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CONTENTS

1 COMPOSITION BLACK OIL MODELS


2 GAS SOLUBILITY, R
s
3 OIL FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR, B
o
4 TOTAL FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR, B
T
5 BELOW THE BUBBLE POINT
6 OIL COMPRESSIBILITY
7 BLACK OIL CORRELATIONS
8 FLUID DENSITY
8.1 Specifc Gravity of a Liquid
8.2 Density Based on Ideal Solution Principles
9 FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR OF GAS
CONDENSATE, B
gc
10 VISCOSITY OF OIL
11 INTERFACIAL TENSION
12 COMPARISON OF RESERVOIR FLUID
MODELS
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
2
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Having worked through this chapter the Student will be able to:
Defne gas solubility, R
s
and plot vs. P for a reservoir fuid.
Defne undersaturated and saturated oil.
Explain briefy fash and differential liberation
Defne the oil formation volume factor B
o
, and plot B
o
vs. P for a reservoir
fuid.
Defne the Total Formation Volume factor B
t
, and plot B
t
vs. P alongside a Bo
vs. P plot.
Present an equation to express B
t
in terms of B
o
, R
s
and B
g
.
Express oil compressibility in terms of oil formation volume factor.
Use black oil correlations and their graphical form to calculate fluid
properties.
Calculate the density of a reservoir fuid mixture, using ideal solution principles,
at reservoir pressure and temperature, using density correction chart for C1 &
C2 and other prerequisite data.
Defne the formation volume factor of a gas condensate
Calculate the reserves and production of gas and condensate operating above
the dewpoint, given prerequisite data.
Use viscosity equations and correlations to calculate viscosity of fuid at reservoir
conditions.
Calculate the interfacial tension of equilibrium gas-oil systems given prerequisite
equations and data.
List the comparisons of the black oil and compositional model in predicting
liquid properties
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3
1 COMPOSITION - BLACK OIL MODEL
As introduced in the chapter on Composition, petroleum engineers are requiring
a compositional description tool to use as a basis for predicting reservoir and well
fuid behaviour. The two approaches that are commonly used are the multicomponent
compositional model described in the earlier chapter and the two component black oil
model. The latter simplistic approach has been used for many years to describe the
composition and behaviour of reservoir fuids. It is called the Black Oil Model.
The black oil model considers the fuid being made up of two components - gas dissolved
in oil and stock tank oil. The compositional changes in the gas when changing pressure
and temperature are ignored. To those appreciating thermodynamics this simplistic
two component model is diffcult to cope with. The Black Oil Model, illustrated in
Figure 1, is at the core of many petroleum engineering calculations, and associated
procedures and reports.
Associated with the black oil model are Black Oil model defnitions in relation to
Gas Solubility and Formation Volume Factors.

Reservoir Fluid
Solution Gas
Stock Tank Oil
/ = R
s
/ = B
o
B
o
= Oil Formation Volume Factor
R
s
= Solution Gas to Oil Ratio
Figure 1 "Black Oil Model"
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
4
2 GAS SOLUBILITY
Although the gas associated with oil and the oil itself are multicomponent mixtures
it is convenient to refer to the solubility of gas in crude oil as if we were dealing with
a two-component system.
The amount of gas forming molecules in the liquid phase is limited only by the
reservoir conditions of temperature and pressure and the quantity of light components
present.
The solubility is referred to some basis and it is customary to use the stock tank
barrel.
Solubility = f (pressure, temperature, composition of gas
composition of crude oil)
For a fxed gas and crude, at constant T, the quantity of solution gas increases with
p, and at constant p, the quantity of solution gas decreases with T

Rather than determine the amount of gas which will dissolve in a certain amount of
oil it is customary to measure the amount of gas which will come out of solution as
the pressure decreases. Figure 2 illustrates the behaviour of an oil operating outside
the PT phase diagram in its single phase state when the reservoir pressure is above
its reservoir bubble point at 1. Fluid behaviour in the reservoir is single phase and
the oil is said to be undersaturated . In this case a slight reduction of pressure causes
the fuid to remain single phase. If the oil was on the boundary bubble point pressure
line at 2 then a further reduction in pressure would cause two phases to be produced,
gas and liquid. This saturated fuid is one that upon a slight reduction of pressure
some gas is released. The concept of gas being produced or coming out of solution
gives rise to this gas solubility perspective. Clearly when the fuids are produced to
the surface as shown by the undersaturated oil in fgure 2 the surface conditions lie
within the two phase area and gas and oil are produced. The gas produced is termed
solution gas and the oil at surface conditions stock tank oil. These are the two com-
ponents making up the reservoir fuid, clearly a very simplistic concept.
The gas solubility R
s
is defned as the number of cubic feet (cubic metre) of gas
measured at standard conditions, which will dissolve in one barrel (cubic metre)
of stock tank oil when subjected to reservoir pressure and temperature.
In metric units the volumes are expressed as cubic metre of gas at standard conditions
which will dissolve in one cubic metre of stock tank oil.
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Solution Gas
Stock Oil Tank
Oil Reservoir
Oil and Dissolved Gas
R
si
scf/stb
1 st b. oil
B
o
rb.oil
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Temperature
Pi 1
2
P
+
Surface
Phase Diagram
Figure 2 Production of reservoir hydrocarbons above bubble point
Figure 3 gives a typical shape of gas solubility as a function of pressure for a reser-
voir fuid at reservoir temperature. When the reservoir pressure is above the bubble
point pressure then the oil is undersaturated, i.e. capable of containing more gas. As
the reservoir pressure drops gas does not come out of solution until the bubble point
is reached, over this pressure range therefore the gas in solution is constant. At the
bubble point pressure, corresponding to the reservoir temperature, two phases are
produced, gas and oil. The gas remaining in solution therefore decreases.
The nature of the liberation of the gas is not straight forward. Within the reservoir
when gas is released then its transport and that of the liquid is infuenced by the relative
permeability of the rock ( discussed in Chapter 10). The gas does not remain with its
associated oil i.e. the system changes. In the production tubing and in the separator
it is considered that the gas and associated liquid remain together i.e. the system is
constant. The amount of gas liberated from a sample of reservoir oil depends on the
conditions of the liberation. There are two basic liberation mechanisms:
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
6

1000 2000 3000
200
600
400
Pressure (psig)
P
b
R
si
R
s


s
c
f
/
s
t
b
Figure 3 Solution Gas - Oil Ratio as a Function of Pressure.
Flash liberation - the gas is evolved during a defnite reduction in
pressure and the gas is kept in contact with the liquid
until equilibrium has been established.
Differential liberation - the gas being evolved is being continuously
removed from contact with the liquid and the liquid is in
equilibrium with the gas being evolved over a fnite
pressure range.
The two methods of liberation give different results for R
s
. This topic is covered in
more detail in the PVT analysis chapter.
Production of a crude oil at reservoir pressures below the bubble point pressure occurs
by a process which is neither fash or differential vaporisation. Once enough gas is
present for the gas to move toward the wellbore the gas tends to move faster than the
oil. The gas formed in a particular pore tends to leave the liquid from which it was
formed thus approximating differential vaporisation, however, the gas is in contact with
liquid throughout the path through the reservoir. The gas will also migrate vertically
as a result of its lower density than the oil and could form a secondary gas cap.
Fluid produced from reservoir to the surface is considered to undergo a fash process
where the system remains constant.
3 OIL FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR, B
o
The volume occupied by the oil between surface conditions and reservoir or other
operating changes is that of the total system; the stock tank oil plus its associated
or dissolved solution gas. The effect of pressure on the complex stock tank liquid
and the solution gas is to induce solution of the gas in the liquid until equilibrium is
reached. A unit volume of stock tank oil brought to equilibrium with its associated
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
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gas at reservoir pressure and temperature will occupy a volume greater than unity
(unless the oil has very little dissolved gas at very high pressure).
The relationship between the volume of the oil and its dissolved gas at reservoir
condition to the volume at stock tank conditions is called the Oil Formation Volume
Factor B
o
. The shape of the B
o
vs. pressure curve is shown in Figure 4. It shows
that above the bubble point pressure the reduction in pressure from the initial pres-
sure causes the fuid to expand as a result of its compressibility. This relates to the
chapter on Phase Behaviour where for an oil the PV diagram shows a large decline
in pressure for a small increase in volume, being again an indication of the com-
pressibility of the liquid. Below the bubble point pressure this expansion due to
compressibility of the liquid is small compared to the shrinkage of the oil as gas is
released from solution.
The oil formation volume factor, is the volume in barrels (cubic metres) occupied in
the reservoir, at the prevailing pressure and temperature, by one stock tank barrel
(one stock tank cubic metre) of oil plus its dissolved gas.

