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1.

INTRODUCTION

The ‘Fender’ called as the ‘Mud-Guard’ is used to keep off mud, pebbles,
and other road debris from splashing on and scratching the coat of the vehicle and
designed in such a fashion to reduce wind resistance. Fenders also add sufficient
housing for the wheels and suspension linkages[1].Till recently fender torsional
vibration analysis was done by the empirical formulae and iterative procedures,
but the simplifying assumption that a throw of fender has one degree of freedom is
only partially true for torsional modes of vibrations[2].More degrees of freedom
are required to get information about other modes of vibration and stress
distribution. Since last decade advent of powerful finite element analysis (FEA)
packages have proven good tool to accurately analyse them[7]. The complicated
geometry of fender and the complex torque applied by cylinders make their analysis
difficult. But optimized meshing and accurate simulation of boundary conditions
along with ability to apply complex torque, provided by various FEM packages have
helped the designer to carry torsional vibration analysis with the investigation
of critical stresses [2].
FEM enables to find critical locations and quantitative analysis of the
stress distribution and deformed shapes under loads. However detailed modeling and
specialized knowledge of FEM theory are indispensable to perform these analyses
with high accuracy. They also require complicated meshing strategies. Simulation
of actual boundary conditions to equivalent FE boundary conditions has to be done
carefully because a wrongly modeled boundary condition leads to erroneous results.
The solution of such large scale FEM problem requires both large memory and disc
space as computing resources[4].
The main motivation behind the work was to go for complete FEA of fender
rather than empirical formulae and iterative procedures. The specific fender of a
major automobile company is taken as the model for the analysis.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 HISTORY
A vast amount of work has been done on fender torsional vibration analysis
using numerical simulation methods. But a few researches have carried the complete
analysis using FEM. The analysis becomes a CAE analysis if FEM is to be used. The
basic literature available is provided as follows.
2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
J Remmy , M. V. Blackwell and C. D. Natale [1] on their work on ‘Corvette Z06
carbon fiber fender – Engineering design and Material selection considerations’
reported that ,fenders used for the new automobiles for the mass reduction
opportunity on painted body panels of the system. The successful implementation of
the carbon fiber hood on the same system is done, and then finds that fenders are
the identified as the best application for the technology given their location on
the front of the vehicle and the amount of mass saved.
K Muniyasamy, R Govindrajan , N Jayaram, K Ravi [2] on their work on
‘Vibration fatigue analysis of motorcycle front fender’ reported that, vibration
analysis is an advanced technique to evaluate the life of the component .Front
fender is a styling component generally made with the plastic material and
undergoes vibrations. Therefore it is very difficult to design the fender based
only on the static load cases. Vibration fatigue analysis using FEM is use to
ensure the durability of the design stage itself.
Yang Hu,Li zhang ,Jian An [3] on their work on ‘Spring back study on a
stamped fender outer’ reported the comparison of measurement and simulated
prediction data is summarized. A method to describe the consistency of measurement
and accuracy to simulation prediction is being proposed. A simple measurement
design fixture is designed for the panel, herein non contact leaser technology is
applied, and then the measurement data are compared with the original cad design
surface and deviation contour maps are plotted.
F Cirak, M. J. Scott, E. K. Antonsson, M Ortiz and P. Schroder [4] on
their work on ‘Integrated Modeling, Finite-Element Analysis, and Engineering
Design for Thin-Shell Structures using Subdivision’ reported that, for engineering
design purposes efficient transition between geometric modeling and mechanical
simulation is essential. For the evaluation of various stress analysis, geometric
modeling, mechanical simulation of thin flexible structures is being required.
Traditionally, geometric modeling, mechanical simulation, and engineering design
are treated as separate modules requiring different methods and representations.
Due to the incompatibility of the involved representations the transition from
