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Chñ ng÷............................................................................................................................

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IV/ C¸ch sö dông little, a little, few, a few.....................................................................8
V/ Së h÷u c¸ch...............................................................................................................8
§éng tõ............................................................................................................................10
I/ HiÖn t¹i.....................................................................................................................10
II/ Qu¸ khø..................................................................................................................12
1. Simple V -ed........................................................................................................12
2. Past Progessive Was/Were + V-ing....................................................................12
III/ Th× t¬ng lai............................................................................................................13
Sù hoµ hîp gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ §éng tõ...........................................................................15
I/ Trêng hîp chñ ng÷ ®øng t¸ch khái ®éng tõ.............................................................15
II/ C¸c danh tõ lu«n ®ßi hái ®éng tõ vµ ®¹i tõ ®i theo sau chóng ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.....15
III/ C¸ch sö dông NONE vµ NO..................................................................................15
IV/ C¸ch sö dông cÊu tróc EITHER...OR hoÆc NEITHER.. NOR (kh«ng...mµ còng
kh«ng)..........................................................................................................................15
V/ V- ing lµm chñ ng÷.................................................................................................15
VI/ C¸c danh tõ tËp thÓ................................................................................................16
VII/ C¸ch sö dông A number of / The number of........................................................17
VIII/ C¸c danh tõ lu«n dïng víi sè nhiÒu...................................................................17
IX/ Thµnh ng÷ there is/ there are.................................................................................17
§¹i tõ...............................................................................................................................19
I/ §¹i tõ nh©n xng chñ ng÷ (B¶ng 1 trang 78)............................................................19
II/ §¹i tõ nh©n xng t©n ng÷ B¶ng 1 trang 79..............................................................20
III/ TÝnh tõ së h÷u B¶ng 1 trang 80...........................................................................20
IV/ §¹i tõ së h÷u B¶ng 1 trang 81.............................................................................20
V/ §¹i tõ ph¶n th©n B¶ng 1 trang 82........................................................................20
T©n ng÷...........................................................................................................................21
I/ §éng tõ dïng lµm t©n ng÷.......................................................................................21
II/ VÊn ®Ò c¸c ®¹i tõ ®øng tríc V-ing hoÆc V-inf lµm t©n ng÷....................................23
TÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ..........................................................................................................25
C¸c d¹ng so s¸nh cña tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ.......................................................................26
I/ So s¸nh b»ng............................................................................................................26
II/ So s¸nh h¬n, kÐm....................................................................................................26
III/ So s¸nh hîp lý.......................................................................................................27
IV/ So s¸nh ®Æc biÖt.....................................................................................................27
V/ So s¸nh ®a béi.........................................................................................................28
VI/ So s¸nh kÐp...........................................................................................................28
VII/ No sooner ... than (võa míi ... th× ®·)..................................................................29
VIII/ So s¸nh gi÷a hai ngêi, hai vËt.............................................................................29
IX/ So s¸nh bËc nhÊt....................................................................................................30
Danh tõ ®îc sö dông nh tÝnh tõ....................................................................................30
§éng tõ b¸n khuyÕt......................................................................................................32
I/ C¸ch sö dông Need...................................................................................................32
II/ Dare........................................................................................................................33
§éng tõ khuyÕt...............................................................................................................33

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I/ §Æc tÝnh....................................................................................................................34
II/ C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ WILL/WOULD.............................................................35
III/ Mét sè c¸ch dïng thªm cña IF..............................................................................35
IV/ C¸ch sö dông as if, as though. (chõng nh lµ, nh thÓ lµ).......................................37
V/ C¸ch sö dông Hope/Wish.......................................................................................37
VI/ C¸ch sö dông USED TO/ TO BE, GET USED TO.................................................38
VII/ C¸ch sö dông Would rather.................................................................................39
VIII/ Would like..........................................................................................................39
IX/ §éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i hiÖn t¹i.........................................40
X/ §éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i cña qu¸ khø...................................41
XI/ Should trong mét sè trêng hîp cô thÓ...................................................................42
C¸ch sö dông to Be trong mét sè trêng hîp................................................................44
C¸ch sö dông to Get trong mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt................................................45
§éng tõ G©y nguyªn nh©n............................................................................................46
§éng tõ nèi....................................................................................................................48
Nh÷ng ®éng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn...................................................................................49
mét sè ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt kh¸c.......................................................................................51
C¸c lo¹i c©u hái..............................................................................................................53
I/ Yes/no questions. (C«ng thøc 1 - P.92)..................................................................53
II/ C©u hái th«ng b¸o...................................................................................................53
III/ C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp....................................................................................................53
IV/ C©u hái cã ®u«i......................................................................................................53
Lèi nãi phô ho¹ kh¼ng ®Þnh vµ phñ ®Þnh....................................................................54
1.Lèi nãi phô ho¹ kh¼ng ®Þnh.......................................................................................54
2.Lèi nãi phô ho¹ phñ ®Þnh..........................................................................................54
C©u phñ ®Þnh..................................................................................................................56
MÖnh lÖnh thøc..............................................................................................................58
C¸ch sö dông Enough....................................................................................................59
Tõ nèi..............................................................................................................................59
I/ BECAUSE/ BECAUSE OF......................................................................................59
II/ Tõ nèi chØ môc ®Ých vµ kÕt qu¶...............................................................................59
III/ Tõ nèi chØ nguyªn nh©n vµ kÕt qu¶........................................................................59
IV/ Mét sè tõ nèi mang tÝnh ®iÒu kiÖn kh¸c................................................................60
C©u bÞ ®éng....................................................................................................................63
C©u phøc hîp vµ §¹i tõ quan hÖ thay thÕ...................................................................64
I/ That/Which lµm chñ ng÷ c©u phô............................................................................65
II/ That/ Which lµm t©n ng÷ c©u phô............................................................................65
III/ Who lµm chñ ng÷ c©u phô.....................................................................................65
IV/ Whom lµm t©n ng÷ c©u phô..................................................................................65
V/ MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc vµ kh«ng b¾t buéc..............................................................66
VI/ TÇm quan träng cña dÊu "," ®èi víi mÖnh ®Ò phô.................................................66
VII/ C¸ch sö dông all, both, some, several, most, few... + of + whom/which.............66
VIII/ Whose = cña ngêi mµ, cña con mµ......................................................................67
IX/ C¸ch lo¹i bá mÖnh ®Ò phô.....................................................................................67
C©u gi¶ ®Þnh...................................................................................................................68
I/ Dïng víi WOULD RATHER THAT......................................................................68
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II/ Dïng víi ®éng tõ...................................................................................................68
III/ Dïng víi tÝnh tõ....................................................................................................68
IV/ C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi mét vµi trêng hîp kh¸c....................................................69
V/ C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi It + to be + time.................................................................70
Nh÷ng c¸ch sö dông kh¸c cña That.............................................................................72
I/ THAT dïng víi t c¸ch mét liªn tõ (r»ng)................................................................72
II/ MÖnh ®Ò cã THAT.................................................................................................72
C¸ch sö dông cña Ph©n tõ I trong mét sè trêng hîp..................................................73
I/ Dïng víi mét sè c¸c cÊu tróc ®éng tõ:....................................................................73
II/ Ph©n tõ I ®îc sö dông ®Ó rót ng¾n nh÷ng c©u dµi...................................................74
Mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt sö dông nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh....................................75
Lèi nãi bao hµm.............................................................................................................75
C¸ch sö dông TO KNOW, to know how.....................................................................76
MÖnh ®Ò nhîng bé.........................................................................................................77
tiÕng anh viÕt..................................................................................................................79
sù phï hîp vÒ thêi ®éng tõ............................................................................................79
c¸ch sö dông to say, to tell............................................................................................80
®¹i tõ nh©n xng one vµ you...........................................................................................80
tõ ®i tríc ®Ó giíi thiÖu....................................................................................................80
c¸ch sö dông ph©n tõ ë ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô...................................................................82
ph©n tõ dïng lµm tÝnh tõ..............................................................................................83
c©u thõa..........................................................................................................................85
CÊu tróc c©u song song.................................................................................................85
Th«ng tin trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp....................................................................................86
I. C©u trùc tiÕp vµ c©u gi¸n tiÕp....................................................................................86
II. §éng tõ víi 2 t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp.............................................................87
Sù ®¶o ngîc phã tõ.........................................................................................................88
c¸ch lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi kh«ng ®óng trong bµi ng÷ ph¸p................................91
Nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn............................................................................................93
mét sè nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm kh¸c..............................................................................96
giíi tõ............................................................................................................................100

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Basic Grammar of Toefl
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Mét c©u trong tiÕng Anh bao gåm: Subject - verb as predicate - complement - modifier.