1000 2000 3000
1.0
1.2
1.1
Pressure (psig)
P
b
B
o


r
b
.
/
s
t
b
Units - rb (oil and dissolved gas)
Figure 4 Oil formation volume factor
These black oil parameters, B
o
and Rs are illustrated in Figure 5 a,b,&c from Craft
and Hawkins
1
reservoir engineering text., where they present the R
s
and B
o
curve for
the Big Sandy feld in the USA. The visual concept of the changes during pressure
and temperature decrease is also presented.
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
8

P
01
P
01
= 3500 PSIA
T
01
= 160 F
A
P
B
= 2500 PSIA
T
01
= 160 F
B
P

= 1200 PSIA
T
01
= 160 F
C
P
A
= 14.7 PSIA
T
01
= 160 F
D
P
A
= 14.7 PSIA
T
01
= 60 F
E
P
B
P
P
A
P
A
Free Gas
676 Cu. Ft. Free Gas
2.990 Cu. Ft.
Free Gas
567 Cu. Ft.
1,000 BBL 1,040 BBL 1,210 BBL 1,333 BBL 1,310 BBL
567SCF/STB
AT 1200 PSIA
R
S
= 337
B
U
B
B
L
E

P
O
I
N
T

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
I
N
I
T
I
A
L

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
S
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

G
a
s
,

S
C
F
/
S
T
B
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Pressure, PSIA
2500 3000 3500
(a)
(b)
Figure 5 Gas to oil ratio and oil formation volume factor for Big Sandy Field reservoir
oil
1
.

F
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

F
a
c
t
o
r
,

B
B
L
/
S
T
B
0 500
1.40
1.30
1.20
1.10
1.00
1000 1500 2000
Pressure, PSIA
2500 3000 3500
B
U
B
B
L
E

P
O
I
N
T

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
I
N
I
T
I
A
L

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E 1200 PSIA
B
O
= 1.210
14.7 PSIA & 160 F
B
O
= 1.040
2500 PSIA
B
OB
= 1.333
3500 PSIA
B
OI
= 1.310
14.7 PSIA & 60 F
B
O
= 1.000
(b)
Figure 5b
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The reciprocal of the oil formation volume factor is called the shrinkage factor b
o

b
B
o
o

1

The formation factor B
o
may be multiplied by the volume of stock tank oil to fnd
the volume of reservoir required to produce that volume of stock tank oil. The
shrinkage factor can be multiplied by the volume of reservoir oil to fnd the stock
tank volume.
It is important to note that the method of processing the fuids will have an effect
on the amount of gas released and therefore both the values of the solution gas-oil
ratio and the formation volume factor. A reservoir fuid does not have single B
o
or R
s

values. B
o
& R
s
are dependant on the surface processing conditions. This simplistic
reservoir model (Figure 6) demonstrates that the black oil model description of the
reservoir fuids is an after the event, processing, description in terms of the produced
fuids. This simplistic approach to modelling reservoir fuids becomes more diffcult
to consider when one is involved in reservoirs which become part of a total reservoir
system (Figure 7).

R
s
B
O
Figure 6 Black oil description of reservoir fuid
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
10

R
s
3
B
o
3
R
s
2
B
o
2
R
s
4
B
o
4
R
s
1
R
s
B
o
B
o
1
?
Multi Reservoir System
Figure 7 Integrated system of reservoir common pipeline and fnal collection system.
4 TOTAL FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR, B
t
In reservoir engineering it is sometimes convenient to know the volume occupied
in the reservoir by one stock tank barrel of oil plus the free gas that was originally
dissolved in it. A factor is used called the total formation-volume factor B
t
, or
the two-phase volume-factor and is defned as the volume in barrels that 1.0 STB
and its initial complement of dissolved gas occupies at reservoir temperature and
pressure, i.e. it includes the volume of the gas which has evolved from the liquid
and is represented by:
B
g
(R
sb
- R
s
)
i.e. B
t
= B
o
+ B
g
(R
sb
- R
s
) (1)
R
sb
= the solution gas to oil ratio at the bubble point
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
11

Oil
Oil
Gas
Hg
B
0
B
t
B
0b
B
g
(R
sb
-R
s
)
Figure 8a Total formation volume factor or two phase volume factor
Its application comes from the Material Balance equation (Chapter 15) where it is
sometimes used to express the volume of oil and associated gas as a function of pres-
sure. It is important to note that B
t
does not have volume signifcance in reservoir
terms since the assumption in B
t
is that the system remains constant. As mentioned
earlier if the pressure drops below the bubble point in the reservoir then the gas
coming out of solution moves away from its associated oil because of its favourable
relative permeability characteristics.
Figure 8b gives a comparison of the total formation-volume factor with the oil for-
mation-volume factor. Clearly above P
b
the two values are identical since no free
gas is released. Below P
b
the difference between the values represents the volume
occupied by free gas.

B
o
B
t
Pressure P
b
Figure 8b Total and oil formation volume factor

The value of B
T
can be estimated by combining estimates of B
O
and calculation of
B
g
and known solubility values for the pressures concerned.
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
12
5 BELOW THE BUBBLE POINT
Figure 9 depicts the behaviour below the bubble point when produced gas at the
surface comes from two sources, the solution gas associated with the oil entering the
wellbore plus free gas which has come out of solution in the reservoir and migrated to
the wellbore. The total producing gas to oil ratio is made up of the two components
solution gas R
s
and the free gas which is the difference. The diagram illustrates the
volumes occupied by these two in the reservoir, the solution gas being part of B
o
and
the free gas volume through B
g
.

