7.11).
**

For the frequency 187.938 Hz the first torsion mode is being takes place

during that torsion, the various deflection values are as follows. From plot we

found the maximum deflection is 21.748 mm and minimum deflection is 0.037536 mm

**Deformation Plot For 1st Combined Mode ( fig 7.14).
**

For the frequency 284.12 Hz the combined mode is being takes place during

that combined mode the various deflection values are as follows. From plot we

found the maximum deflection is 27.3 mm and minimum deflection is 0.076872 mm.

**So by observing such a different frequencies we find the specific frequency
**

for bending and torsion. Then these results we are using in the optimization of

the fender among different types of plastics and in their analysis we are finding

such a material that having some higher values for the bending and torsion and

also for the combined mode.

8. OPTIMIZATION OF THE FENDER MATERIAL.

**Then after the analysis of the fender , the next step is to optimize the
**

fender material on the basis of natural frequencies obtained by the analysis of

fender for five different materials. Optimization is the body of mathematics that

deals with maxima and minima and how to find maxima and minima numerically.

Optimization is the process of maximizing the desired quantity or

minimizing the undesired quantity. By the term optimum design we mean the best of

all feasible (solutions) design. In our project is to do the optimization of the

fender material so for doing that optimization we have to use the following steps

for doing the optimization

For this optimization we are doing the FEA analysis of five different

materials we have selected five different types of plastics and finding out their

combined mode of frequency as obtained for the existing fender. For the existing

fender the current combined mode of frequency is 284.12 Hz. So after optimization

we are obtaining the frequency for the new material more than the 284.12 Hz.

8.1 Optimization Strategy.

So in order to do the optimization of the following materials for the fender , we

have to follow the following steps . We have to first make a primary design

equation , secondary design equation, then limit equations and then to

1) primary design equation

the most significant desirable effect to be maximizing is the frequency.

w m = (k/m) 1/2

2 ) Subsidiary design equation

Fatigue stress induced in the material .

3) Limit equation

L.E is

Tensile strength ( Sigma t ) = S yt \ FOS.

4) Classification of parameters

specified limited Unspecified and unlimited

Functional requirement parameter w m, F.O.S.

Undesirable effect parameter Fatigue stress

Geometric parameters A

Material parameters C, (rho) ,Syt

**4) Combining SDE and PDE.
**

5) Combining limits equation with PDE.

Where w = natural frequency

FOS = factor of safety.

A = area

C = cost of plastics

Rho = density of plastic material.

S yt = Yield strength.

By this process of optimization we are going to get such a material for the fender

that having maximum combined mode frequency and minimum fatigue stresses induced

on it.

9. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

**By building a parametric model, meshing the model in hyper mesh, and doing
**

the finite element analysis of the fender can be analyzed .Various boundary

conditions are being employed in order to predict vibration stresses in FEA and so

to get more accurate work. To avoid failing of the fender a good diagnosis of

fender vibrations is required. The analysis should be carried out to find the

various natural frequencies so that the critical speeds can be avoided. A stress

cycle should be identified so that the fatigue cycle can be estimated and

depending upon that the life prediction can be done.

1) FE based methodology is very useful to predict modal and structural behaviors

of the front fender of the three wheeler in the design stage.

2) In the analysis of the Fender we are going to get various frequencies such as

61.847 Hz at which first torsion mode takes place.

3) Then in analysis of the Fender we are going to get the frequency of 187.938 Hz

at which first Bending mode takes place.

3) And also in analysis of the Fender we are going to get the frequency of 284.12

Hz at which combined mode takes place.

4) This FEM analysis helps in reducing development time and cost.

5) The next step is the optimization of fender material based on the combined mode

of frequency is to be done.

7) Further to this the same approach can be done for other fenders also.

REFERENCES

**1) J Remmy, M Voss Blackwell, and C D Natale, “Corvette Z06 carbon fiber fender
**

– Engineering design and Material selection considerations.” SAE international,

2005, 2005-01-0468.

2) K Muniyasamy, R Govindrajan, N jayaram, K Ravi, “Vibration fatigue analysis

of motorcycle front fender”, SAE international, 2005, 2005-32-0030.

3) Yang Hu,Li Zhang ,Jian An, “Spring back study on a stamped fender outer”, SAE

international ,2003, 2003-01-0685.

4) F Cirak, M. J. Scott, E. K. Antonsson,M Ortiz and P. Schroder “Integrated

Modeling, Finite-Element Analysis, and Engineering Design for Thin-Shell

Structures using Subdivision” Division of Engineering and Applied Science,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, U.S.A.

5) S I Y Fukuhara, H Hamane, K Uchida ,Yuichi Hasegawa, K Baba ,Y Ishikawa,

“Development of Plastic Fender for New DELICA D:5 On the new DELICA

D:5”,2007,Technical review, No 19,95-100.

6) A. K. Johnson and J. J. McGlone “Fender design and insulation of farrowing

huts: Effects on performance of outdoor sows and piglets” J Anim Sci 2003, 81:955-

964.

7) M. Hourani, R. Whitney, R. Gizzi “Fender System Selection Using ANSYS”

Design and Construction of Ports and Marine Structures, Quinn, McGraw-Hill,1972.

8) B Marc, L Jan, V L Tom, “Validation of automotive component FE models by means

of test analysis correlation and model updating techniques”, SAE international ,

1999, 1999-01-1797.

9) Kirpal Singh, “Automobile Engineering”, Volume-2, Standard Publishers

Distributors, Delhi.

10) Singiresu S. Rao, “Mechnical Vibrations”, Pearson Education Pte. ltd.,Indian

Branch Delhi, 2004.

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