geometric modeling to mechanical simulation, as well as in the opposite direction,
requires substantial effort. They propose the use of subdivision surfaces as a
common foundation for modeling, simulation, and design in a unified framework.
Subdivision surfaces provide a flexible and efficient tool for arbitrary topology
free-form surface modeling, avoiding many of the problems inherent in traditional
spline patch based approaches.
SY Fukuhara, H Hamane, K Uchida ,Y Hasegawa, K Baba and Y Ishikawa[5] on
their work on ‘Development of Plastic Fender for New DELICA D5’reported that,
the use of on-line paintable, highly heat-resistant, electro conductive plastic
enabled the integration of fender parts, thus reducing vehicle weight by
approximately 4 kg and suppressing cost. Furthermore, the flexibility of plastic
remarkably improved the product resistance to low-intensity collision damage. The
new plastic fender is molded at the plastic parts factory and installed to the
vehicle body on the body welding and assembling line, painted through the paint
process, and finally its fitting is adjusted in the trim fitting process in a
vehicle. CAE analysis was performed for the thermal behavior of the fender in the
painting process to optimize the locations of fixing points and the shapes of
parts. Based on the results of actual line trials and laboratory experiments,
optimal molding conditions were established.
A. K. Johnson and J. J. McGlone [6] in their work on ‘Fender design and
insulation of farrowing huts, Effects on performance of outdoor sows and piglets’
reported that when two studies assessed sow and litter performance , design
features of farrowing huts varied how their structure has been changed. A fender
is a structure that extends out the front of the hut to create a veranda that
prevents young piglets from leaving. In lactating sows and their litters were used
to assess litter performance and the time required to process litters for two
fender designs. A significant fender insulation interaction was observed for
total litter weaning weight. So in fender design, fender fronts, and insulation
effects did not have large influences on sow and litter performance in a West
Texas environment
Dr. Moujalli Hourani ,Mr. Reeves Whitney, Mr. Raymond and Gizzi P.E [7]
on their work on ‘Fender System Selection Using ANSYS’ reported the, complete
investigations of the analysis and design of a proposed fender system. Finite
elements analysis using ANSYS were performed on a wood fender system and a steel
fender system subjected to impact load caused by a vessel collision. The impact
load was converted into equivalent static load. The selection of the most
efficient fender system is based on the principle on energy absorption of the
system to the impact load. The ANSYS program was chosen to perform the analysis
because it has an excellent feature that calculates the potential energy of the
material.
B Marc,L Jan and V L Tom[8] on their work on ‘Validation of automotive
component FE models by means of test analysis correlation and model updating
techniques’ reported on the test analysis correlation and model updating
activities carried out on HPC-VAO. The central aim of the work is to implement the
CAE environment to support design optimization in the field of NVH engineering.
The objective is to cover the validation of simulation models that are used in
automotive components.
2.3 COMMENTS
Front fender is a styling component generally made with the plastic
material and undergoes vibrations. Fender has been designed on the basis of
vibrations occurred on the roads. Then vibration fatigue analysis has been
reported for the two wheeler front fender. Now we have to analyze the fender of
three wheeler for its stresses, the analysis is of two types modal and
structural .Then the frequency and stresses found out by FEA has been validated by
using FFT analyzer and strain gauges .The existing model fender is made of SMC 506
type of plastics. Optimization of the fender material has to be done among the
five types of different plastics.
2.4 OBJECTIVES
The project aims at detail stress analysis of fender. The following are the
main objectives of the project.
1. Building a 3-D Solid parametric model of fender, in Catia V 5.
2. Meshing the model by Tetrahedral Solid 45 elements in Hypermesh.
3. Then the finite element analysis has been done in FEA.
4. Experimental validation of modal analysis has to be carrying out using FFT
analyser.
5. Behaviour of torsional modes, bending modes and combined modes of vibration
we have to study for the system.
6. Then optimization of the fender material has to be done among the five types
of different materials.
3. GENERIC OVERVIEW OF FENDER