Free Gas
& Solution Gas
Stock Oil Tank
Oil Reservoir
rb (oil and dissolved gas) /stb
1 st b. oil
B
o

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Temperature
R= R
s
+ (R - R
s
)
+
(R - R
s
) B
g
Gas Oil
Reservoir
rb (free gas) /stb
Surface
Pi
P
Figure 9 Production of reservoir hydrocarbons below bubble point
6 OIL COMPRESSIBILITY
The volume changes of oil above the bubble point are very signifcant in the context
of recovery of undersaturated oil. The oil formation volume factor variations above
the bubble point refect these changes but they are more fundamentally embodied
in the coeffcient of compressibility of the oil, or oil compressibility.
The equation for oil compressibility is

c
V
V
P
o
T

j
(
,
\
,
(
1

in terms of formation volume factors this equation yields
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
13

c
B
B
P
o
o
o
T

j
(
,
\
,
(
1
Assuming that the compressibility does not change with pressure the above equation
can be integrated to yield ;

c P P
V
V
o 2 1
2
1
( ) ln

where P
1
& P
2
, and V
1
& V
2
represent the pressure and volume at conditions 1 & 2.
7 BLACK OIL CORRELATIONS
Over the years there have been many correlations generated based on the two com-
ponent based black oil model characterisation of oil. The correlations are based
on data measured on the oils of interest. These empirical correlations relate black
oil parameters, the variables of B
o
and R
s
to; reservoir temperature, and oil and gas
surface density. It is important to appreciate that these correlations are empirical and
are obtained by taking a group of data for a particular set of oils and fnding a best ft
correlation. Using the correlation for fuids whose properties do not fall within those
for the correlation can result in signifcant errors. Danesh
2
has given an excellent
review of many of these correlations
A number of empirical correlations, based on largely US crude oils, and other loca-
tions across the world have been presented to estimate black oil parameters of gas
solubility and oil formation volume factor. The most commonly used is Standings
3
correlation. Other correlations include, Lasater
4
, and recently Glaso
6

P
b
= f (R
s
,
g
, p
o
, T)
where P
b
= bubble point pressure at T
o
F
R
s
= solution gas-oil ratio (cu ft/ bbl)

g
= gravity of dissolved gas

o
= density of stock-tank oil .(specifc gravity)

Standings correlation for the calculation of P
b
, bubble point pressure is:

P
R
T API
b
s
g

j
(
,
\
,
(

,

,
,
]
]
]
]
. ( . . ( )) .
.
18 2 0 00091 0 0125 1 4
0 83
10

(2)

His correlation for the oil formation volume factor is;

B R T
o s
g
o
+
j
(
,
\
,
(
+
,

,
,
]
]
]
]
. . .
.
.
0 9759 0 000120 1 25
0 5
1 2

(3)
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
14

Standing's correlations have been presented as nomographs enabling quick look
predictions to be made. Figures 10 & 11 give the nomogram forms of these correlations
for gas solubility and oil formation volume factor. Standings correlation is based on
a set of 22 California crudes.
Other correlations have been presented by Lasater
4
based on 137 Canadian ,USA
and South American crudes, Vasquez and Beggs
5
using 6000 data points, Glaso
6
us-
ing 45 North Sea crude samples, and Mahoun
7
who used 69 Middle Eastern crudes.
Danesh
2
gives a very useful table showing the ranges covered by the respective black
oil correlations
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
15

20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
150
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1500
2000
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.10
Formation volume of bubble-point liquid
G
a
s
-
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

c
u

f
t

p
e
r

b
b
l
b
b
l

p
e
r

b
b
l

o
f

t
a
n
k

o
i
l
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
1
.
1
0
1
.
2
0
1
.
3
0
1
.
4
0
1
.
5
0
0
.
5
0
0
.
6
0
0
.
7
0
0
.
8
0
0
.
9
0
1
.
0
0
G
a
s

g
r
a
v
i
t
y
A
i
r
=
1
Tank oil gravity, API
50
30
10
Temperature, F
100
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
120
Figure 10 Oil-formation volume factor as a function of gas solubility, temperature, gas gravity and oil gravity (Standing)

Properties of Reservoir Liquids
16

6
0
0
5
0
0
4
0
0
3
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
1
0
0
1
5
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
07
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
09
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
01
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2
0
0
0
T
a
n
k

o
i
l

g
r
a
v
i
t
y
,

A
P
I

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

F

G
a
s

g
r
a
v
i
t
y

A
i
r

=

1

6
0
1
.
5
0
1
.
4
0
1
.
3
0
1
.
2
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
1
8
0
2
0
0
2
2
0
2
4
0
2
6
0
1
.
1
0
1
.
0
0
0
.
9
0
0
.
8
0
1
0
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
2
2
2
4
2
6
2
8
3
0
3
2
3
4
3
6
3
8
4
0
1
2
4
2
4
4
4
6
4
8
5
0
5
2
5
4
5
6
5
8
Bubble-point P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
G
a
s
-
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

c
u

f
t

p
e
r

b
b
l
6
0
(STANDING)
0
.
7
0
0
.
6
0
0
.
5
0
Figure 11 Gas solubility as a function of pressure. Temperature, gas gravity and oil gravity

Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
17

Correlation Standing Lasater Vasquez-Beggs Glaso Marhoun
Ref 3 4 5 6 7
Bubble - point pressure (psia) 130-7000 45-5780 15-6055 165-7142 130-3573
Temperature, F 100-258 82-272 162-180 80-280 74-240
Bo 1.024-2.15 1.028-2.226 1.025-2.588 1.032-1.997
Gas - oil ratio (scf/stb) 20-1425 3-2905 0-2199 90-2637 26-1602
Oil Gravity, oAPI 16.5-63.8 17.9-51.1 15.3-59.5 22.3-48.1 19.4-44.6
Gas Gravity 0.59-0.95 0.574-1.22 0.511-1.651 0.65-1.276 0.752-1.367
Separator Pressure 265-465 15-605 60-565 415
Searator Temperature F 100 36-106 76-150 125
Table 1 Black oil correlation and their ranges at application
2
8 FLUID DENSITY
Liquids have a much greater density and viscosity than gases, and the density is affected
much less by changes in temperature and pressure. For petroleum engineers it is
important that they are able to estimate the density of a reservoir liquid at reservoir
conditions.
8.1 Specifc Gravity of a Liquid

o
o
w

(4)
The specifc gravity of a liquid is the ratio of its density to that of water both at the
same T & P. It is sometimes given as 60/60, i.e. both liquid and water are measured
at 60 and 1 atmos.
The petroleum industry uses another term called API gravity where

API
o
141 5
131 5
.
.

(5)
where
o
is specifc gravity at 60/60.
There are several methods of estimating the density of a petroleum liquid at reservoir
conditions. The methods used depend on the availability and nature of the data of
data. When there is compositional information on the reservoir fuid then the density
can be determined using the ideal solution principle. When the information we have
is that of the produced oil and gas then empirical methods can be used to calculate
the density of the reservoir fuid.
8.2 Density based on Ideal Solution Principles
Mixtures of liquid hydrocarbons at atmospheric conditions behave as ideal solutions.
An ideal solution is a hypothetical liquid where no change in the character of the
liquids is caused by mixing and the properties of the mixture are strictly additive.
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
18
Petroleum liquid mixtures are such that ideal-solution principles can be applied for the
calculation of densities and this enables the volume of a mixture from the composi-
tion and the density of the individual components. The principle is illustrated using
the following exercise. Data for the specifc components are given in the tables at
the end of the chapter
EXERCISE 1.
Calculate the density at 14.7psia and 60 F of the hydrocarbon liquid mixture with
the composition given below:
Component Mol.
fract.
1b mol.

nC4 0.25
nC5 0.32
nC6 0.43
1.00
SOLUTION EXERCISE 1

Solution
Component Mol. Mol. Weight Liquid Liquid
density
fract. weight 1b Density at volume
1b mol. 1b/1b at 60F and 14.7 cu ft
mol. psia
1b/cu ft
nC4 0.25 58.1 14.525 36.45 0.3985
nC5 0.32 72.2 23.104 39.36 0.5870
nC6 0.43 86.2 37.066 41.43 0.8947
____ _____ _____
1 74.695 1.8801
Liquids at their bubble point or saturation pressure contain large quantities of dis-
solved gas which at surface conditions are gases and therefore some consideration
for these must be given in the additive volume technique. This physical limitation
does not impair the mathematical use of a pseudo liquid density for methane and
ethane since it is only a step in its application to determine a reservoir condition
density. This is achieved by obtaining apparent liquid densities for these gases and
determining a pseudoliquid density for the mixture at standard conditions which can
then be adjusted to reservoir conditions.
Standing & Katz
8
carried out experiments on mixtures containing methane plus other
compounds and ethane plus other compounds and from this were able to determine
a pseudo-liquid (fctitious) density for methane and ethane
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
19
Correlations have been obtained by experiment giving apparent liquid densities of
methane and ethane versus the pseudoliquid density (Figure 12).