Chñ ng÷
_ Cã thÓ lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ, mét V_ing, mét ®¹i tõ, nhng nhiÒu nhÊt vÉn lµ mét
danh tõ. Chóng ®øng ®Çu c©u lµm chñ ng÷ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ.
V× lµ danh tõ nªn chóng liªn quan ®Õn nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò sau:

I/ Danh tõ ®Õm ®îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc.
_ Danh tõ ®Õm ®îc: lµ nh÷ng danh tõ dïng ®îc víi sè ®Õm nªn chóng cã h×nh th¸i sè Ýt,
sè nhiÒu. Cã thÓ dïng ®îc víi a vµ the.
_ Danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc: lµ nh÷ng danh tõ kh«ng dïng ®îc víi sè ®Õm nªn chóng
kh«ng cã h×nh th¸i sè Ýt, sè nhiÒu. Kh«ng thÓ dïng víi a. ChØ sö dông the trong mét sè trêng
hîp ®Æc biÖt.
_ NhiÒu danh tõ ®Õm ®îc cã h×nh th¸i sè nhiÒu ®Æc biÖt:
person - people child - children tooth - teeth
foot - feet mouse - mice man - men
woman - women
_Mét sè danh tõ ®Õm ®îc cã d¹ng sè Ýt vµ sè nhiÒu gièng nhau, chØ ph©n biÖt cã a hoÆc
kh«ng cã a.
Eg: a sheep - sheep
a fish - fish
a species - species
_ Mét sè danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc (meat, food, money, water, ...) ®«i khi ®îc dïng nh danh
tõ sè nhiÒu ®Ó chØ c¸c d¹ng, c¸c lo¹i kh¸c nhau cña danh tõ ®ã.
Eg: This is one of the foods that my doctor has forbidden me to eat.
(indicates a particular type of food).
He studies meats.
(for example, beef, pork, lamb, ect.)
_ Danh tõ time dïng víi nghÜa "thêi gian" th× kh«ng ®Õm ®îc. NÕu dïng víi nghÜa "thêi
®¹i" hoÆc "sè lÇn" th× ®Õm ®îc.
Eg: ancient times
modern times.
_B¶ng 1 trang 45 (Toefl - Cliffs) lµ mét sè ®Þnh ng÷ dïng ®îc víi danh tõ ®Õm ®îc vµ
kh«ng ®Õm ®îc.
_ViÖc x¸c ®Þnh danh tõ ®Õm ®îc vµ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc lµ bíc c¬ b¶n më ®Çu cho c¸c bµi
nghe vµ ng÷ ph¸p.

II/ Qu¸n tõ
1. Qu¸n tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh: a, an.
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_ Dïng an tríc mét danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng: a, e, i, o.
_ Dïng an tríc u vµ y.
_ Dïng an tríc nh÷ng danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng H c©m.
_ Dïng an tríc nh÷ng danh tõ më ®Çu b»ng ch÷ c¸i viÕt t¾t ®îc coi nh lµ mét nguyªn ©m.
_ Nhng ®øng tríc mét danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng uni th× ph¶i dïng a.
Eg: a university, a uniform.
_ Dïng a tríc mét danh tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng mét phô ©m.
_Qu¸n tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh ®îc dïng tríc mét danh tõ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh vÒ mÆt vÞ trÝ, tÝnh
chÊt, ®Þa ®iÓm hoÆc ®îc nh¾c ®Õn lÇn ®Çu tiªn trong c©u.
Eg: A baseball is round (general - means all baseballs)
I saw a boy in the street. (We don't know which boy)
_ Dïng trong c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ sè lîng nhÊt ®Þnh.
Eg: a lot of
a couple
a dozen.
_ Dïng tríc nh÷ng sè ®Õm nhÊt ®Þnh.
Eg: a hundred
a thousand
_ Dïng tríc half khi nã theo sau mét ®¬n vÞ nguyªn vÑn.
Eg: a kilo and a half.
HoÆc khi nã ®i ghÐp víi mét danh tõ kh¸c ®Ó chØ nöa phÇn (khi viÕt cã dÊu g¹ch nèi).
_ Dïng víi c¸c ®¬n vÞ ph©n sè:
Eg: a third, a fifth.
_ Dïng cho c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ gi¸ c¶, tèc ®é, tû lÖ.
Eg: 50$ a kilo, 60km an hour, 4 times a day.
_ Dïng tríc c¸c danh tõ sè Ýt ®Õm ®îc trong c¸c th¸n tõ:
Eg: What a nice day!
Such a long day!
_ A + Mr/ Mrs/ Ms: mét «ng, bµ, c« nµo ®ã kh«ng quen biÕt.
2. Qu¸n tõ x¸c ®Þnh the
_ Dïng tríc mét danh tõ ®· ®îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ mÆt tÝnh chÊt, ®Þa ®iÓm, vÞ trÝ hoÆc ®-
îc nh¾c ®Õn lÇn thø hai trong c©u.
_ The + n + prep + n.
Eg: The girl in blue
The Gulf of Mexico.
_ Dïng tríc nh÷ng tÝnh tõ so s¸nh bËc nhÊt hoÆc only.
Eg: The only way
_ Dïng cho nh÷ng kho¶ng thêi gian x¸c ®Þnh (thËp niªn, thÕ kØ...).
Eg: In the 1990s.
_ The + n + ®¹i tõ quan hÖ + mÖnh ®Ò phô
Eg: The man to whom you have just talked is my friend.

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_ Tríc mét danh tõ ngô ý chØ mét vËt riªng biÖt.
Eg: She is in the (her) garden.
_ The + n (sè Ýt): tîng trng cho mét nhãm thó vËt hoÆc ®å vËt.
Eg: The whale = whales.
The deep-freeze. (thøc ¨n ®«ng l¹nh)
Note: §èi víi man khi mang nghÜa loµi ngêi tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®îc dïng the
Eg: Since man lived on the earth.
_ Dïng tríc mét danh tõ sè Ýt ®Ó chØ mét nhãm, mét h¹ng ngêi nhÊt ®Þnh trong x· héi.
Eg: The small shopkeeper
The top official (giíi quan chøc cao cÊp)
_ The + adj: tîng trng cho mét nhãm ngêi. Chóng kh«ng ®îc phÐp ë sè nhiÒu nhng ®îc
xem lµ c¸c danh tõ sè nhiÒu. Do vËy ®éng tõ vµ ®¹i tõ ®i kÌm chóng ph¶i ë ng«i thø ba sè
nhiÒu (They).
Eg: The old = The old people
The unemployed
The disabled are very hard in their moving.
_ The + tªn c¸c vïng, khu vùc ®· næi tiÕng vÒ mÆt ®Þa lý, lÞch sö.
Eg: The Sahara
The Siberia
The Normandie (bê biÓn B¾c Phi)
_ The + East/ West/ South/ North + Noun
used as adj
Eg: The North/ South Pole.
The East End of London.
_ Note: Kh«ng ®îc dïng the tríc c¸c tõ chØ ph¬ng híng nµy khi nã ®i víi tªn ch©u lôc
hoÆc quèc gia.
Eg: West Germany.
_ The + tªn gäi c¸c ®éi hîp xíng, c¸c dµn nh¹c cæ ®iÓn, c¸c ban nh¹c pop.
Eg: The Bach Choir
The Philharmonique Philadelphia.
_ The + tªn gäi c¸c tê b¸o (kh«ng ph¶i t¹p chÝ), c¸c tÇu biÓn, c¸c khinh khÝ cÇu.
Eg: The Times
The Titanic
The Hindenberg.
_ The + hä cña mét gia ®×nh (sè nhiÒu) = gia ®×nh nhµ...
Eg: The Smiths.
_ Dïng tríc tªn hä cña mét ngêi ®Ó x¸c ®Þnh ngêi ®ã trong sè nhiÒu ngêi trïng tªn.
_Kh«ng dïng the tríc c¸c danh tõ chØ b÷a ¨n trong ngµy, trõ c¸c trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt.
Eg: We usually eat breakfast at 8 a.m
The dinner that you invited me last week was delicious.
_ Kh«ng ®îc dïng the tríc mét sè danh tõ nh: home, bed, church, court, prison,
hospital, school, class, college, university, market.
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HoÆc khi nã ®i víi c¸c giíi tõ vµ ®éng tõ chØ chuyÓn ®éng chØ ®i ®Õn ®ã hoÆc ra khái ®ã
víi môc ®Ých chÝnh:
Eg: Students go to school.
The patient was released from hospital.
Nhng nÕu ®Õn ®ã hoÆc ra khái ®ã kh«ng v× môc ®Ých chÝnh th× ph¶i dïng the
Eg: The students go to the school for a class party.
The doctor left the hospital after work.
(ch÷a bÖnh chø kh«ng ph¶i ®îc ch÷a)
Riªng trong tiÕng Anh - Mü, hospital vµ university lu«n ®i cïng víi the trong bÊt cø tr-
êng hîp nµo.
Eg: He was in the hospital.
(patient) (in hospital as a patient)
She was unhappy at the University.
(at University as a student)
_ Mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt kh«ng dïng the:
+ go to work
+ to be at work
+ to be hard at work
+ go to the office
+ to be in office (®ang gi÷ chøc)
+ to be out of office (®· th«i gi÷ chøc)
+ go to sea (®i biÓn nh nh÷ng thuû thñ)
+ go to the sea (ra biÓn ®Ó ®i nghØ)
+ to be at sea (ë trªn biÓn trong mét chuyÕn h¶i hµnh)
Eg: She is at sea from.... to...
+ go to town: ®i phè, vµo trung t©m (khi "town" lµ cña ngêi nãi)
+ to be in town: ë trung t©m ("town" lµ cña ngêi nãi)
Eg: I'm going to town.

B¶ng sö dông THE vµ kh«ng sö dông THE trong mét sè trêng hîp ®iÓn h×nh.
The Kh«ng cã the
_ Tríc tªn c¸c ®¹i d¬ng, s«ng ngßi, biÓn, _ Tríc tªn mét hå:
vÞnh vµ c¸c hå (ë sè nhiÒu) Eg: Lake Geneva...

_Tríc tªn c¸c d·y nói. _ Tríc tªn mét ngän nói.
Eg: The Rocky Mountain.