The ‘Fender’ called as the ‘Mud-Guard’ is used to keep off mud, pebbles,
and other road debris from splashing on and scratching the coat of the vehicle and
designed in such a fashion to reduce wind resistance. Fenders also add sufficient
housing for the wheels and suspension linkages. They are designed in different
size, shape and colors for vehicles depends upon individual requirement. Various
materials are used for fenders depends on the strength and life requirements from
it and to meet this different manufacturing methods are used with respect to
material used. More preferred materials are sheet metal, plastic and fiber
reinforced plastic. Plastic preferred because of its light weight characteristic
but strength is a problem over sheet metal fender [1].
While designing the fender following factors should be considered. The
fender should provide sufficient cover to the wheel and suspension linkages, it
should have sufficient strength to withstand loads and vibration under all
operating conditions. Apart from normal loads the fender is subjected to different
handling conditions during repair and maintenance of the vehicle. The vehicle is
normally handled by mechanics during repair and maintenance with the help of
fender for which it is not designed and manufactured. The manufacturer of the
vehicle now came to know that the fender design and they modified for handling
during repair and maintenance.
3.2 FENDER VIBRATIONS
In fender various types of excitation forces exist. These directly or
indirectly affect the fender dynamics. Fender is associated various vibrating
stresses because of high speed of the vehicle. Then because of this vibrations the
fender vibrates at very fast rate. It is capable of vibrating in several different
ways under the excitation forces. The major types of these vibrations are
discussed here [3].
3.2.1Torsional vibrations .
In fender it is being fitted on the front side above the front wheel .The
torque is applied to the fender by the vehicle body where it has been fitted. This
torque is of varying nature because of variation in road irregularities. The
fluctuating torque at the causes the twisting and untwisting periodically. Hence
the torsional vibrations are induced. This is the severe mode of vibration and
fender vibrates rigorously at some critical speed. These vibrations need good
analysis and damping requirements [13].
3.2.2 Flexural vibrations
The lateral periodic motion of fender under the fluctuating forces
exerted because of speed breakers cause bending vibrations of fender. This mode
shape generally has many nodes because the bending vibrations are strongly reacted
at the fender connection. This mode produces a lot of noise and causes damage to
running fender [13].
3.2. Axial vibrations
The torsional vibrations can cause axial vibration in the twisting and
untwisting motion. Also radial forces at bolts cause some axial movement of wheel
throw. These vibrations are observed at very high engine speeds and are
comparatively less harmful. These vibrations are common in large fenders.
3.3.4Coupled vibrations
In general, however the various modes of vibration are coupled so that
vibrations of one type can't occur without an accompanying vibration of the other
type. These are not troublesome if there is considerable spread between the
natural frequencies of the modes of vibration involved; i.e. the modes get weakly
coupled.
3.3 INFLUENCE OF FENDER VIBRATIONS
1. The torsional vibrations cause the angular velocities of the entire fender to
vary but not in the same proportions. The portion away from the node has maximum
effects compared to portion near the node. This affects the balancing.
2. Due to same reason discussed above, stresses of varying intensity are generated
in whole length of the fender. These are also fluctuating in nature and hence
cause fatigue of fender, reducing its life. The stresses induced are dangerous at
fillet or bolt locations [2].
So because of this various types of vibrations and stresses during lifting
for the existing fender it has overcome all the types stress for the SMC 506 type
of plastic .And now we have to optimize a another type of plastic material from
five different types plastics which give better results than SMC 506 for different
type of vibration and stresses. The analysis should be carried out to find the
various natural frequencies so that the resonant frequency can be avoided.

