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Introduction to Research

Meaning of Research
Everywhere, our knowledge is incomplete and
problems are waiting to be solved. We address the
void in our knowledge and those unresolved
problems by asking relevant questions and seeking
answers to them.
The role of research is to provide a method for
obtaining those answers by inquiringly studying
the evidence within the parameters of the scientific

Research is composed of two syllables, a prefix re
and verb search
Re means again, anew, over again
Search means to examine closely and carefully, to
test and try, to investigate.
The two words from a noun to describe a careful
and systematic study in some field of knowledge,
undertaken to establish facts or principles.
(Grinnell, 1997)
What is Research?
The simple answer to this question is that research is
what we do when we have a question or a problem
we want to resolve.
We may already think we know the answer to our
question; we may think the answer is obvious,
common sense even; but until we have subjected
our problem to exact scientific scrutiny, our
'knowledge' remains little more than guesswork or
at best, intuition.
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A careful investigation or inquiry specially through
search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.
Research is a process through which we attempt to
achieve systematically and with the support of
data the answer to a question, the resolution of a
problem, or a greater understanding of a
This process, which is frequently called research
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The distinct characteristics of research:
Research originates with a question or problem.
Research requires a clear articulation of a goal.
Research follows a specific plan of procedure.
Research usually divides the principal problem
into more manageable sub-problems.

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Research is guided by the specific research
problem, question, or hypothesis.
Research requires the collection and interpretation
of data in attempting to resolve the problem that
initiated the research.
Research is, by its nature, cyclical; or more exactly,
What Research is not?
1. Research is not mere information gathering.
2. Research is not mere transportation of facts from
one location to another.
3. Research is not merely searching for information.
4. Research is not a catchword used to get attention.

Objectives of Research
The main aim of research is to find out the truth,
which is hidden and which has not been
discovered as yet.
1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to
achieve new insight into it
2. To portray accurate the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group
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3. To determine the frequency with which something
occurs or with which it is associated with something
4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship
between variables
Motivation in Research
1. Desire to get a research degree along with its
consequential benefits;
2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved
problems, i.e. concern over practical problems
initiates research;
3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative
4. Desire to serve to society;
5. Desire to get respectability.
Importance of Research
Research is an aid in decision making
Research facilitates the process of thinking,
analyzing, evaluation and interpretation of the
business environment, and of the various business
Research provides a basis for innovation.
R& D helps in the development of new products and
modify the existing ones.

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Research identifies the problem areas.
Research is an aid to forecasting
Research helps in all the managerial functions
Research helps in economic utilization of resources
It is helpful in making policy and strategy
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Research provides the basis for nearly all
government policies in our system
Its help to solving various operational and planning
problems of business and industry
For studying social relationship and in seeking
answers to various social problems

Fundamental (basic or pure)Research

Research carried out with the expectation that it
will produce a broad base of knowledge likely to
form the background to the solution of future
Gathering knowledge for knowledges sake is
termed pure or basic research.
Basic research does only promise a contribution to
question, not to anything else

Fundamental (basic or pure)Research

Basic research may know the problem, but does
not know how to orient itself towards a solution.
Basic questions often start with "why". Applied
questions more often start with "how
If we would have known where to look for a
solution, the basic research had already been done.

Applied (action) Research

Applied research is directed much more to making
Applied research aims at finding a solution for an
immediate problem facing a society or an
industrial / business organization
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