_ Tríc tªn nh÷ng vËt thÓ duy nhÊt trong vò _ Tríc tªn c¸c hµnh tinh hoÆc c¸c chßm sao
trô hoÆc trªn thÕ giíi
Eg: The earth, the moon, the Great Wall, Eg: earth.
the Pyramid in Egypt

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_ The + school, college, university + of +
tªn riªng _ Tríc tªn c¸c trêng nµy nÕu tríc nã lµ mét
Eg: The University of Florida tªn riªng.
Eg: Santa Fe Community College
_ The + sè thø tù + n
Eg: The first war _ Tríc tªn c¸c danh tõ nÕu tríc hoÆc sau nã
lµ mét sè ®Õm.
_ Tríc tªn c¸c cuéc chiÕn tranh khu vùc víi Eg: World war one
®iÒu kiÖn tªn khu vùc ®ã ph¶i ®îc tÝnh tõ
ho¸.
Eg: The Korean War

_ Tríc tªn c¸c níc gåm hai tõ trë lªn (trõ _ Tríc tªn c¸c níc më ®Çu b»ng New hoÆc
Great Britain) chØ cã mét tõ
Eg: The United States Eg: New Zealand

_ Tríc tªn c¸c níc ®îc coi lµ mét quÇn ®¶o _ Tríc tªn c¸c lôc ®Þa, tØnh, tiÓu bang, thµnh
hoÆc mét ®¶o (Trõ NhËt B¶n) phè, quËn, huyÖn
Eg: The Philipinnes

_ Tríc tªn c¸c tµi liÖu hoÆc c¸c sù kiÖn lÞch

Eg: The Constitution

_ Tríc tªn c¸c nhãm d©n téc
Eg: The Indians (ngêi da ®á), The east
Indians (ngêi Ên ®é)
_ Tríc tªn bÊt k× mét m«n thÓ thao nµo.
Eg: baseball, basketball

_ Tríc c¸c danh tõ trõu tîng (trõ mét sè tr-
êng hîp ®Æc biÖt)
Eg: freedom, happiness.
(The freedom that God gives us is very
precious)

_ Tríc tªn c¸c m«n häc nãi chung
_ Tríc tªn mét m«n häc cô thÓ Eg: mathematics
Eg: The solid - matter physics
The applied mathematics _ Tríc tªn c¸c ngµy lÔ, ngµy tÕt
Eg: Christmas, Thanksgiving

III/ C¸ch sö dông Another vµ Other
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Hai tõ nµy tuy gièng nhau vÒ mÆt nghÜa nhng kh¸c nhau vÒ c¸ch sö dông ng÷ ph¸p.
Dïng víi danh tõ ®Õm ®îc Dïng víi danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc
_ Another + danh tõ sè Ýt = mét c¸i n÷a,
mét c¸i kh¸c, mét ngêi n÷a, mét ngêi kh¸c.
_ The other + danh tõ sè Ýt = c¸i cuèi cïng
(cña mét bé, ngêi cuèi cïng (cña mét _ Other + danh tõ = thªm chót n÷a
nhãm)
_ Other + danh tõ sè nhiÒu = mÊy c¸i n÷a, _The other + danh tõ = chç cßn sãt l¹i.
mÊy c¸i kh¸c, mÊy ngêi n÷a, mÊy ngêi
kh¸c.
_The others + danh tõ sè nhiÒu = nh÷ng
c¸i cßn l¹i (cña mét bé), nh÷ng ngêi cßn l¹i
(cña mét nhãm)

_ Another vµ other lµ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh trong khi the other x¸c ®Þnh. NÕu chñ ng÷ vµ danh
tõ ®· ®îc nh¾c ®Õn ë trªn th× ë díi chØ cÇn dïng another hoÆc other nh mét ®¹i tõ lµ ®ñ.
Eg: I don't want this book. Please give me another.
(another = any other book - not specific)
I don't want this book. Please give me the other.
(the other = the other book - specific)
_ NÕu danh tõ ®îc thay thÕ lµ sè nhiÒu th× other ®æi thµnh others. Kh«ng bao giê ®îc
dïng others + sè nhiÒu, chØ ®îc dïng mét trong hai trêng hîp.
Eg: I don't want these books. Please give me the others.
_ Trong mét sè trêng hîp dïng ®¹i tõ thay thÕ one hoÆc ones ®»ng sau other/another
Eg: I don't want this book. Please give me another one.
_ Note: this hoÆc that cã thÓ dïng víi one, nhng these vµ those kh«ng ®îc dïng víi ones
(Lçi c¬ b¶n).

IV/ C¸ch sö dông little, a little, few, a few
_ Little + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc = rÊt Ýt, kh«ng ®ñ ®Ó (cã khuynh híng phñ ®Þnh)
Eg: I have little money, not enough to by groceries.
_ A little + danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc = cã mét chót ®ñ ®Ó
Eg: I have a little money, enough to buy glossary.
_ Few + danh tõ ®Õm ®îc = cã rÊt Ýt, kh«ng ®ñ ®Ó.
Eg: She has few books, not enough for reference reading.
_ A few + danh tõ ®Õm ®îc, sè nhiÒu = cã mét chót ®ñ ®Ó
_ Trong mét sè trêng hîp khi danh tõ ë trªn ®· ®îc nh¾c ®Õn th× ë díi chØ cÇn dïng little
vµ few nh mét ®¹i tõ.
_ Quite a few (®Õm ®îc) = quite abit (kh«ng ®Õm ®îc) = quite a lot (cho c¶ hai).

9
V/ Së h÷u c¸ch
Formular: The + noun's + noun
_ Thêng ®îc dïng cho nh÷ng danh tõ chØ ngêi hoÆc ®éng vËt, kh«ng dïng cho c¸c ®å vËt
trõ trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt.
Eg: The student's book
The cat's leap.
_ §èi víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× chØ cÇn dïng dÊu '
Eg: The students' book
_ §èi víi danh tõ khi ®æi sè nhiÒu kh«ng cã S ë ®u«i th× vÉn ph¶i dïng ®Çy ®ñ dÊu së h÷u
c¸ch.
Eg: The children's toys
The people's willing
_ NÕu cã hai danh tõ cïng ®øng ë së h÷u c¸ch th× danh tõ nµo ®øng gÇn danh tõ bÞ së h÷u
nhÊt sÏ mang dÊu së h÷u.
Eg: Paul and Peter's room.
_ §èi víi nh÷ng tªn riªng hoÆc danh tõ cã s½n S ë ®u«i cã thÓ chØ cÇn dïng dÊu ' vµ nhÊn
m¹nh vµo ®u«i khi ®äc hoÆc dïng ®Çy ®ñ dÊu së h÷u nhng ph¶i thay ®æi c¸ch ®äc.
Eg: The boss' car = the boss's / bosiz/ car
Agnes' house = Agnes's /siz/ house.
_ Nã ®îc dïng cho thêi gian (n¨m, th¸ng, thËp niªn, thÕ kû)
Eg: The 1990's events
The 21st century's propects.
_ Cã thÓ dïng cho c¸c mïa trong n¨m (trõ xu©n vµ thu). ChØ sö dông së h÷u c¸ch cho hai
mïa nµy khi nh©n ho¸ chóng. Ngµy nay ngêi ta sö dông c¸c mïa nh mét tÝnh tõ cho c¸c danh
tõ ®øng sau, Ýt sö dông së h÷u c¸ch.
Eg: The Autumn's leaf (chiÕc l¸ cña nµng thu)
The spring's return (sù trë vÒ cña chóa xu©n)
The hot summer's days (today: the hot summer days)
_ Dïng cho tªn c¸c c«ng ty, c¸c quèc gia.
Eg: The Rocket feller's oil products.
China's food.
_ §èi víi c¸c cöa hiÖu cã dÊu hiÖu ®Æc trng, chØ cÇn dïng danh tõ cã dÊu së h÷u.
Eg: In a florist's
At a hairdresser's
§Æc biÖt lµ c¸c tiÖm ¨n:
Eg: go to Antonio's
_ Dïng tríc mét sè danh tõ bÊt ®éng vËt, thêng trong mét sè thµnh ng÷:
a stone's throw from: rÊt gÇn n¬i nµo.

§éng tõ

§éng tõ trong tiÕng Anh gåm ba th× chÝnh: qu¸ khø - hiÖn t¹i - t¬ng lai. Mçi th× chÝnh chia lµm
nhiÒu th× nhá ®Ó diÔn t¶ tÝnh chÝnh x¸c cña hµnh ®éng.