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4 0.3
Density of system, 60F B atm. pressure
A
p
p
a
r
r
e
n
t

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

o
f

M
e
t
h
a
n
e
,

g
/
c
c
A
p
p
a
r
r
e
n
t

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

o
f

o
f

E
t
h
a
n
e
,

g
/
c
c
Ethane - N - Butane
Ethane - Heptane
Ethane - Crystal oil
Methane - Cyclo Hexane
Methane - Crude oil
Methane - Crystal oil
Methane - Propane
Methane - Hexane
Methane - Pentane
Methane - Heptane
Methane - Benzene
Figure 12 Variation of apparent density of methane and ethane with density of the system
8
.
To use the correlations a trial and error technique is required whereby the density of
the system is assumed and the apparent liquid densities can be determined. These
liquid densities are then used to compute the density of the mixture by additive vol-
umes and the value checked against the initial assumption. The procedure continues
until the two values are the same.
When non hydrocarbons are present, the procedure is to add the mole fractions of
the nitrogen to methane, the mole fraction of carbon dioxide to ethane and the mole
fraction of hydrogen sulphide to propane.
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
20
EXERCISE 2:
Calculate the surface pseudo liquid density of the following reservoir
composition.

Component Mole percent

Methane 44.04
Ethane 4.32 Properties of
Propane 4.05 heptane +
Butane 2.84 API gravities = 34.2
Pentane 1.74 SG = 0.854
Hexane 2.9 Mol wt = 164
Heptane + 40.11

SOLUTION EXERCISE 2


Estimate

44.65 lb/cu ft. 0.716 gm/cc lb/cuft


From fig 12 Density 0.326 20.3424
C1
Density 0.47 29.328
C2

Component Mole Mol Weight Liq Liquid
fraction Weight Density Volume
lb/lb lb at 60F &
mole 14.7 psia
lb/cu.ft cu ft.
z M zM o zM/o
Methane 0.4404 16 7.0464 20.3424 0.34639
Ethane 0.0432 30.1 1.30032 29.328 0.04434
Propane 0.0405 44.1 1.78605 31.66 0.05641
Butane 0.0284 58.1 1.65004 35.78 0.04612
Pentane(n&i) 0.0174 72.2 1.25628 38.51 0.03262
Hexane(n&i) 0.029 86.2 2.4998 41.43 0.06034
Heptane+ 0.4011 164 65.7804 53.26 1.23508
Total 1 81.31929 1.8213

Density = 81.32 lb / 1.82 cu ft
= 44.65 lb/cu.ft
This trial and error method is very tedious so Standing and Katz devised a chart
which removes the trail and error required in the calculation. The densities have been
converted into the density of the heavier components, C
3+
, and the weight percent of the
two light components, methane and ethane in the C
1+
and C
2+
mixtures. Figure 13.
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
21

70
60
50
40
30
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

o
f

s
y
s
t
e
m

i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g

m
e
t
h
a
n
e

a
n
d

e
t
h
a
n
e
,

l
b
/
c
u

f
t
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

o
f

p
r
o
p
a
n
e

p
l
u
s
,

l
b
/
c
u

f
t
W
t

%

e
t
h
a
n
e

i
n

e
t
h
a
n
e

p
l
u
s

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

0 10 20 30 40 50
W
t

%

m
e
t
h
a
n
e

i
n

e
n
t
i
r
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

0
10
20
30
Figure 13 Pseudo-liquid density of systems containing methane and ethane
10
.
We shall examine through examples various ways of calculating downhole reservoir
fuids densities dependant on the data available.
The three considered are:
1. The composition of the reservoir fuid is known.
2. The gas solubility , the gas composition and the surface oil gravity is known
3. The gas solubility, and gas and liquid gravities are known.
1. The composition of the reservoir fuid is known.
The procedure is illustrated using the following two exercises .
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
22
EXERCISE 3.
Calculate the surface density of the mixture in exercise 2 using the chart of figure 13
The pseudodensity is converted to reservoir conditions frstly by taking the effect
of pressure and secondly accounting for the effect of temperature. The variation of
density with respect to pressure and temperature has been investigated and it has
been demonstrated that thermal expansion is not affected by pressure. Standing &
Katz took National Petroleum Standards data and with supplementary data produced
correction factors for pressure and temperature to convert atmospheric density to
reservoir density.
The compressibility and thermal expansion effects have been expressed graphically
in Figures 14 and 15.

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Density at 60F and 14.7 psia, lb/cu ft
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

o
f

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

m
i
n
u
s

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

a
t

6
0


1
4
.
7

p
s
i
a

l
b
/
c
u

f
t
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a

1
5
,
0
0
0

1
0
,
0
0
0

8
,
0
0
0

5
,
0
0
0

6
,
0
0
0

4
,
0
0
0

3
,
0
0
0

2
,
0
0
0

1
,
0
0
0

Figure 14 Density correction for compressibility of liquids
8
.
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
23

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
25 30 35 40 50 45 55 60 65
Density at 60F and pressure P, lb/cu ft
D
e
n
s
i
t
y

a
t

6
0

F

m
i
n
u
s

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

a
t

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

l
b
/
c
u

f
t
80
100
1
2
0

1
6
0

1
8
0

2
0
0

2
2
0

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

F

2
4
0

1
4
0

60
Figure 15 Density correction for thermal expansion of liquids
10
.
EXERCISE 4.
Calculate the density of the reservoir liquid of exercise 3 at a reservoir temperature
of 5,500 psia and 180
o
F
Full compositional data may not always be available and the characterisation of the
produced fuids will vary from full compositional analysis to a description of the
fuids in terms of gas and oil gravity. The procedure just described is for the situa-
tion where the composition of the reservoir fuid is known. The procedures which
follow cover the situation where a less comprehensive analysis is available. These
methods make use of empirical correlations.
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
24
2. Reservoir Density when the Gas Solubility , the gas composition and the surface
oil gravity are known
By considering surface liquid as a single component and knowing the composition
of the collected gas the techniques previously discussed can be used to determine
reservoir liquid density. Again we will illustrate the procedure with an example
EXERCISE 5.
A reservoir at a pressure of 4,000 psia and a temperature of 200
o
F has a producing
gas to oil ratio of 600 scf/STB. The oil produced has a gravity of 42
o
API. Calculate
the density of the reservoir liquid. The produced gas has the following composition
Component Mole Fraction
Methane 0.71
Ethane 0.13
Propane 0.08
Butane 0.05
Pentane 0.02
Hextane 0.01
3. The Gas Solubility, and Gas and Liquid gravities are known.
Katz has produced a correlation (fgure 16) to enable densities to be determined when
the only information on the gas is its solubility and its gravity. The fgure gives ap-
parent liquid densities of gases against gravity for different API crudes

0.6
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
Gas Gravity
A
p
p
a
r
e
n
t

L
i
q
u
i
d

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

o
f

D
i
s
s
o
l
v
e
d

G
a
s

a
t
6
0


F

a
n
d

1
4
.
7

p
s
i
a
,

l
b
/
c
u
.