4. FEM APPROACH

4.1 INTRODUCTION
It is not always possible to obtain the exact analytical solution at any
location in the body, especially for those elements having complex shapes or
geometries. Always what matters are the boundary conditions and material
properties. In such cases, the analytical solution that satisfies the governing
equation or gives extreme values for the governing functional is difficult to
obtain. Hence for most of the practical problems, the engineers resort to
numerical methods like the finite element method to obtain approximate but most
probable solutions [7].

4.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD
In any analysis we always select a mathematical model of a physical problem,
and then we solve that model. Although the finite element method is employed to
solve very complex mathematical models, but it is important to realize that the
finite element solution can never give more information than that contained in the
mathematical model [16].
4.2.1 Physical Problems, Mathematical Models And FE Solution [7].
The physical problem typically involves an actual structure or structural
component subjected to certain loads. The idealization of the physical problem to
a mathematical model requires certain assumptions that together lead to
differential equations governing the mathematical model. The finite element
analysis solves this mathematical model. Since the finite element solution
technique is a numerical procedure, it is necessary to access the solution
accuracy. If the accuracy criteria are not met, the numerical solution has to be
repeated with refined solution parameters (such as finer meshes) until a
sufficient accuracy is reached.
4.3 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING AND ANALYSIS
4.3.1 Three Phases Of Analysis
For determining stresses and deflections the following steps of the
analysis are essential:
a) Preparation of input data: The requisite data for the given problem is geometry
(i.e. model), material properties and boundary conditions (i.e. loads and
constraints).
b) Solution: This involves solving the necessary equations to calculate the
unknown parameters.
c) Arrangements of results: The results obtained for stress analysis may be
presented in the form of tables or graphical images like stress patterns,
displacement patterns.
4.3.2 Steps Followed In Ansys Program [7]
The three important steps in ANSYS programming are:
a) Preprocessing
b) Solution
c) Post processing.

a) Preprocessing: This phase consists of making available the input data
such as geometry, material properties, meshing of the model, boundary conditions
and has the following steps 1) Set up: Here we enter the analysis type, the
material properties, and the geometry (i.e. prepare the model). The model may be
built parametrically or a model from other software package can be imported. 2)
Create FE model: In this step we divide the total volume into small simple regular
volumes, which can be easily meshed. Then we define the mesh size for each small
volume by virtually dividing all the edges of the small volume into same
divisions.3) Loading: In this step the boundary conditions are imposed, i.e.
forces and constraints, on the model are defined.
b) Solution: In this phase a solver is used to solve the basic equation
for the analysis type and to compute the results.
c) Postprocessing: This is the phase where the results are reviewed for the
analysis done, by obtaining graphic displays, vector-plots and tabular reports of
stress and displacement, etc.
4.4 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS [4]
The dynamic analysis is the analysis of the system under consideration when
forces are acting on the system. It considers external excitation forces and
inertia forces. FEM approach is widely used to solve dynamic analysis problems.
The dynamic analysis is divided into two types either transient or frequency
response. In case of transient response the forcing functions are defined as
functions of time. While in frequency response they are functions of frequency. In
the project it is possible to use any one of the above but the transient response
requires a very small time step of the order of 0.001 sec. to have better
accuracy. This is not possible as far as available resources are considered. So
the frequency analysis is adopted in the project. To convert time dependent forces
to frequency dependant, fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used. The frequency
response analysis is of two types either direct or modal frequency response.
4.5 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS [4]
It is a method to compute structural response to steady state oscillatory
excitations. Examples are the rotating m/c. The steady state response occurs at
same frequency of loading. The response may be shifted in time due to damping in
the system. This shift is called phase shift. Two different numerical methods are
employed in frequency response analysis, direct and modal.
5. SOLID MODELING OF FENDER