10
I/ HiÖn t¹i
1. Present simple
_ Chia ®éng tõ ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt ph¶i cã s tËn cïng vµ ©m ®ã ph¶i ®îc ®äc lªn.
Eg: He walks.
She watches TV.
_ Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng thêng xuyªn x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i, kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh vÒ mÆt
thêi gian, hµnh ®éng lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i cã tÝnh quy luËt.
_ Thêng dïng víi mét sè phã tõ chØ thêi gian nh always, often, every + time.
2. Present progressive. BE + V-ing
_ Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra ë mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh cña hiÖn t¹i. Thêi
®iÓm nµy ®îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ b»ng mét sè phã tõ chØ thêi gian nh now, right now, at this
moment.
_ Thay thÕ t¬ng lai gÇn (®Æc biÖt trong v¨n nãi) khi chØ hµnh ®éng ®· ®îc dù tÝnh s½n tõ tr-
íc.
_ §Æc biÖt lu ý nh÷ng ®éng tõ ë b¶ng 1 trang 57 kh«ng ®îc phÐp chia ë tiÕp diÔn dï bÊt
cø thêi nµo khi chóng lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ tÜnh diÔn t¶ tr¹ng th¸i cña tinh thÇn vµ c¶m gi¸c hoÆc
tÝnh chÊt cña sù vËt, sù viÖc. Nhng khi chóng quay sang híng ®éng tõ hµnh ®éng th× chóng l¹i
®îc phÐp dïng ë tiÕp diÔn.
Eg: He has a lot of books.
He is having dinner now.
I think he will come in time.
I am thinking of my test tomorrow.
3. Present perfect Have + PII
_ Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra tõ qu¸ khø, kÐo dµi ®Õn hiÖn t¹i vµ chÊm døt ë
hiÖn t¹i. Thêi ®iÓm hµnh ®éng hoµn toµn kh«ng ®îc x¸c ®Þnh trong c©u.
_ ChØ mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra tõ trong qu¸ khø kÐo dµi ®Õn hiÖn t¹i.
_ Dïng víi hai giíi tõ since, for + thêi gian.
_ Dïng víi already trong c©u kh¼ng ®Þnh. Lu ý already cã thÓ ®øng ngay sau have hoÆc
cuèi c©u.
_ Dïng yet trong c©u phñ ®Þnh vµ c©u nghi vÊn. Yet thêng xuyªn ®øng cuèi c©u.
_ §Æc biÖt lu ý trong mét sè trêng hîp phñ ®Þnh, yet cã thÓ ®øng ngay sau have nhng ph¶i
thay ®æi vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p: not mÊt ®i vµ PII trë vÒ d¹ng nguyªn thÓ cã to.
S + have/ has + yet + to v

Eg: John has yet to learn the material = John hasn't learned the material yet.
_ Dïng víi now that (giê ®©y, khi mµ)
Eg: Now that you have passed the Toefl exam successfully, you can apply for a
scholarship at an U.S university.
_ Dïng víi mét sè c¸c phã tõ nh till now, so far (cho ®Õn b©y giê), untill now. Nh÷ng
thµnh ng÷ nµy cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu hoÆc cuèi c©u.
Eg: So far the problem has not been resolved.

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_ Dïng víi recently, lately (gÇn ®©y). Nh÷ng thµnh ng÷ nµy cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu hoÆc cuèi
c©u.
_ Dïng víi before ®øng ë cuèi c©u.
Eg: I have seen him before.
4. Present perfect progessive have been + V-ing
_ Dïng gièng hÖt present perfect nhng hµnh ®éng kh«ng chÊm døt ë hiÖn t¹i mµ vÉn tiÕp
tôc tiÕp diÔn. Thêng xuyªn dïng víi since, for.
_ Ph©n biÖt c¸ch dïng gi÷a hai thêi:
Present perfect Present perfect progessive
_ Hµnh ®éng ®· chÊm døt ë hiÖn t¹i, tøc lµ _ Hµnh ®éng vÉn tiÕp diÔn ë hiÖn t¹i, cã kh¶
®· cã kÕt qu¶ râ rÖt. n¨ng lan tíi t¬ng lai. Tøc lµ kh«ng cã kÕt
Eg: I have waited for you half an hour. qu¶ râ rÖt.
(And now I stop waiting because you didn't Eg: I have been waiting for you half an
come). hour. (And now I still waiting, hoping that
you will come)

II/ Qu¸ khø

1. Simple V -ed
_ Mét sè ®éng tõ trong tiÕng Anh cã c¶ d¹ng simple past vµ past perfect b×nh thêng còng
nh ®Æc biÖt. Ngêi Anh dïng simple past b×nh thêng vµ past perfect ë d¹ng ®Æc biÖt lµm tÝnh tõ
hoÆc c©u bÞ ®éng.
Eg: He lighted the candles on his birthday cake.
From a distance, we can see the lit restaurant.
(®éng tÝnh tõ qu¸ khø cña light)
_ DiÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng ®· x¶y ra døt ®iÓm trong qu¸ khø, kh«ng liªn quan g× ®Õn hiÖn
t¹i. Thêi ®iÓm trong c©u ®îc x¸c ®Þnh râ rÖt b»ng mét sè phã tõ chØ thêi gian: yesterday, at
that moment, last + time.

2. Past Progessive Was/Were + V-ing
_ Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra ë mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh cña qu¸ khø. Thêi
®iÓm ®ã ®îc diÔn t¶ cô thÓ b»ng ngµy, giê.
_ Nã dïng kÕt hîp víi mét simple past th«ng qua hai phã tõ chØ thêi gian lµ when, while
®Ó chØ mét hµnh ®éng ®ang tiÕp diÔn trong qu¸ khø th× mét hµnh ®éng kh¸c ®ét ngét xen vµo.
S + simple past _ WHILE _ S + past progessive

Eg: Somebody hit him on the head while he was walking to his car.
S + past progressive _ WHEN_ S + simple past

Eg: He was walking to his car when somebody hit him.
_ MÖnh ®Ò cã when vµ while cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu hoÆc cuèi c©u, nhng sau when ph¶i lµ
simple past vµ sau while lµ simple progessive.

12
_ DiÔn ®¹t hai hµnh ®éng ®ang cïng lóc x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø:
S + past progessive - WHILE - S + past progessive

Eg: Her husband was reading newspaper while she was preparing the dinner in the
kitchen.
_ MÖnh ®Ò hµnh ®éng kh«ng cã while cã thÓ ë simple past nhng Ýt v× cã sù nhÇm lÉn.
3. Past perfect HAD + PII
_ DiÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng x¶y ra tríc mét hµnh ®éng kh¸c trong qu¸ khø (trong c©u bao
giê còng cã hai hµnh ®éng).
_ Dïng kÕt hîp víi simple past th«ng qua hai phã tõ chØ thêi gian lµ after vµ before.
S + past perfect + before + S + simple past
S + simple past + after + S + past perfect

_ MÖnh ®Ò after vµ before cã thÓ ®øng bÊt k× n¬i nµo trong c©u, nhng sau after ph¶i lµ
past perfect, cßn sau before lµ simple past.
_ Before vµ after cã thÓ ®îc thay b»ng when mµ kh«ng sî nhÇm v× trong c©u bao giê
còng cã hai hµnh ®éng, mét tríc, mét sau.
Eg: The police came when the robbers had gone away.
4. Past perfect progessive had + been + V-ing
_ Dïng gièng past perfect, duy cã ®iÒu hµnh ®éng diÔn ra liªn tôc cho ®Õn tËn simple
past. Thêng kÕt hîp víi simple past th«ng qua before. Trong c©u thêng cã since, for + thêi
gian.
Th× nµy ngµy nay Ýt dïng (thay thÕ b»ng past perfect), chØ dïng khi cÇn diÔn ®¹t tÝnh chÝnh
x¸c cña hµnh ®éng.

III/ Th× t¬ng lai
1. Simple
Will/ shall
+ verb in simple form
Can/ may

_ Ngµy nay, ng÷ ph¸p thêi hiÖn ®¹i (®Æc biÖt lµ Mü) chÊp nhËn dïng will cho tÊt c¶ c¸c
ng«i, cßn shall chØ dïng víi I, we trong mét sè trêng hîp:
 §a ra ®Ò nghÞ mét c¸ch lÞch sù:
Eg: Shall I take your coat?
 Dïng ®Ó ng· gi¸ trong khi mÆc c¶, mua b¸n:
Eg: Shall we say $50?
 Thêng ®îc dïng víi mét v¨n b¶n mang tÝnh ph¸p quy buéc c¸c bªn ph¶i thi hµnh c¸c
®iÒu kho¶n trong v¨n b¶n.
Eg: All the students shall be responsible for proper excutive of dermitory rule.
 Trong tiÕng Anh b×nh d©n, ngêi ta thay shall b»ng must.
 Dïng ®Ó mêi mäc ngêi kh¸c mét c¸ch lÞch sù:

13
Eg: Shall we go out for lunch?
_ Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng sÏ x¶y ra ë mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh trong t¬ng lai nh-
ng kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ. Thêng dïng víi mét sè phã tõ chØ thêi gian nh tomorrow, next +
thêi gian, in the future, in future (=from now on).
Eg: We will take a TOEFL exam next year.
2. Near future to be going to do something
_ DiÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng sÏ x¶y ra trong mét t¬ng lai gÇn, thêng dïng víi c¸c phã tõ díi
d¹ng: this afternoon, in a moment...
Eg: We are going to have a reception in a moment.
_ ChØ mét viÖc ch¾c ch¾n x¶y ra theo dù tÝnh dï thêi gian lµ t¬ng lai xa.
Eg: We are going to take a TOEFL exam next month.
Ngµy nay ngêi ta thêng dïng present progessive thay thÕ cho thêi nµy.
3. Future progessive Will/Shall be + V-ing
_ DiÔn ®¹t mét sù viÖc x¶y ra trong t¬ng lai ë mét thêi ®iÓm x¸c ®Þnh, cô thÓ b»ng ngµy,
giê.
Eg: At 8a.m tomorrow morning, we will be attending a meeting at the office.
_ Dïng kÕt hîp víi mét present progessive ®Ó diÔn t¶ hai hµnh ®éng ®ang song song x¶y
ra (mét ë hiÖn t¹i, mét ë t¬ng lai).
Eg: Now we are learning English here, by the time tomorrow we will be working at
the office.
_ §îc dïng ®Ó ®Ò cËp ®Õn c¸c sù kiÖn t¬ng lai ®· ®îc x¸c ®Þnh hoÆc quyÕt ®Þnh (kh«ng
mang ý nghÜa tiÕp diÔn).
Eg: Professor Bake will be giving another lecture on Roman glass - waking at the
same time next week.
_ HoÆc nh÷ng sù kiÖn ®îc mong ®îi sÏ x¶y ra theo mét tiÕn tr×nh thêng lÖ (nhng kh«ng
diÔn ®¹t ý ddÞnh cña nh©n ngêi nãi).
Eg: You will be hearing from my selicator.
I will be seeing you one of these days as agreed on, I hope.
_ Dù ®o¸n cho t¬ng lai:
Eg: Don't call now, they will be having dinner.
_ DiÔn ®¹t lêi ®Ò nghÞ nh· nhÆn muèn biÕt vÒ kÕ ho¹ch ngêi kh¸c.
Eg: Will you be staying in this evening?
4. Future perfect Will/Shall have + PII
_ ChØ mét hµnh ®éng sÏ ph¶i ®îc hoµn tÊt ë mét thêi ®iÓm nhÊt ®Þnh trong t¬ng lai. Thêi
®iÓm nµy thêng ®îc dïng víi c¸c giíi tõ: by the time of, by the end of + time.
Eg: We will have accomplished the TOEFL test taking skill by the end of next year.
By the time Halley's Comet comes racing across the night sky again, most of the
people alive today will have died away.