f
t
.
20 API Crude
30
40
50
60
Figure 16 Apparent liquid densities of natural gases
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
25
EXERCISE 6.
Use the correlation of Katz to calculate the reservoir fluid density of a field with
a GOR of 500scf/STB with a gas gravity of 0.8 and a 35
o
API oil for reservoir
conditions of 4,000psia and a temperature of 180
o
F.
Katz method
9 FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR OF GAS CONDENSATE
The situation for a wet gas or gas condensate is different for a conventional oil when
one is considering the volume changes taking place upon release to surface condi-
tions. For a wet gas or condensate system liquid at surface is gas in the formation.
The comparison therefore with respect to conditions in the reservoir to those at the
surface is distinctly different from an oil system, where an oil in the reservoir produces
gas and liquids at the surface. For a wet gas or condensate, a gas in the reservoir
produces gas and liquids at the surface.
The formation-volume factor therefore for a condensate, B
gc
is defned as the
volume of gas in the reservoir required to produce 1.0 STB of condensate at the
surface. The units are generally barrels of gas at res. conditions per barrel of stock
tank oil. There are a number of methods of estimating B
gc
.
To calculate the properties of the reservoir fuid from the information on the produced
fuids requires a combination of the quantities and characteristics of these fuids. The
methods used depends on the level of detail of the characteristics of the produced
fuids. A number of methods are presented using examples which vary according
to the level of detail.
EXERCISE 7.
A gas condensate produces gas and liquids with the compositions detailed below,
with a producing GOR of 30,000 SCF/STB. Determine the composition of the
reservoir gas.

Component Composition
Gas Liquid
Methane 0.84
Ethane 0.08
Propane 0.04 0.15
Butane 0.03 0.36
Pentane 0.01 0.28
Hexane 0.12
Heptane + 0.09
1.00 1.00
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
26
EXERCISE 8.
The gas condensate reservoir above is contained in reservoir sands with an
average pay thickness of 100ft, with a porosity of 0.18 and a connate water
saturation of 0.16. The aerial extent of the field is 5 sq. miles. The initial reservoir
pressure is 5,000 psia and the reservoir temperature is 180
o
F. Determine the initial
reserves of the field in terms of condensate and gas.
EXERCISE 9.
Calculate the gas condensate formation factor for the example in exercise 8.
10 VISCOSITY OF OIL
The viscosity of oil at reservoir temperature and pressure is less than the viscosity
of the dead oil because of the dissolved gases and the higher temperature. Correla-
tions are available which enable the dissolved gas and pressure effect on the dead
oil viscosity to be determined. Danesh
2
has given a good review of many of the
empirical approaches. The favoured correlations are those of Beggs and Robinson
11
,

Egbogah and Ng
12
,Vazquez and Beggs
13 ,
and Labedi
14
. Figure 17 gives plots,
presented by McCain
17
, of the correlation of dead oil viscosity from Egbogah and
Ng
12
, and fgure 18s the impact of dissolved gas from the Beggs and Robinson
11
correlation.

R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

F

100
150
200
250
300
1000
800
600
700
500
400
300
200
100
80
60
70
50
40
30
20
10
10 20 30
Stock - Tank Oil Gravity, API
40 50
8
6
7
5
4
3
2
1
0.8
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

o
f

G
a
s
-
F
r
e
e

O
i
l
,

o
D
,

c
p
Figure 17 Dead oil viscosities
17
.
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
27

0
1
0
0
2
0
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2
0
0
0
200
100
80
60
70
50
40
30
20
10
0.4 2 3 4 5 6 78 10 20 30 200 300 40 60 80100 0.6 0.8 1
Viscosity of Gas-Free Oil,
oD
, cp
8
6
7
5
4
3
2
1
0.8
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

o
f

G
a
s
-
S
a
t
u
r
a
t
e
d

O
i
l
,

o
D
,

c
p
S
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

G
a
s
-
O
i
l

R
a
t
i
o

Figure 18 Viscosities of saturated black oils
11
.
Beggs and Robinson
11
examined 600 oil samples over a wide range of pressure and
temperature and came up with the following correlation.

od
= 10
A
- 1 (6)
where, log A = 3.0324 - 0.0202
o
API -1.163 log T

od
is the dead oil viscosity in cp and T is in
o
F.
Egbogah and Ng
12
, had a different expression for A
log A = 1.8653 - 0.025086
o
API -0.56441 log T
Examination of these correlations has shown that they are not very reliable with
errors of the order of 25% (DeGetto
15
)
Beggs and Robinson
11
gave a correlation to give the impact of dissolved gas.

ob
= C
od
B
(7)
where C = 10.715 (R
s
+ 100)
-0.515
and B = 5.44 (R
s
+ 150)
-0.338


ob
is the saturated oil viscosity
Vazquez and Beggs
13
presented an equation to take into account pressure on viscosity
above the saturation pressure.
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
28

o
=
ob
(P/P
b
)
D
(8)
where D = 2.6 P
1.187
e
-11.513-8.98 x10-5P
This is presented in fgure 19 from McCain
17
.

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
6
0
0
0
p
s
ia
5
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
5
0
0
100
60
40
20
10
6
4
2
1
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2.000
1.000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
B
u
b
b
l
e

P
o
i
n
t

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
b
,

p
s
i
a
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y

o
f

O
i
l

A
b
o
v
e

B
u
b
b
l
e

P
o
i
n
t
,

o
,

c
p
Viscosity of Oil At Bubble Point, cp
Figure 19 Viscosities of undersaturated black oils
17
.
Labedi (ref 14) also produced an empirical correlation to determine viscosity at pres-
sures above the bubble point

o
=
ob
+ (P/P
b
-1)(10
-2.488

ob
0.9036
P
b
0.6151
/10
0.0197oAPI
) (9)
Danesh
2
in his text compared the various correlations from a published experimental
viscosity value in a well known PVT report, using the following exercise.
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
29
EXERCISE. 10
Calculate the viscosity of oil in the PVT report of chapter 12 at a pressure of
5,000psig and 220F. The API of the oil is 40.1 and the GOR, R
s

is 795 scf/ST
Beggs and Robinson

od
= 10
A
-1
Log A = 3.0324 - 0.0202API - 1.163 log Tx

od
= dead oil viscosity cp.
(Beggs 3.0324 0.0202 1.163)
(Egbogah 1.8653 0.025086 0.56441)
Beggs Egbolgah
API = 40.1
T = 220
R
s
= 795
P = 5,000 psig
P
b
= 2,635 psig
log A = -0.5031 -0.46
A = 0.3140 0.34
Viscosity
dead oil = 1.06 cp 1.21 cp
Measured value = 1.29 cp
Viscosity at bubble point
Beggs

ob
= C
ob
B

ob
= oil viscosity at bubble point pressure
C = 10.715 (R
s
+ 100)
-0.515
B = 5.44 (R
s
+ 150)
-0.338
C = 0.3234
B = 0.5369

ob
= 0.3584 cp
Measured value = 0.355 cp
Viscosity at pressure of 5015 psig
Vazquez - Beggs

o
=
ob
(P/P
b
)
D
D = 2.6p
1.187
e
-11.513 - 8.98x 10
-5
p
e function = -11.9633
D = 0.4663 cp
Labed, correlation

o
=
ob
+ (P/P
b
-1)(10
-2.488

ob
0.9036
P
b
0.6151
/10
0.0197
o
API
)

o
= 0.4304 cp
Measured value = 0.45 cp
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
30

11 INTERFACIAL TENSION
In recent years interfacial tension has become to be realised as an important physical
property in the context of the recovery of reservoir held hydrocarbons, in particular
for gas condensates. Interfacial tension, arises from the imbalance of molecular
forces at the interface between two phases. For many years it has been neglected but
more recently it has been realised that in gas injection and condensation processes
the magnitude of the various forces; surface, gravitational and viscous forces can
have a signifcant impact on the mobility of the various phases. A major advance in
knowledge has been that in the context of gas condensates where it was considered
that in the tradition of relative permeability knowledge liquid formation by retrograde
condensation would be immobile. Recent research has shown that such fuids are
mobile because of the associated low interfacial tension
16
. Danesh
2
in his text covers
the topic of interfacial tension extensively. Mentioned briefy below are some of the
techniques which are currently used in predicting IT for reservoir fuids.
Interfacial tension decreases as temperature and pressure increases as shown for the
effect of temperature for pure components in fgure 20 from McCains text
17
adapted
from Katz
19
data.