To carry out FEM analysis of any component, the solid model of the same is
essential. It is also called body in white. So the solid model of FENDER is
require and this can be done in special CAD package Catia V5. It is proposed to
use FBM using Catia V5 because of its advantages over other methods and
availability of parameterisation functions.
5.2 MODELING DETAILS [7]
5.2.1 2-D Drawing
For generation of a 3-D model, 2-D orthographic views are required.
The fender 2 D drawing is being as shown in fig 5.1
5.2.2 3-D Model
Using 2-D drawings one can prepare isometric views of a component and
using that, solid model is generated. A feature based modeling technique is used
for every individual part. These parts are assembled to get complete fender. After
the assembly, fine fillets and chamfer details at ends, transition sections,
joint between parts etc. are created by surface generation techniques. Another
intricate and difficult part is the creation of oil holes.. This parts are placed
at the exact location using point object ‘move’ technique. Finally boolean
operation is performed to extract the required geometry. This process is repeated
for each orientation of ribs.Using similar techniques complete fender assembly is
generated in 3-D model. Fig. 5.2 shows a 3-D plot of the model used for a specific
vehicle.
5.3 BUILDING CLEAN GEOMETRY [5]
In short, clean geometry can be defined as a solid CAD model that maximizes
the possibility for a’ mesh which in turn captures the features required for
correct results. Two key points are made in this statement. First, the geometric
features must not prevent the mesh from being created and must also contain
surfaces of consistent size and shape ratios to prevent forcing high, aspect ratio
elements and/or transitions between element edges that may compromise accuracy.
Second, simplification or manipulation of features in an attempt to clean up the
geometry should not reduce the structural integrity of the part. The best mesh is
the smallest model that yields correct data. Consequently, manipulation of the
model, either by adjusting dimensions or suppressing features far from any area of
interest, is acceptable, as effects local to the simplification will most likely
not affect the global behavior of the system. However, care should be taken when
adjusting a model near an area of concern.
The best safeguard against the need to clean up geometry near an area of
interest is to not create a problem in the first place. Many designers make
dimensions and feature size choices based on convenience. Consequently, it is not
surprising that short edges or sliver surfaces appear randomly in a model. If the
feature choices are made with the knowledge of downstream needs, many of the
modeling issues that plague the automeshers and analysts can’ be avoided.
Essentially, automeshers pave or seed the outer surfaces of a part with
triangles, and then fill towards the center of the volume. Unless local mesh
refinement is employed the automeshers will try to space nodes on edges first and
then within surfaces at the defined nominal element size. However, most meshers
are constrained to use every point or edge on the part. Consequently, when a short
edge is encountered, it will space the two legs of the triangle that are not on
the offending edge to full element size and limit the edge length of the third to
the physical geometric edge. This short edge will affect at least two elements in
a tet model and may affect more depending on your tool’s algorithms for
transitioning.
Limiting the size of small edges to no less than one-third of the expected
nominal element size is good practice. This is great on paper, but difficult in
practice. Educating geometry providers on the needs of FEA will help. Planning and
evaluating features as they are created will also help in this case.
The primary causes of short edges are the misalignment of features and the
proximity of fillet edges to other edges. Some commonly created short edges that
could have been eliminated with proper planning of geometry are shown in the three
illustrations appearing in this section.

6. FE MESH GENERATION [4]

After modeling next step is generation of Finite Element Mesh. For the
fender solid elements are used for meshing. A very fine mesh creates the hardware
space problem because the computations become voluminous. As the number of nodes
increases, the total degrees of freedom of the model increases Hence a designer
has to model it optimally i.e. placing fine mesh only at critical area; and coarse
mesh at other. So that the run time is less and also the accuracy is not much
affected.
6.1 Mesh Refinement:
After generation of coarse mesh, it is refined as per the geometry and
critical sections of the model. It can be refined in different ways .
6.2 Mesh Transition:
Mesh transition occurs when refined mesh interfaces with coarse mesh. It
connects different types of elements. One common method of performing a transition
is to use an intermediate belt of different elements.
6.3. Mesh Generation:
6.3.1 Introduction
In order to carry out a finite element analysis, the model we are using
must be divided into a number of small pieces known as finite elements. Since the
model is divided into a number of discrete parts, FEA can be described as a
discretization technique. In simple terms, a mathematical net or “mesh” is
required to carry out a finite element analysis. If the system under investigation
is 1D in nature, we may use line elements to represent our geometry and to carry
out our analysis. If the problem can be described in two dimensions, then a 2D
mesh is required. Correspondingly, if the problem is complex and a 3D
representation of the continuum is required, then we use a 3D mesh.
6.3.2 Area Meshing
Area elements can be triangular or quadrilateral in shape. The selection of
the element shape and order is based on considerations relating to the complexity
of the geometry and the nature of the problem being modelled. Membrane elements
don’t have any thickness. As a consequence they have no bending stiffness; loads
can only be carried in the element plane. Plate & shell elements are used to model
thin walled regions in 3D space.
The plate element is formulated around plate theory, which assumes
that the load is carried via bending. Shell elements are used to model shells,
where there is combination of flexure & membrane action. Plate elements are
considered applicable where the out of plane distortion is little more than the
plate thickness. There are also special elements, which facilitate accurate
modelling of thick plates. If the deflection is greater than the plate thickness,
membrane action should be considered, and so shell elements should be used. Shell
element nodes have five degrees of freedom; the missing is the in-plane rotational
freedom (sometimes referred to as the drilling freedom). Solid elements come in
different varieties. Axisymmetric elements are used to describe the cross-section
of an axially symmetric part. Plane strain elements are used to describe section
of long objects (such as a shaft or wall cross-section). The strain in the out-of-
plane direction is taken to be zero, reflecting the assumption that the strain is
in one Plane stress elements are used to describe sections of thin objects (such
as a wrench). The stress in the out-of-plane direction is taken to be zero,
reflecting the assumption that the stress is in one plane. The two dimensional
elements are shown in fig .6.1 .