14
Sù hoµ hîp gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ §éng tõ
Trong mét c©u tiÕng Anh, thêng chñ ng÷ ®øng liÒn ngay víi ®éng tõ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc
chia ®éng tõ, song kh«ng ph¶i lu«n lu«n nh vËy.

I/ Trêng hîp chñ ng÷ ®øng t¸ch khái ®éng tõ
_ Xen vµo gi÷a lµ mét ng÷ giíi tõ (mét giíi tõ më ®Çu kÕt hîp víi c¸c danh tõ theo sau).
C¸c ng÷ giíi tõ nµy kh«ng hÒ cã quyÕt ®Þnh g× ®Õn viÖc chia ®éng tõ. §éng tõ ph¶i chia theo
ng«i chñ ng÷ chÝnh.
_ C¸c thµnh ng÷ ë b¶ng 2 trang 69 vµ c¸c danh tõ ®i sau nã t¹o nªn hiÖn tîng ®ång chñ
ng÷. Nã sÏ ®øng xen vµo gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ, t¸ch ra khái hai thµnh phÇn b»ng hai dÊu ","
vµ kh«ng cã ¶nh hëng g× ®Õn viÖc chia ®éng tõ.
_ NÕu hai danh tõ lµm chñ ng÷ nèi víi nhau b»ng and th× ®éng tõ ph¶i chia ë ng«i sè
nhiÒu (they)
Nhng nÕu hai ®ång chñ ng÷ nèi víi nhau b»ng or th× ®éng tõ ph¶i chia theo danh tõ ®øng
sau or, nÕu danh tõ lµ ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt th× ®éng tõ chia theo sè Ýt vµ ngîc l¹i.
Eg: The actress or her manager is going to answer the interview.

II/ C¸c danh tõ lu«n ®ßi hái ®éng tõ vµ ®¹i tõ ®i theo sau chóng ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.
§ã lµ nh÷ng danh tõ ë b¶ng 1 trang 71, cßn gäi lµ c¸c ®¹i tõ phiÕm chØ. TÊt c¶ nh÷ng
danh tõ nµy ®Òu ®ßi hái ®¹i tõ, ®éng tõ vµ c¸c lo¹i tõ kh¸c cã liªn quan (little, few...) ph¶i ë
ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt (he, she, it)
 Either (mét trong hai) chØ dïng cho hai ngêi, hai vËt. NÕu 3 ngêi hoÆc 3 vËt trë lªn, ph¶i
dïng any.
 Neither (kh«ng mét trong hai): chØ dïng cho 2 ngêi, 2 vËt. NÕu 3 ngêi hoÆc 3 vËt trë lªn
ph¶i dïng not any.
Eg: Neither of his chutes opens as he plummets to the ground.
Not any of these pens was able to be used.

III/ C¸ch sö dông NONE vµ NO
_ NÕu sau none lµ mét danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc th× ®éng tõ ph¶i ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt, nhng
nÕu sau nã lµ mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ ph¶i chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè nhiÒu.
_ NÕu sau no lµ mét danh tõ sè Ýt hoÆc kh«ng ®Õm ®îc th× ®éng tõ ph¶i chia ë ng«i thø 3
sè Ýt. Nhng nÕu sau nã lµ mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ ph¶i ë ng«i thø 3 sè nhiÒu. (C«ng
thøc 2 + 3 trang 72)

IV/ C¸ch sö dông cÊu tróc EITHER...OR hoÆc NEITHER.. NOR (kh«ng...mµ còng kh«ng)
_ §iÒu cÇn lu ý nhÊt khi sö dông cÊu tróc nµy lµ ®éng tõ ph¶i chia theo danh tõ ®i sau or
hoÆc nor. NÕu danh tõ ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt th× ®éng tõ ë sè Ýt vµ ngîc l¹i (C«ng thøc 4 trang 72 +
C«ng thøc 1 trang 73)

V/ V- ing lµm chñ ng÷
_ Khi V - ing lµm chñ ng÷ ®éng tõ chia ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt.
_ Dïng V-ing khi muèn diÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng cô thÓ x¶y ra nhÊt thêi. Nhng khi diÔn
®¹t b¶n chÊt cña mét sù vËt, sù viÖc th× ph¶i dïng danh tõ.
Eg: Dieting is very popular today.

15
Diet is for those who suffer from a certain disease.
_ §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ còng cã thÓ lµm chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ sau nã chia ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt.
Nhng ngêi ta thêng dïng chñ ng÷ gi¶ it ë ®Çu c©u.
Eg: To find the book is neccessary for him
= It is neccessary for him to find the book.

VI/ C¸c danh tõ tËp thÓ
_ §ã lµ c¸c danh tõ ë b¶ng 1 trang 74, dïng ®Ó chØ mét nhãm ngêi hoÆc mét tæ chøc, nh-
ng trªn thùc tÕ chóng lµ nh÷ng danh tõ sè Ýt. Do vËy c¸c ®¹i tõ vµ ®éng tõ theo sau chóng còng
sÏ ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt.
_ NÕu ®éng tõ sau nh÷ng danh tõ nµy chia ë ng«i thø ba sè nhiÒu th× tøc lµ muèn ¸m chØ
c¸c thµnh viªn trong nhãm ®ang ho¹t ®éng riªng rÏ.
Eg: Congress votes for the bill.
Congress are discussing about the bill (some agree but some don't).
TOEFL kh«ng b¾t c¸c lçi nµy.
_ Danh tõ the majority ®îc dïng tuú thµnh phÇn sau nã ®Ó chia ®éng tõ.
The majority + singular verb
The majority of the + plural noun + plural verb.

Eg: The majority believes that we are in no danger.
The majority of the students believe him to be innocent.
_ The police/sheep/fish + plural verb.
Eg: The sheep are breaking away.
The police come only to see the dead bodies and a ruin in the bank.
_ A couple + singular verb.
Eg: A couple is walking on the path.
_ The couple + plural verb.
Eg: The couple are racing their horses through the meadow.
_ C¸c côm tõ ë b¶ng 1 trang 75 dïng ®Ó chØ mét nhãm ®éng vËt hoÆc gia sóc. Cho dï sau
giíi tõ of lµ danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ vÉn chia theo ng«i thø ba sè Ýt.
_ TÊt c¶ c¸c danh tõ tËp thÓ chØ thêi gian, tiÒn b¹c, sè ®o ®Òu ®îc xem lµ mét danh tõ sè
Ýt. Do vËy c¸c ®éng tõ, ®¹i tõ theo sau chóng ph¶i ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt.
Eg: He has contributed $50, and now he wants to contribute another fifty.

VII/ C¸ch sö dông A number of / The number of
_ A number of = mét sè lín nh÷ng. NÕu ®i víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ ë ng«i thø ba
sè nhiÒu.
A number of + plural noun + plural verb...

_ Tuy nhiªn, the number of = mét sè, ®îc coi lµ mét tæng thÓ sè Ýt. Do ®ã cho dï sau nã
lµ mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu th× ®éng tõ vÉn ph¶i ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt.
The number of + plural noun + singular verb..
16
VIII/ C¸c danh tõ lu«n dïng víi sè nhiÒu.
_ B¶ng 1 trang 76 lµ nh÷ng danh tõ bao giê còng ë h×nh th¸i sè nhiÒu v× chóng bao gåm
hai thùc thÓ. Do vËy c¸c ®¹i tõ, ®éng tõ ®i cïng víi chóng còng ph¶i ë ng«i thø ba sè nhiÒu.
Scissors shorts pants jeans tongs
Trousers eyeglasses pliers tweezers

_ NÕu muèn chóng chia ë ng«i sè Ýt th× ph¶i dïng a pair of, the pair of.