Mol wt.
240
-200 -200 0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
100 200 300 400 500 600
220
200
180
160
140
n - Octane
n - Heptane
n - Hexane
n - Pentane
l - Butane
n - Butane
Propane Ethane Methane
Temperature, F
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

T
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

d
y
n
e
s

p
e
r

c
m
Figure 20 Interfacial tensions of hydrocarbons. (Adapted from Katz, et al., J. Pet. Tech.,
Sept. 1943.)
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
31
There are several methods for predicting IFT, and they require experimentally determined
parameters. Work on pure compounds have shown that IFT can be related to density,
compressibility and latent heat of vaporisation. The multicomponent perspective of
reservoir fuid properties has made use of the IFT/density relationships.
The Parachor method of McLeod
18
has gained acceptance where the IFT between
vapour and liquid is related to the density difference of the respective phases.


j
(
,
\
,
(
P
M
L g
4

(10)
where
L
and
g
are the density of the liquid and gas phases, and M is the molecular
weight. is the IFT . P

is called the parachor.


Katz
19
has provided the parachors for pure components as shown in the table below and
they are also presented in the fgure 21 prepared by MaCain using Katzs
19
data.

Parachors, Ps, for IFT
Component Parachor
Methane 77
Ethane 108
Propane 150.3
i-Butane 181.5
n-Butane 189.9
i-Pentane 225
n-Pentane 231.5
n-Hexane 271
n-Heptane 312.5
n-Octane 351.5
Hydrogen 34
Nitrogen 41
Carbon dioxide 78
Parachors have been shown to have a linear relationship with molecular weight ac-
cording to the relationship;
P

= 21.99 + 2.892M (11)



and also to the critical properties
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
32

600
500
400
300
200
100
0 50 100 150 200
i - C
5
i - C
4
Molecular Weight
P
a
r
a
c
h
o
r
,

P
Figure 21 Parachors for computing interfacial tension of normal paraffn hydrocarbons
19
.
P

= 0.324T
c
1/4
v
c
7/8
where T
c
is in K and the critical volume v
c
is in cm
3
/gmol.
To apply the parachor approach to mixtures the molar averaging approach of Weinaug
and Katz
20
can be used.


j
(
,
\
,
(
,

,
,
]
]
]
]

P x
M
yj
M
j
L
L
g
g j
4

(12)
x
j
and y
j
are the mole fractions of the components in the liquid and gas phases.
Firoozabadi
21
has provided parachors to enable calculations to be made for heavy
components using the following equation.
P
s
= -11.4 + 3.23M-0.0022M
2
(13)
where M is the molecular weight of the heavy component. Figure 22.
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
33

Molecular weight
P
a
r
a
c
h
o
r
.

P
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
100 200 300 400 500
Figure 22 Parachors of heavy fractions for computing interfacial tension of reservoir
liquids. McCain
17
This method is illustrated using an example from McCain
17
.
EXERCISE 11.


Calculate the IFT of the following volatile oil mixture at 2315 psia and 190F for
the oil with the following composition.
12 COMPARISON OF RESERVOIR FLUID MODELS
It is useful to summarise the differences between the Black Oil Model approach
compared to the Compositional Model in predicted fuid properties.
The suitability of the two approaches is largely related to the nature of the fuid. For
heavier oils where there are low GORs as compared to volatile oils with high GORs,
black oil models are likely to be suitable. For the more volatile systems where there
are more signifcant compositional variations in a reservoir as pressure is depleted,
compositional models are considered more capable of predicting fuid behaviour.
The computational requirements of compositional models used to be a restriction when
carrying out large reservoir simulation. The continued development of computing
and associated equations of state modelling reduces these former restrictions.
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
34
Companies are now focusing their attention on being capable of modelling the total
process from fuid extraction from the reservoir, through well production and facil-
ity treatment. At present separate modelling occurs, and many of these models are
not compatible. The black oil approach is certainly considered by many to be from
a former era.
The list below gives a summary comparison of the two approaches.
Black Oil Models
2 components - solution gas and stock tank oil
Bo, Rg, etc.
Empirical correlations
After the event description of fuid properties
Compositional Models
N components based on paraffn series
Equation of state based calculations
Feed forward calculation of fuid properties
In a subsequent chapter on vapour liquid equilibria we will describe how the volumes
and compositions of vapour and liquid equilibrium mixtures can be calculated when
a mixture is processed at a particular pressure and temperature. These calculations
although calculation intensive can be considered feed forward calculations and en-
able the effects of temperature and pressure changes to be determined on a particular
feed mixture.
The black oil approach which has been a major theme of this chapter uses the char-
acteristics of the produced fuids to determine the composition and properties of the
feed reservoir mixture, i.e. a back calculation. As will be seen in the section on PVT
reports, the quantities and characteristics of the produced fuids are dependant on the
pressure and temperature conditions used to separate the fuid.
At the back of this chapter are tables of physical properties which are useful in many
of the procedures described.
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
35

Properties of Reservoir Liquids
36

Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
37
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
38
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
39
Solutions to Exercises
ExErcISE 1.
Calculate the density at 14.7psia and 60 F of the hydrocarbon liquid mixture with
the composition given below:

Component Mol.
fract.
1b mol.

nC4 0.25
nC5 0.32
nC6 0.43
1.00
SoLutIon ExErcISE 1

Solution
Component Mol. Mol. Weight Liquid Liquid
density
fract. weight 1b Density at volume
1b mol. 1b/1b at 60F and 14.7 cu ft
mol. psia
1b/cu ft
nC4 0.25 58.1 14.525 36.45 0.3985
nC5 0.32 72.2 23.104 39.36 0.5870
nC6 0.43 86.2 37.066 41.43 0.8947
____ _____ _____
1 74.695 1.8801
ExErcISE 2:
Calculate the surface pseudo liquid density of the following reservoir
composition.

Component Mole percent

Methane 44.04
Ethane 4.32 Properties of
Propane 4.05 heptane +
Butane 2.84 API gravities = 34.2
Pentane 1.74 SG = 0.854
Hexane 2.9 Mol wt = 164
Heptane + 40.11
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
40
SoLutIon ExErcISE 2


Estimate

44.65 lb/cu ft. 0.716 gm/cc lb/cuft


From fig 12 Density 0.326 20.3424
C1
Density 0.47 29.328
C2

Component Mole Mol Weight Liq Liquid
fraction Weight Density Volume
lb/lb lb at 60F &
mole 14.7 psia
lb/cu.ft cu ft.
z M zM o zM/o
Methane 0.4404 16 7.0464 20.3424 0.34639
Ethane 0.0432 30.1 1.30032 29.328 0.04434
Propane 0.0405 44.1 1.78605 31.66 0.05641
Butane 0.0284 58.1 1.65004 35.78 0.04612
Pentane(n&i) 0.0174 72.2 1.25628 38.51 0.03262
Hexane(n&i) 0.029 86.2 2.4998 41.43 0.06034
Heptane+ 0.4011 164 65.7804 53.26 1.23508
Total 1 81.31929 1.8213

