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# Q1. N number of EX-NOR gates is connected in series such that the N inputs (A0, A1, A2......

) are given in
the following way:

A0 and A1 is being given to first EX-NOR gate and A2 and output of first EX-NOR is being given to second
EX-NOR gate and so on. Nth EX-NOR gate's output is final output. How does this circuit work? Explain in
detail?

Q2. A component called "CMPR" with 2 inputs - A and B, and 2 outputs - K and R. If you pass 2 n-bit
numbers to the component CMPR, the component produced the biggest number at the output K and
the smallest number at the output R.
Using minimum numbers of these components "CMPR", Design a component "ARK" with 4 inputs A, B, C
and D and 4 outputs P, Q, R and S in which

'P' is the max (A, B, C, D), 'S' is the min(A, B, C, D). 'Q' is bigger than 'R' but smaller than 'P' and 'R' is
bigger than 'S' and smaller than 'Q'

Q3. In a base-7 number system having the digits 0,1,2, A,B,6 respectively and their place values are -3,-
2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3 respectively, then:
a). What is the maximum decimal value that can be formed?
b). (A0B1) + (1AB0) = ?

Q4. Perform BCD addition and subtraction of following
a). 87 39
b) 18 72
c). 65 12

Q5. Represent following decimal numbers in OCTAL
a). 128
b). 123
c). 8

Q6. Design a state machine, that outputs a '1' one and only when two of the last 3 inputs are '1'. For
example, if the input sequence is 0110_1110 then the output will be 0011_1101. Assume that the input
'Z' is a single bit serial line.

Q7. What is tpd (Propagation delay) for this circuit?
What is tcd (Contamination delay) for this circuit?
What is tpd of the fastest equivalent circuit built using only above 3 components?
Here: tpd - Max. cumulative propagation delay considering all path b/w input and output.
tcd - Min. cumulative contamination delay
Inverter: tcd = 0.5ns, tpd = 1.0ns, tr = tf = 0.7ns
2-input NAND: tcd = 0.5ns, tpd = 2.0ns, tr = tf = 1.2ns
2-input NOR: tcd = 0.5ns, tpd = 2.0ns, tr = tf = 1.2ns

Q8. Construct a synchronous moore state machine with two inputs, A and B, and two outputs, X and Y.
The machine accepts data on two input lines synchronously with the clock. The output X is 1 if and only
if the data on the two input lines have been identical (i.e. A and B are both 1, or A and B are both 0) for
the last three or more consecutive clock cycles. Output Y is 1 if and only if the data on the two input
lines have been complements of each other (i.e. A = 1 and B = 0, or A = 0 and B = 1) for the last three or
more consecutive clock cycles.

Q9. During third world war in the land of Logicia in the year 2099 there is a shortage of XOR gates.
Unfortunately, the only logic gates available are two weird components called X and Y. The truth
table of both components is presented below - Z represents a High-Z value on the output. Could you
help the poor engineers of Logicia to build an XOR gate?

Q10. Construct a 4-bit Johnson counter using 4-bit shift register and inverter cell.

Q11. Construct a 4-bit Johnson counter using a ring counter.

Q12. Write a verilog code for following circuits
a). 1-Bit D-flip flop
b). 1-Bit toggle (T) flip flop
c). Clock divider by 6 with 50 % duty cycle using 1-Bit D & T flip flops
d). Clock divider by 3 with 50 % duty cycle using 1-Bit D & T flip flop

Q13. Write a Verilog code for Factorial N

Q14. A and B are the signed inputs to an arithmetic circuit. A is 8-bit width and B is 5-bit width. Write
Verilog code to generate following outputs,
X = A + B;
Y = A * B
Z = B - A

Q15. Write a Verilog code using function. The inputs to function are A, B, and C, each input is of
n-bit width. Function should return following outputs X, Y, Z,
X = A + B;
Y = X * C;
Z = A*C + B *C;
Q16: Draw the waveforms for the following
reg clk ;
reg q;
always #10 clk = ~clk;
a). always @(clk) q = #5clk;
b). always @(clk) q = #10 clk;
c). always @(clk) q = #15 clk;
Q12: Draw the waveforms for the following
reg clk ;
wire q;
a). assign #5 q = clk;
b). assign #10 q = clk;
c). assign #15 q = clk;