IX/ Thµnh ng÷ there is/ there are
_ ChØ sù tån t¹i cña ngêi, vËt ë t¹i mét n¬i nµo ®ã. Chñ ng÷ thËt cña thµnh ng÷ nµy lµ
danh tõ ®i sau. NÕu nã lµ danh tõ sè Ýt th× ®éng tõ to be chia ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt vµ ngîc l¹i.
_ Mäi biÕn ®æi vÒ th× vµ thÓ ®Òu n»m ë to be, cßn there gi÷ nguyªn.
_ Lu ý c¸c cÊu tróc there is a certain/ sure/ bound/likely + to be = ch¾c ch¾n lµ sÏ cã.
Eg: There is sure to be troubles when she gets his letter.
Do you think there is likely to be snow?
_ Trong d¹ng tiÕng Anh quy chuÈn hoÆc m«t t¶, mét sè ®éng tõ kh¸c ngoµi to be còng ®-
îc sö dông víi there.
+ §éng tõ tr¹ng th¸i: lie, remain, exist/ig'zist/, live, stand.
+ §éng tõ chØ sù ®Õn: enter, go, come, follow.
There + verb of state/ verb of arrival + noun as subject

Eg: In a small town in Germany, there once lived a poor shoe maker.
There remains nothing more to be done.
Suddenly, there entered a strange figure dressed all in back.
There followed an uncomfortable /¨n'k¨mfoteibl/ silence.
_ There + S pronoun + go/come/be = thÕ lµ, råi th×, k×a.
Eg: There he comes.
There you are. I have been waiting for you for 1 hour.
_ There + be + name of people: th× cã... ®Êy th«i
There be + always + noun: th× lóc nµo mµ ch¼ng cã...
(nh»m ®Ó gîi ra sù chó ý ®Õn mét gi¶i ph¸p kh¶ dÜ cho vÊn ®Ò)
Eg: _ Whom could we ask?
Well, there is James, or Miranda, or Ann, or Sue...
_ Where can he sleep?
Well, there is always the attic.
_ There was this + noun = chÝnh lµ c¸i... nµy ®Êy (®Ó më ®Çu cho mét c©u chuyÖn).
Eg: There was this man, see, and he could not get up early in the morning, so he...
_ There (lµm tÝnh tõ): chÝnh c¸i/con/ngêi Êy.
Eg: _Give that book there please!
_That there dog!
_That there girl, she broke 2 records of speed.
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§¹i tõ

§¹i tõ chia lµm 5 lo¹i víi c¸c chøc n¨ng sö dông kh¸c nhau.

I/ §¹i tõ nh©n xng chñ ng÷ (B¶ng 1 trang 78)
_ §øng ®Çu c©u lµm chñ ng÷ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ.
_ §øng sau ®éng tõ to be
Eg: It was she who called you.
The teachers who were invited to the party were George, Betty, Jill and I
_ §øng ®»ng sau c¸c phã tõ so s¸nh: than, as.
_ §»ng sau c¸c ng«i sè nhiÒu you, we cã thÓ dïng mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu trùc tiÕp ®»ng
sau.
Eg: We students are going to have a party.
You guys (bän mµy).
_ We, you, they + all/both.
Eg: We all go to school now.
They both bought the insurance.
You all come shopping.
_ Nhng nÕu all/both ®i víi c¸c ®¹i tõ nµy ë d¹ng c©u cã ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp (future,
perfect, progessive) th× all/both sÏ ®øng sau trî ®éng tõ.
Eg: We will all go to school next week.
They have both bought the insurance.
_ All/both ®øng sau ®éng tõ to be vµ ®øng trªn tÝnh tõ.
Eg: We are all ready to go swimming.
_ Dïng he, she thay thÕ c¸c vËt nu«i ( chã, mÌo, ngùa), c¸c ®å dïng (« t«) nÕu chóng ®îc
xem lµ cã tÝnh c¸ch, th«ng minh hoÆc t×nh c¶m.
Eg: Go and find the cat if where she stays in.
_How's your new car?
_Terrific! She's running beautifully.
_ Tªn níc ®îc thay thÕ trang träng b»ng she, her (ngµy nay Ýt dïng).
Eg: England is an island country and she is governed by a mornach.

II/ §¹i tõ nh©n xng t©n ng÷ B¶ng 1 trang 79.
_ §øng ®»ng sau c¸c ®éng tõ hoÆc giíi tõ, lµm t©n ng÷.
_ Us, we, them + all/both.
Eg: They invited us all (all of us) to the party last night.
_ §»ng sau us cã thÓ dïng trùc tiÕp mét danh tõ sè nhiÒu.
Eg: The teacher has made a lot of questions for us students.

18
III/ TÝnh tõ së h÷u B¶ng 1 trang 80.
_ §øng tríc mét danh tõ vµ chØ sù së h÷u hoÆc ngêi hoÆc vËt ®èi víi danh tõ ®ã.

IV/ §¹i tõ së h÷u B¶ng 1 trang 81.
_ Ngêi ta dïng ®¹i tõ së h÷u ®Ó tr¸nh khái ph¶i nh¾c l¹i tÝnh tõ së h÷u + danh tõ ®· nãi ë
trªn.
_ §øng ®Çu c©u lµm chñ ng÷ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ.
_ §øng ®»ng sau c¸c phã tõ so s¸nh (than, as)
_ §øng sau ®éng tõ to be
_ §øng ®»ng sau mét ®éng tõ chØ hµnh ®éng, lµm t©n ng÷.

V/ §¹i tõ ph¶n th©n B¶ng 1 trang 82.
_ Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t chñ ng÷ lµm mét viÖc g× cho chÝnh m×nh. Trong trêng hîp nµy nã
®øng sau ®éng tõ hoÆc giíi tõ ë cuèi c©u.
Eg: John bought him a new car. (him = another person)
John bought himself a new car. (himself = John)
_ Dïng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh vµo viÖc chñ ng÷ tù lµm lÊy viÖc g×. Trong trêng hîp nµy nã ®øng
ngay sau chñ ng÷. Trong mét sè trêng hîp kh¸c cã thÓ ®øng ë cuèi c©u, khi nãi h¬i ngõng l¹i
mét chót.
_ By + oneself = alone.

T©n ng÷

I/ §éng tõ dïng lµm t©n ng÷
Kh«ng ph¶i bÊt cø ®éng tõ nµo trong tiÕng Anh còng ®ßi hái t©n ng÷ ®øng sau nã lµ mét
danh tõ. Mét sè c¸c ®éng tõ l¹i ®ßi hái t©n ng÷ sau nã ph¶i lµ mét ®éng tõ kh¸c. Chóng gåm
hai lo¹i:
1. §éng tõ nguyªn thÓ lµm t©n ng÷.
B¶ng 1 trang 84 lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ®ßi hái t©n ng÷ lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ kh¸c. Chóng
tu©n theo c«ng thøc sau:
Agree to do something.
Desire to do something.
Agree attempt claim decide demand desire
Expect fail forget hesitate hope intend
Learn need offer plan prepare pretend
Refuse seem strive tend want wish

Eg: John expects to begin study law next semester.
2. V-ing dïng lµm t©n ng÷
B¶ng 2 trang 84 lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ®ßi hái t©n ng÷ sau nã ph¶i lµ mét V-ing. Chóng tu©n
theo nh÷ng c«ng thøc sau:
Admit doing something
19
Deny /dinai/ doing something.
admit appreciate avoid can't help consider delay deny
enjoy finish mind miss postpone practice quit
recall report resent re'sist resume risk suggest

_ Lu ý r»ng trong b¶ng nµy cã ®éng tõ can't help:
Can't help doing something (A-A)
: kh«ng thÓ dõng ®îc viÖc ph¶i lµm g×
Can't help but do something (A-M)
Eg: With such good oranges, we can't help buying (but buy) 2 kilos at a time.
_ NÕu muèn thµnh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh cho c¸c ®éng tõ dïng lµm t©n ng÷ trªn, ®Æt not tríc
nguyªn thÓ hoÆc V-ing.
_B¶ng 1 trang 85 lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ mµ t©n ng÷ sau nã cã thÓ lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ
hoÆc mét V-ing mµ ng÷ nghÜa kh«ng ®æi.
Begin can't stand continue dread hate
like love prefer start try

_Lu ý trong b¶ng nµy cã mÉu ®éng tõ:
can't stand to do/doing somthing = kh«ng thÓ chÞu ®îc khi ph¶i lµm g×.
Eg: He can't stand to wait/waiting such a long time.
3. Bèn ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt
_§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ mµ ng÷ nghÜa cña chóng sÏ ®æi kh¸c hoµn toµn khi t©n ng÷ sau nã
lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ hay V-ing.
1. Stop to do something: dõng l¹i ®Ó lµm g×.
Eg: He stops to get garoline.
2. Stop doing something: dõng lµm viÖc g×
Eg: He stopped writing and went out to take some fresh air.
3. Remember to do something: nhí sÏ ph¶i lµm g×
Eg: I remember to send a letter at the office tomorrow morning.
4. Remember doing something: nhí lµ ®· lµm g×
Eg: I remember locking the door before leaving, but now I can't find the key.
§Æc biÖt nã thêng ®îc dïng víi mÉu c©u:
S + still remember + V-ing: vÉn cßn nhí lµ ®·
Eg: I still remember buying the first motobike.
5. Forget to do something: quªn sÏ ph¶i lµm g×
Eg: I forgot to pick up my child after school.
6. Forget doing something: chØ ®îc dïng trong c¸c mÉu c©u phñ ®Þnh, ®Æc biÖt lµ mÉu
c©u: S + will never forget + V-ing: sÏ kh«ng bao giê quªn ®îc lµ ®·
Eg: She will never forget meeting the queen.
7. Regret to do something: lÊy lµm tiÕc v× ph¶i (thêng b¸o tin xÊu)
Eg: We regret to inform the passengers that the flight for Washington D.C was
cancelled because of the bad weather.