Density = 81.32 lb / 1.82 cu ft
= 44.65 lb/cu.ft
ExErcISE 3.
Calculate the surface density of the mixture in exercise 2 using the chart of fgure
13
SoLutIon ExErcISE 3


Component Mole Mol Weight Liq Liquid
fraction Weight Density Volume
lb/lb lb at 60F &
mole 14.7 psia
lb/cu.ft cu ft.
z M zM
o
zM/
o
Methane 0.4404 16 7.0464
Ethane 0.0432 30.1 1.30032
Propane 0.0405 44.1 1.78605 31.66 0.05641
Butane 0.0284 58.1 1.65004 35.78 0.04612
Pentane(n&i) 0.0174 72.2 1.25628 38.51 0.03262
Hexane(n&i) 0.029 86.2 2.4998 41.43 0.06034
Heptane+ 0.4011 164 65.7804 53.26 1.23508
1
Weight of propane + 72.97
lbs. = Volume = 1.43
Density of propane + = 51.01 lb cu ft
Weight per cent ethane in
ethane + 1.75
Weight per cent methane in 8.67
methane +
From figure 13 pseudo liquid
density = 45 lb/cu ft

Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
41
ExErcISE 4.
Calculate the density of the reservoir liquid of exercise 3 at a reservoir temperature
of 5,500 psia and 180
o
F
SoLutIon ExErcISE 4
Density of following reservoir liquid at 6,000 psia and 180F.
Step 1
Pseudoliquid density at standard conditions
from exercise 3
o
= 45 lb/cu ft
Step 2
Adjust to 60F and 5,500 psia
i.e. correction = +1.9 lb/cu ft (Figure 14)
i.e.
o
= 45 + 1.9 = 46.9 lb/cu ft at 60F 6,000 psi
Step 3
Adjust to 180F. (Figure 15)
i.e. thermal correction = -3.18 lb/cu ft

o
= 46.9 - 3.18 = 42.32 lb/cu ft at 180 and 6,000 psia

o
= 42.32 lb/cu ft @ 180F and 6,000 psia
ExErcISE 5.
A reservoir at a pressure of 4,000 psia and a temperature of 200
o
F has a producing gas
to oil ratio of 600 scf/STB. The oil produced has a gravity of 42
o
API. Calculate the
density of the reservoir liquid. The produced gas has the following composition
Component Mole Fraction
Methane 0.71
Ethane 0.13
Propane 0.08
Butane 0.05
Pentane 0.02
Hextane 0.01
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
42

Calculation of pseudo density of gas.
From PV=znRT, Solubility of gas, Rs = 600 scf/STB
1 lb mole = 379 scf
Oil = 42 API
Density of crude = 50.87 lb/cuft 285.62 lb/STB
Density of water = 62.37 lb./cuft

Component Mole Solubility Mol Weight Liq Density Liquid Volume
fraction Weight
volume scf lb/lb mole lb/STB at 60F
fraction gas/STB & 14.7 psia
lb/cu.ft cu ft/STB.
z zRs M zRsM/379
o
zm/
o

Methane 0.71 426 16 17.98
Ethane 0.13 78 30.1 6.19
Propane 0.08 48 44.1 5.59 31.66 0.176
Butane 0.05 30 58.1 4.60 35.78 0.129
Pentane(n&i) 0.02 12 72.2 2.29 38.51 0.059
Hexane(n&i) 0.01 6 86.2 1.36 41.43 0.033
Oil 42 API 285.62 5.615
Totals 600 323.63 lb 6.01 cu ft

Density of propane + = 323/6.01/lb cuft = 49.81 lb/ cu ft
Weight % C2+ = 2.315
Weight% C1+ = 5.557
From Figure 13 Pseudoliquid density of reservoir fluid at 60F & 14.7 psia = 46.5 lb / cu ft

Correction for pressure Fig 14 = 1.23 + = 47.73
Correction for temperature Fig 15 3.55 - = 44.18

Density of Reservoir Fluid = 44.18 lb/cu ft
ExErcISE 6.
Use the correlation of Katz to calculate the reservoir fuid density of a feld with a
GOR of 500scf/STB with a gas gravity of 0.8 and a 35
o
API oil for reservoir condi-
tions of 4,000psia and a temperature of 180
o
F.
Katz method
SoLutIon ExErcISE 6.
Mass o f gas per STB.
Molecular weight of gas = molecular weight air x 0.8 = 29.2 x 0.8 = 23.2
Mas og gas STB
scf
stb
x
lb mole
scf
x
lb
lb mole
lb STB /
.


.

. / 500
379
23 2
30 61
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
43

Component Weight Liq Density Liquid Volume
lb/STB at 60F cu ft/STB.
& 14.7 psia
lb/cu.ft
Gas 30.61 26.3 1.164
Oil 297.62 from chart 5.615
328.23 6.779
Pseudodensity
of reservoir fluid= 328.23 / 6.779 = 48.42
Correction for pressure at Fig 14 +1.13 = 49.55

Correction for pressure at Fig 15 -2.9 = 46.65

Reservoir density= 46.65 lb/cu ft
ExErcISE 7.
A gas condensate produces gas and liquids with the compositions detailed below,
with a producing GOR of 30,000 SCF/STB. Determine the composition of the
reservoir gas.

Component Composition
Gas Liquid
Methane 0.84
Ethane 0.08
Propane 0.04 0.15
Butane 0.03 0.36
Pentane 0.01 0.28
Hexane 0.12
Heptane + 0.09
1.00 1.00
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
44
SoLutIon ExErcISE 7

Liquid
Component Mol. Fractn Mol.Wgt. Wgt. Liquid Liquid
lb mole lb/lb mol lb/lb mole density volume
lb/cu ft cu ft
C3 0.15 44.1 6.615 31.66 0.223
C4 0.36 58.1 20.916 35.78 0.585
C5 0.28 72.2 20.216 38.51 0.506
C6 0.12 86.2 10.344 41.3 0.25
C7+* 0.09 114.2 10.278 43.68 0.235
* C8 used for C7+ 68.369 1.799
Mol.Wgt. 68.369
liq.
Density of liquid= 38.00 lb/cu ft
GOR= 30000 scf/STB 213.39 lb/STB
= 79.16 lb mole gas/STB 3.12 lb mole /STB
Note: 1 lb mole = 379 SCF
GOR = 25.36 lb mole gas/lb mole liquid

2. Recombination according to the above GOR of 25.36 lb mole gas / lb moleliquid

Component Composition lb mole gas/ lb moles Composition
Gas Liquid lb mole oil Res fluid Res Fluid
lb mole lb mole 25.36
y x 25.36y 25.36y + x
Methane 0.84 21.30 21.30 0.808
Ethane 0.08 2.03 2.03 0.077
Propane 0.04 0.15 1.01 1.16 0.044
Butane 0.03 0.36 0.76 1.12 0.043
Pentane 0.01 0.28 0.25 0.53 0.020
Hexane 0.12 0.12 0.005
Heptane + 0.09 0.09 0.003
1 1 25.36 26.36 1.000

ExErcISE 8.
The gas condensate reservoir above is contained in reservoir sands with an average
pay thickness of 100ft, with a porosity of 0.18 and a connate water saturation of 0.16.
The aerial extent of the feld is 5 sq. miles. The initial reservoir pressure is 5,000 psia
and the reservoir temperature is 180
o
F. Determine the initial reserves of the feld in
terms of condensate and gas.
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
45
SoLutIon ExErcISE 8