1) Fender
· SOLID 92- Element Description:
We done the solid meshing using SOLID-92 10 NODE 92 element
Surface meshing by Triangular 6 node element
Ø Element edge length – 1.5 mm for fender.
Because in this fender model chamfer width is 3 mm, so for better results

We can take two elements in this area.
SOLID92 has a quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to model
irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). The element is
defined by ten nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in
the nodal x, y, and z directions. The element also has plasticity, creep,
swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities.
(Fig. 6.3)
6.3.4 Mesh Density:
The art of using FEM lies in choosing the correct mesh density required
to solve a problem. If the mesh is too coarse, then the element will not allow a
correct solution to be obtained. Alternatively, if the mesh is too fine, the cost
of analysis in computing time can be |out of proportion to the results obtained.
In order to define a relevant mesh, some idea of parameter distributions (stress,
temperature, pressure, etc.) within the component is required. If the answer is
known, then a good mesh can be defined. A fine mesh is required where there are
high parameter gradients and strain and a course mesh is sufficient in areas that
have result contours of reasonably constant slope.
Ø Refinement of Mesh:
It ensures finer mesh around fillets and bolt locations. Theses are the
areas of concern because the load gets applied over them. Finer mesh model caused
hardware disc space problem for final dynamic response analysis. It required more
than 4 GB space on disc. To solve this problem, a coarse mesh was generated.
After first solve with finer mesh it was observed that only fillet area is
critical. So the finer mesh in other areas was replaced by coarse mesh for this,
original fillet area mesh part, which was fine, was attached with coarse part by
applying ‘displacement constraints’ at interface between finer mesh and coarse
mesh. These constraints will ensure that at interface both nodes will be having
same rotation component of displacement.
7. FEA RESULTS FOR THE FENDER.

Keeping in mind the different mode of vibration for the fender as
discussed in chapter no 3; we are interested in the study the following system.
The effect of different assembled components on the fender mode shape and natural
frequency is our objective.
· System : A simple fender
7.1 ANSYS ROUTINE SOLUTION
Fender
Center of mass, Mass, and Mass moments of inertia Calculations assume
element mass at element centroid
Total mass = 0.13000e-01
Ø Mass summary by element type ( Table 7.1)
Type Mass
21 0.129995E-01
In the table 7.2 Frequencies From Block Lanczos are being shown.
From the various frequencies applied for the fender we have to find out such
a frequency that will be a quiet appropriate such that torsion and bending are
takes place. Then from these frequencies obtained in the table 7.1 there is such a
specific frequency such as 690E-03 to 0.143809 Hz are the higher and lower
frequencies .Then applying such a different frequencies we are going to obtain
such a results.

Deformation Plot For first bending mode for FENDER( fig 7.7).
For the frequency 61.847 Hz the first bending mode is being takes place
during that bending, the various deflection values are as follows. From plot we
found the maximum deflection is 25.977 mm and minimum deflection is 0.019637 mm.