20
8. Regret doing something: lÊy lµm tiÕc v× ®·.
Eg: He regrets leaving school early. It's a big mistake.
4. C¸c ®éng tõ ®øng sau giíi tõ
_TÊt c¶ ®éng tõ ®øng sau giíi tõ ®Òu ph¶i lµ V-ing.
Verb
Noun + preposition + V-ing
Adiective

_Mét sè ®éng tõ ®i kÌm víi giíi tõ to. Kh«ng ®îc nhÇm giíi tõ nµy víi to cña ®éng tõ
nguyªn thÓ (V-inf)
object to
look forward to + V-ing
confess to/k¬n'fes/ (thó nhËn)
_Kh«ng ph¶i bÊt cø tÝnh tõ nµo còng ®ßi hái sau nã lµ mét giíi tõ + V-ing. Nh÷ng tÝnh tõ
ë b¶ng 2 trang 87 ®ßi hái sau nã lµ mét V-inf.
Anxious boring dangerous hard eager
Easy good strange pleased prepared
Ready able usual common difficult

_Note:
able (unable) + to do something = capable (incapable) of doing something.

II/ VÊn ®Ò c¸c ®¹i tõ ®øng tríc V-ing hoÆc V-inf lµm t©n ng÷.
_§øng tríc mét V-inf lµm t©n ng÷ th× d¹ng cña ®¹i tõ hoÆc danh tõ sÏ lµ t©n ng÷. (b¶ng 2
trang 89)
Allow ask beg convince expect istruct Invite order
permit persuade prepare promise remind urge want

S + verb + complement form (pronoun/noun) + (to + verb)...

Eg: I urge you to reconsider your decision.
_Tuy nhiªn ®øng tríc mét V-ing lµm t©n ng÷ th× d¹ng cña ®¹i tõ hoÆc danh tõ lµ mét së
h÷u. (b¶ng 1 trang 90)
S + verb + (possessive form of noun/possessive adjective) + V -ing...

Eg: We are looking forward to their coming next year.
We don't approve of John's buying this house.
We resent the teacher's not annoucing the test sooner.

21
TÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ

_ Mét tÝnh tõ lu«n bæ nghÜa cho mét vµ chØ mét danh tõ. Nã lu«n ®øng tríc danh tõ ®îc
bæ nghÜa.
_ Trong tiÕng Anh chØ cã duy nhÊt 1tÝnh tõ ®øng sau danh tõ: galore (nhiÒu, phong phó,
dåi dµo)
Eg: There were errors galore in the final test.
_ TÝnh tõ còng ph¶i ®øng ®»ng sau c¸c ®¹i tõ phiÕm chØ (something, anything...)
Eg: It's something strange.
He's somebody quite unknown.
_ Phã tõ lu«n bæ nghÜa cho mét ®éng tõ, tÝnh tõ hoÆc mét phã tõ kh¸c.
Eg: Rita dank too much coffee.
_ Adj + ly = adv: nhng ph¶i cÈn thËn v× mét sè tÝnh tõ còng cã tËn cïng b»ng ®u«i ly:
lovely, friendly. Phã tõ cña nh÷ng tÝnh tõ nµy ®îc cÊu t¹o nh sau: in a + adj-ly + way/manner.
Eg: He bahaved me in a friendly manner/way
_ Mét sè phã tõ cã cÊu t¹o ®Æc biÖt: so, very, almost, soon, often, fast, rather, well,
there, too.
_ Ngoµi ra cã mét sè côm tõ còng ®îc coi lµ mét phã tõ: bao gåm mét giíi tõ më ®Çu +
danh tõ: ®Þa ®iÓm (at home), thêi gian (at 5 P.M), ph¬ng tiÖn (by train, with pencil), t×nh
huèng hµnh ®éng (in a very difficult situation)
Mçi côm tõ nµy ®Òu ®îc xem lµ phã tõ lµm bæ ng÷.
_ VÞ trÝ cña c¸c phã tõ trong tiÕng Anh t¬ng ®èi tho¶i m¸i vµ phøc t¹p. Song vÉn cã mét
sè quy luËt sau:
+ NÕu cha biÕt ®Æc phã tõ ë ®©u th× vÞ trÝ thêng xuyªn cña nã lµ ë cuèi c©u. §Æc biÖt lµ
c¸c phã tõ ®u«i ly.
+ C¸c phã tõ vµ côm phã tõ ®øng ë cuèi c©u theo thø tù sau: chØ ph¬ng thøc hµnh ®éng -
®Þa ®iÓm - thêi gian - ph¬ng tiÖn hµnh ®éng - t×nh huèng hµnh ®éng.
+ Kh«ng bao giê mét phã tõ hoÆc mét côm phã tõ ®îc xen vµ gi÷a ®éng tõ vµ t©n ng÷.
+ NÕu trong c©u kh«ng cã phã tõ nµo kh¸c ngoµi phã tõ chØ thêi gian th× cã thÓ ®a nã lªn
®Çu c©u.
Eg: In 1980, he graduated and found a job.
+ C¸c phã tõ chØ tÇn sè: always, sometime, often lu«n ®øng tríc c¸c ®éng tõ hµnh ®éng
nhng ph¶i ®øng sau to be
Eg: The president always comes in time.
The president is always in time.

22
C¸c d¹ng so s¸nh cña tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ

I/ So s¸nh b»ng
As... as (c«ng thøc 1 trang 138)
_ NÕu lµ phñ ®Þnh, as thø nhÊt cã thÓ thay b»ng so. ChØ dïng ®Ó dÔ ®äc.
_ Danh tõ còng cã thÓ ®îc dïng ®Ó so s¸nh trong trêng hîp nµy. Nhng nhí r»ng tríc khi
so s¸nh ph¶i ®¶m b¶o danh tõ ®ã cã c¸c tÝnh tõ t¬ng ®¬ng (B¶ng 2 trang 139)
The same... as(c«ng thøc 1 trang 139)
_ §»ng sau as ph¶i lµ mét ®¹i tõ nh©n xng chñ ng÷, kh«ng ®îc lµ t©n ng÷ (Lçi c¬ b¶n).
_ The same... as >< different from
_ Note: trong tiÕng Anh - Mü, different than còng cã thÓ ®îc sö dông nÕu sau chóng lµ
mét mÖnh ®Ò hoµn chØnh. Nhng trêng hîp nµy kh«ng phæ biÕn vµ kh«ng ®a vµo c¸c bµi thi ng÷
ph¸p.
Eg: His appearance is different from what I have expected.
His appearance is different than I have expected.

II/ So s¸nh h¬n, kÐm
_ Trong lo¹i so s¸nh nµy gåm 2 d¹ng: tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ng¾n (®äc lªn chØ cã mét vÇn);
tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ dµi (hai vÇn trë lªn)
_ §èi víi tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ng¾n th× céng ®u«i er.
_ §èi víi tÝnh tõ ng¾n cã mét nguyªn ©m kÑp gi÷a hai phô ©m tËn cïng th× ph¶i gÊp ®«i
phô ©m cuèi ®Ó tr¸nh thay ®æi c¸ch ®äc, trõ X, W, Z (dßng 4 b¶ng 1 trang 140)
_ §èi víi nh÷ng tÝnh tõ tËn cïng b»ng Y dï cã hai vÇn vÉn lµ tÝnh tõ ng¾n vµ ®æi thµnh ier
(dßng 5 b¶ng 1 trang 140)
_ Trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt: strong - stronger.
Friendly - friendlier than/ more friendly than
_ §èi víi tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ dµi: céng thªm more/less tríc tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ.
_ Sau than ph¶i lµ ®¹i tõ nh©n xng chñ ng÷, kh«ng ®îc lµ t©n ng÷ (c«ng thøc 1 trang 141)
_ Khi so s¸nh mét ngêi, mét vËt víi tÊt c¶ nh÷ng ngêi hoÆc vËt kh¸c th× ph¶i thªm else
sau anything, anybody
Eg: He is smarter than anybody else in the class.
_ §Ó nhÊn m¹nh cho so s¸nh cã thÓ dïng far/much tríc so s¸nh (c«ng thøc 2, 3 trang
141)
_ Danh tõ còng ®îc dïng ®Ó so s¸nh nhng tríc khi so s¸nh ph¶i x¸c ®Þnh xem danh tõ ®ã
®Õm ®îc hay kh«ng ®Õm ®îc v× ®»ng tríc chóng cã mét sè ®Þnh ng÷ dïng víi hai lo¹i danh tõ
®ã (c«ng thøc 1, 3 trang 142)
_ §»ng sau as vµ than cña c¸c mÖnh ®Ò so s¸nh cã thÓ lo¹i bá chñ ng÷ nÕu nã trïng hîp
víi chñ ng÷ 1. §Æc biÖt lµ khi ®éng tõ sau as, than ë d¹ng bÞ ®éng. Lóc nµy as vµ than cã thÓ
thªm chøc n¨ng cña mét ®¹i tõ thay thÕ.
Eg: Their marriage was as strong as had been expected.
(Incorrect: as it had been expected)

23
Anne is going to join us, as wass agreed last week.
(Incorrect:as it was agreed)
He worries more than was good for him.
(Incorrect: than it/what was good for him)
_ C¸c t©n ng÷ còng cã thÓ lo¹i bá sau c¸c ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau as/than
Eg: Don't lose your pasport as I did last year.
(Incorrect: as I did it last year)

III/ So s¸nh hîp lý
_ Khi so s¸nh, nªn nhí c¸c môc dïng ®Ó so s¸nh ph¶i t¬ng ®¬ng víi nhau: ngêi - ngêi; vËt
- vËt.
_ Do vËy ba môc so s¸nh hîp lý lµ: së h÷u c¸ch, that of (sè Ýt), those of (sè nhiÒu)
Eg: His drawings are as perfect as his instructor's.
The salary of a professor is higher than that of a secretary.
The duties of a policeman are more dangerous than those of a teacher.

