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1. Definition.
1.1 Instructional software is a software designed to deliver instruction.

2. The multimedia features of instructional software.
The instructional software functions have features such as videos, audio, and
animations in order to be effective. Such features help the learner to explore
and to be creative. Developers feel that instructional software will be more
popular if it reflects the interactive, eye catching characteristics educators
who reveal flexibility and student see in video games and on the internet.

3. The taxonomy for the classification of instructional software.

3.1 Theme: Instructional software
Instructional software strategies
Remember: recall and Five instructional Types integration
recognition software functions strategies
Understand: showing Explain instructional Differentiate between
understanding software and its constructivist and
characteristics directed instruction
Discuss the
multifeatures of
instructional software
Apply: using information Which function provides Indicate whether the
gained in different exercise in which software is directed or
situations students work items and constructivist instruction
receive feedback on
their correctness
Analyze: Break into Give 3 types of drill and Design a checklist for
parts to examine more practice and explain evaluating instructional
closely each of them. software.
Evaluate: Judge, use Do you think drill and How to use drill and
criteria practice allow learners practice in teaching.
to work problems and
the get feedback on
Create: Combining Create a lesson in which Give feedback on
information to create drill and practice will be correctness
new ideas used.

3.2 Drill and practice software is software which provides exercise in which
students work example items and receive feedback on their correctness. Drill
and practice help the learners to be able to recall what they have learned
3.2.1 Three types of drill functions are:

a) Flash card activity
This is where a student sees a set number of questions presented one at a
time. The student types an answer and program respond with positive and
negative depending on whether or not the student answered correctly.
b) Branching drill
The software moves student on to advanced questions after they get a
number of questions correctly. It may send the back if they answer a
certain number wrong.
c) Extensive feedback activities.
Students get more that just correct/incorrect feedback. Some programs give
detailed feedback on why the student got a problem wrong.

3.2.3 Three criteria for the effective drill-and-practice software and point
out two requirements for the feedback provided by a drill and practice

• Control over the presentation rate

a) Students should have sufficient time to answer and examine the
feedback before proceeding to later questions
b) A student usually signals readiness to go to the next question by
simply pressing the key.

• Answer judging

a) A good drill program must be able to discriminate between
correct and incorrect answers.

• Appropriate feedback for correct and incorrect answers.

a) Feedback must be simple and display quickly
b) Some programs motivate the students to get wrong answers by
giving more exciting feedback for wrong aswers than for correct

4. Definition of automaticity.

4.1 Automaticity is a drill practice which help the learners to recall

4.2 Three advantages of drill practice in an educational context.

a) Drill and practice inform the students immediately whether or not their
responses are accurate
b) Computer based practice motivate students to do the practice they need
c) Saving teacher time