Deformation For first torsion mode for FENDER( fig 7.11).
For the frequency 187.938 Hz the first torsion mode is being takes place
during that torsion, the various deflection values are as follows. From plot we
found the maximum deflection is 21.748 mm and minimum deflection is 0.037536 mm

Deformation Plot For 1st Combined Mode ( fig 7.14).
For the frequency 284.12 Hz the combined mode is being takes place during
that combined mode the various deflection values are as follows. From plot we
found the maximum deflection is 27.3 mm and minimum deflection is 0.076872 mm.

So by observing such a different frequencies we find the specific frequency
for bending and torsion. Then these results we are using in the optimization of
the fender among different types of plastics and in their analysis we are finding
such a material that having some higher values for the bending and torsion and
also for the combined mode.
8. OPTIMIZATION OF THE FENDER MATERIAL.

Then after the analysis of the fender , the next step is to optimize the
fender material on the basis of natural frequencies obtained by the analysis of
fender for five different materials. Optimization is the body of mathematics that
deals with maxima and minima and how to find maxima and minima numerically.
Optimization is the process of maximizing the desired quantity or
minimizing the undesired quantity. By the term optimum design we mean the best of
all feasible (solutions) design. In our project is to do the optimization of the
fender material so for doing that optimization we have to use the following steps
for doing the optimization
For this optimization we are doing the FEA analysis of five different
materials we have selected five different types of plastics and finding out their
combined mode of frequency as obtained for the existing fender. For the existing
fender the current combined mode of frequency is 284.12 Hz. So after optimization
we are obtaining the frequency for the new material more than the 284.12 Hz.
8.1 Optimization Strategy.
So in order to do the optimization of the following materials for the fender , we
have to follow the following steps . We have to first make a primary design
equation , secondary design equation, then limit equations and then to
1) primary design equation
the most significant desirable effect to be maximizing is the frequency.
w m = (k/m) 1/2
2 ) Subsidiary design equation
Fatigue stress induced in the material .
3) Limit equation
L.E is
Tensile strength ( Sigma t ) = S yt \ FOS.

4) Classification of parameters
specified limited Unspecified and unlimited
Functional requirement parameter w m, F.O.S.
Undesirable effect parameter Fatigue stress
Geometric parameters A
Material parameters C, (rho) ,Syt

4) Combining SDE and PDE.
5) Combining limits equation with PDE.
Where w = natural frequency
FOS = factor of safety.
A = area
C = cost of plastics
Rho = density of plastic material.
S yt = Yield strength.
By this process of optimization we are going to get such a material for the fender
that having maximum combined mode frequency and minimum fatigue stresses induced
on it.

9. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

By building a parametric model, meshing the model in hyper mesh, and doing
the finite element analysis of the fender can be analyzed .Various boundary
conditions are being employed in order to predict vibration stresses in FEA and so
to get more accurate work. To avoid failing of the fender a good diagnosis of
fender vibrations is required. The analysis should be carried out to find the
various natural frequencies so that the critical speeds can be avoided. A stress
cycle should be identified so that the fatigue cycle can be estimated and
depending upon that the life prediction can be done.
1) FE based methodology is very useful to predict modal and structural behaviors
of the front fender of the three wheeler in the design stage.
2) In the analysis of the Fender we are going to get various frequencies such as
61.847 Hz at which first torsion mode takes place.
3) Then in analysis of the Fender we are going to get the frequency of 187.938 Hz
at which first Bending mode takes place.
3) And also in analysis of the Fender we are going to get the frequency of 284.12
Hz at which combined mode takes place.
4) This FEM analysis helps in reducing development time and cost.
5) The next step is the optimization of fender material based on the combined mode
of frequency is to be done.
7) Further to this the same approach can be done for other fenders also.

REFERENCES

1) J Remmy, M Voss Blackwell, and C D Natale, “Corvette Z06 carbon fiber fender
– Engineering design and Material selection considerations.” SAE international,
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