Component Mol. Fract. Critical Temperature Critical Pressure
R R psia psia
lb mole y
j
T
cj
y
j
T
cj
P
cj
y
j
P
cj
C1 0.808 344 278.00 667 539.026
C2 0.077 551 42.41 708 54.491
C3 0.044 666 29.42 616 27.210
C4 0.043 750 31.89 540 22.960
C5 0.020 838 16.96 489 9.899
C6 0.005 914 4.16 437 1.989
C7+ 0.003 1025 3.50 360 1.229
Totals 1 406.34 656.80
T
pc
= 406.34 P
pc
= 656.80

Reservoir pressure = 5000 psia
Reservoir temperature = 180 F = 640 R

Pseudo reduced pressure = 7.61
Pseudo reduced temperature = 1.58
Compressibility factor from Standing & Katz chart figure 2 Gas properties chapter
z= 0.98
R= 10.73 cu ft. psi/lb.mol R
Volume of the reservoir = 5 square miles x 100 feet (1 mole = 5280 ft)
Volume of the reservoir = 2.1076 x 10
9
cu ft
PV=znRT
V/n=zRT/P
Specific volume at reservoir conditions = 1.3460 cu ft/lb.mol
No of lb moles in reservoir= 1.5658 x 10
9
lb moles
No. of standard cubic feet of gas in reservoir = 5.9345 x 10
11
SCF (1 lb mole 379 scf)
Reserves in reservoir in terms of produced fluids
From previous exercise GOR of = 30,000 SCF/STB
= 25.36 lb mole gas/lb mole condensate
For each 26.36 lb mole of reservoir fluid 25.36 lb mol is produced gas
and 1 lb mole is condensate
Reserves in terms of produced fluids
Gas 1.506428 x 10
9
lb moles = 5.70936 x 10
11
SCF
Condensate 1.9643E+09 lb moles = 6.2935E+08 STB
ExErcISE 9.
Calculate the gas condensate formation factor for the example in exercise 8.
SoLutIon ExErcISE 9.
B
gc
= bbls of gas in reservoir/STB condensate
Volume of gas in reservoir = 6.9696 x 10
10
cu ft = 1.2412 x 10
10
bbls
Condensate = 6.2935 x 10
6
STB
B
gc
= 1972.2 bbls res gas/STB condensate

In some cases full compositional information may not be available but only black
oil descriptions of the oil and gas gravity for the gas. In this case correlations can be
used to provide the necessary data to calculate the same data as for exercise 8 & 9.
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
46
ExErcISE 10
Calculate the viscosity of oil in the PVT report of chapter 12 at a pressure of 5,000psig
and 220F. The API of the oil is 40.1 and the GOR, R
s

is 795 scf/ST
Beggs and Robinson

od
= 10
A
-1
Log A = 3.0324 - 0.0202API - 1.163 log Tx

od
= dead oil viscosity cp.
(Beggs 3.0324 0.0202 1.163)
(Egbogah 1.8653 0.025086 0.56441)
Beggs Egbolgah
API = 40.1
T = 220
R
s
= 795
P = 5,000 psig
P
b
= 2,635 psig
log A = -0.5031 -0.46
A = 0.3140 0.34
Viscosity
dead oil = 1.06 cp 1.21 cp
Measured value = 1.29 cp
Viscosity at bubble point
Beggs

ob
= Cm
ob
B

ob
= oil viscosity at bubble point pressure
C = 10.715 (R
s
+ 100)
-0.515
B = 5.44 (R
s
+ 150)
-0.338
C = 0.3234
B = 0.5369

ob
= 0.3584 cp
Measured value = 0.355 cp
Viscosity at pressure of 5015 psig
Vazquez - Beggs

o
=
ob
(P/P
b
)
D
D = 2.6p
1.187
e
-11.513 - 8.98x 10
-5
p
e function = -11.9633
D = 0.4663 cp
Labed, correlation

o
=
ob
+ (P/P
b
-1)(10
-2.488

ob
0.9036
P
b
0.6151
/10
0.0197
o
API
)

o
= 0.4304 cp
Measured value = 0.45 cp
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University
47
ExErcISE 11

Calculate the IFT of the following volatile oil mixture at 2315 psia and 190F for
the oil with the following composition.
SoLutIon ExErcISE 11

Component Liquid Composition Gas Composition
Mole fraction Mole fraction
Carbon dioxide 0.0159 0.0259
Nitrogen 0.0000 0.0022
Methane 0.3428 0.8050
Ethane 0.0752 0.0910
Propane 0.0564 0.0402
i - Butane 0.0097 0.0059
n - Butane 0.0249 0.0126
i - Pentane 0.0110 0.0039
n - Pentane 0.0140 0.0044
Hexane 0.0197 0.0040
Heptanes plus 0.4303 0.0049
Properties of heptanes plus of liquid
Specifc gravity = 0.868
Molecular weight = 217 lb/lb mole
Density of liquids and gas from previous methods
P
L
= 0.719 g/cc
P
g
= 0.137 g/cc
Molecular weight M
L
= 110.1 g/s mole
M
g
= 21.1 g/g mole

Component x
j
y
i
P

Equation 12
Co
2
0.0159 0.0259 78.0 -0.0050
N
2
0.0000 0.0022 41.0 -0.0006
C
1
0.3428 0.8050 77.0 -0.2301
C
2
0.0752 0.0910 108.0 -0.0108
C
3
0.0564 0.0402 150.3 0.0161
i-C
4
0.0097 0.0059 181.5 0.0046
n-C
4
0.0249 0.0126 189.9 0.0154
i-C
5
0.0110 0.0039 225.0 0.0105
i-C
5
0.0141 0.0044 231.5 0.0147
C
6
0.0197 0.0040 271.0 0.0278
C
7+
* 0.4303 0.0049 *586.6 1.6297
1.000 1.000 1.4723
from fgure 23
Properties of Reservoir Liquids
48
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NY
2. Danesh, A, PVT and Phase Behaviour of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids. 1998
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3. Standing MB A pressure-Volume-Temperature Correlation for Mixtures of
Californian Oils and Gases, Drill & Prod, Proc.275-287 (1947)
4. Lasater, J.A. Bubble Point Correlation , Trans AIME, 213,379-381 (1958).
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JPT,968-970, (June 1980)
6. Glaso, O Generalised Pressure Volume Temperature Correlations JPT,785
795 (May 1980)
7. Marhoun,MA, PVT Correlations for Middle East Crude Oils JPT, 650-665
(May 1988)
8. Standing, M.B. and Katz,D.L. Density of Crude Oils Saturated with Natural
Gas Trans AIME 146, 159 (1942)
9. Kessler, MG and Lee,BI,: Improved Prediction of Enthalpy of Fractions, Hyd
Proc.(Mar.1976) 55,153-158.
10. Standing,M Volumetric and Phase Behaviour of Oil Field Hydrocarbon Systems
SPE Dallas 1951
11. Beggs,HD. and Robinson,JR: Estimating the Viscosity of Crude Oil Systems
JPT,27,1140-1141 (1975)
12. Egboghah,EO and Ng,JT: An improved Temperature Viscosity Correlations
for Crude Oil Systems, J.Pet Sci and Eng.,5,197-200 (1990)
13. Vasquez,M. and Beggs,HD : Correlations for Fluid Physical Property Predictions.
JPT,968 (June 1980)
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Compressibility of Reservoir Fluids, J.of Pet.Sci and Eng. 4.375-90,(1990)
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of Retrograde Phenomena and Gas Condensate Flow in Porous Media 5th
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Faraday Soc. (1923) 19,38-42.
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Inc., New Yk,(1959)
20. Weinaug,KG and Katz,DL,: Surface Tension of Methane-Propane Mixtures.
I&EC,239-246 (1943)
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of Reservoir Crude-Oil/Gas Systems Recognising the Asphalt in the Heavy
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