IV/ So s¸nh ®Æc biÖt
B¶ng 1 trang 144 lµ c¸c d¹ng so s¸nh ®Æc biÖt cña tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ. Trong ®ã lu ý:
farther dïng cho kho¶ng c¸ch, further dïng cho th«ng tin vµ mét sè trêng hîp kh¸c.
Eg: The distance from your house is farther than that of mine.
If you want further (=more) information, please go and ask him.
Next year he will come to the U.S for his further (more) education.

V/ So s¸nh ®a béi
_ T¬ng ®¬ng víi tiÕng ViÖt: gÊp rìi, gÊp ®«i.
_ Kh«ng ®îc sö dông so s¸nh h¬n, kÐm mµ ph¶i sö dông so s¸nh b»ng.
_ Khi so s¸nh ph¶i x¸c ®Þnh xem nh÷ng danh tõ ®ã lµ ®Õm ®îc hoÆc kh«ng ®Õm ®îc v×
®»ng tríc chóng cã many, much.
S + verb + number multiple + as + many/much + (noun) + as + noun/pronoun

Eg: This encyclopedia costs twice as much as the other one.
_Ng÷ ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i, ®Æc biÖt lµ cña Mü cho phÐp dïng so s¸nh h¬n kÐm tõ ba lÇn trë lªn.
Nhng ®èi víi gÊp hai hoÆc gÊp rìi th× tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng.
Eg: At the clambake last week, Fred ate three times more than Barney.
_ C¸c lèi nãi twice that, many/much ( gÊp ®«i ngÇn nµy) chØ ®îc dïng cho v¨n nãi,
kh«ng dïng cho v¨n viÕt.
Eg: We have expected 80 people at the rally, but twice that many showed up.
(correct: twice as many as that number)

VI/ So s¸nh kÐp
_ Lµ lo¹i t¬ng ®¬ng víi cÊu tróc tiÕng ViÖt: cµng bao nhiªu... cµng bÊy nhiªu.

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_ C¸c tÝnh tõ/ phã tõ so s¸nh ®øng ®Çu c©u. §»ng tríc chóng ph¶i cã the.
The + comparative + subject + verb + the + comparative + subject + verb.

Eg: The hotter it is, the more miserable I feel.

The more + subject + verb + the + comparative + subject + verb.

Eg: The more you study, the smarter you will become.
_ Sau the more ë vÕ mét cã thÓ dïng that nhng kh«ng cÇn thiÕt.
Eg: The more (that) you study, the smarter you will become.
The more (that) we know about it, the more we a asured.
_ Trong trêng hîp nÕu c¶ hai vÕ ®Òu lµ thµnh ng÷ it is th× bá chóng ®i.
Eg: The shorter (it is), the better (it is)
_ NÕu c¶ hai vÕ ®Òu lµ to be th× còng ph¶i bá nã ®i.
Eg: The closer to one of the earth's pole (is), the greater the gravitational force (is)
_ C¸c thµnh ng÷ all the better (cµng tèt h¬n), all the more (cµng... h¬n), not... any the
more (ch¼ng h¬n tÝ nµo) dïng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh cho c¸c tÝnh tõ hoÆc phã tõ ®îc ®em ra so s¸nh
®»ng sau. Nã chØ ®îc dïng víi c¸c tÝnh tõ mang tÝnh trõu tîng.
Eg: Sunday mornings were nice, I enjoyed them all the more because Sue used to
come round to breakfast.
He didn't seem to be any the worse far his experience.
He explained it all carefully but I was still none the wiser.
CÊu tróc nµy tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng dïng cho c¸c tÝnh tõ cô thÓ.
Eg: Those pills made him all the slimmer (incorrect)
Those pill made him much slimmer.

VII/ No sooner ... than (võa míi ... th× ®·)
_ ChØ dïng cho qu¸ khø vµ hiÖn t¹i, kh«ng dïng cho t¬ng lai.
_ No sooner ®øng ë ®Çu mét mÖnh ®Ò, theo sau nã lµ mét trî ®éng tõ ®¶o lªn tríc chñ
ng÷ ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh. Than ®øng ë ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò cßn l¹i.
No sooner + auxiliary + subject + verb + than + subject + verb

Eg: No sooner had we started out for California than it started to rain.
No sooner will he arrive than he will want to leave.
_ No sooner... than = Hardly/scarcely... when
_ No longer = not any more (kh«ng... n÷a)
S + no longer + positive verb.

Eg: John no longer studies at the university.

VIII/ So s¸nh gi÷a hai ngêi, hai vËt
_ Khi so s¸nh gi÷a hai ngêi, hai vËt chØ ®îc dïng so s¸nh h¬n kÐm, kh«ng dïng so s¸nh
bËc nhÊt. MÆc dï trong mét sè d¹ng v¨n nãi vµ c¶ v¨n viÕt ®Òu chÊp nhËn so s¸nh bËc nhÊt.
(Lçi c¬ b¶n)

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_ Tríc tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ ph¶i cã the.
_ Trong c©u cã thµnh ng÷ of the two + n. Thµnh ng÷ nµy cã thÓ ®øng ®Çu hoÆc cuèi c©u.
S + verb + the + comparative + of the two + (noun)

OR
Of the two + (noun) + S + verb + the + comparative

Eg: Harvey is the smarter of the two boys.

IX/ So s¸nh bËc nhÊt
_ Dïng khi so s¸nh ba ngêi hoÆc ba vËt trë lªn.
_ TÝnh tõ/phã tõ ng¾n + est.
_ TÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ dµi : most/least..
_ §»ng tríc so s¸nh ph¶i cã the.
_ Dïng in víi danh tõ sè Ýt vµ of víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu (C«ng thøc 4 trang 148).
Eg: John is the tallest boy in the family.
Deana is the shortest of three sisters.
_ Sau thµnh ng÷ one of the + so s¸nh bËc nhÊt ph¶i ®¶m b¶o r»ng danh tõ lµ sè nhiÒu vµ
®éng tõ ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt.
Eg: One of the greastest tennis players in the world is Bjorn Borg.
_ Mét sè tÝnh tõ hoÆc phã tõ mang tÝnh tuyÖt ®èi nªn kh«ng dïng so s¸nh bËc nhÊt vµ h¹n
chÕ dïng so s¸nh h¬n kÐm. NÕu b¾t buéc ph¶i dïng so s¸nh h¬n kÐm th× ph¶i bá more:
unique, pefect, extreme, supreme, top, absolute, prime, primary.
Eg: His drawings are perfect than mine.
_ Mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt:
 preferable to something/somebody
Eg: This project is preferable to the others.
 superior to st, sb: siªu ®¼ng h¬n ai, c¸i g×.
 inferior to st, sb: thÊp cÊp h¬n, h¹ ®¼ng h¬n ai, c¸i g×.

Danh tõ ®îc sö dông nh tÝnh tõ

_Trong tiÕng Anh cã hiÖn tîng danh tõ ®øng tríc danh tõ kh¸c lµm nhiÖm vô tÝnh tõ. §Ó
lµm ®îc chøc n¨ng ®ã th× ph¶i ®¶m b¶o tÝnh chÊt sau:
 Kh«ng ®îc phÐp cã h×nh th¸i sè nhiÒu trõ mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt.
 NÕu cã hai danh tõ cïng ®i lµm tÝnh tõ th× gi÷a chóng ph¶i cã g¹ch nèi.
Eg: We took a five-week tour.
 Nh÷ng trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt: a sport/sports car
No - fills store
A small claims court (phiªn toµ xö nh÷ng vô ®¹o vÆt)
_Trong mét sè trêng hîp, nÕu dïng danh tõ lµm tÝnh tõ th× thêng mang nghÜa ®en: A gold
watch: a watch made of gold.

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_Nhng nÕu dïng tÝnh tõ gèc th× thêng mang nghÜa bãng: A golden opportunity: a chance
that is very rare and precious.
_Kh«ng ®îc dïng tÝnh tõ bæ trî cho danh tõ khi chØ tÝnh chÊt nghÒ nghiÖp hoÆc néi dung.
Eg: A mathematics teacher.

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§éng tõ b¸n khuyÕt

I/ C¸ch sö dông Need
1. Dïng nh mét ®éng tõ thêng: ®îc sö dông ra sao cßn tuú vµo chñ ng÷.
a- Khi chñ ng÷ lµ mét ®éng vËt:
Subject as a living thing + need + to +verb.
b- Khi chñ ng÷ lµ mét bÊt ®éng vËt:
Subject as an inanimate thing + need + (to be + PII/V-ing)
c- Need = to be in need of + noun
Eg: Jill is in need of money. (Jill needs money)
Want vµ require còng ®îc dïng theo mÉu c©u nµy:
Subject as an inanimate thing + want/require + V-ing (mang nghÜa cÇn)
Eg: Your hair wants cutting.
All cats require servicing regularly.
2. Need ®îc sö dông nh mét ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt.
_Lu«n ë d¹ng hiÖn t¹i.
_Ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt kh«ng cã s tËn cïng.
_ChØ dïng ë thÓ nghi vÊn vµ phñ ®Þnh.
_Kh«ng dïng víi trî ®éng tõ to do
_Sau need lµ mét ®éng tõ bá to
Eg: We need reserve seats - There is plenty of room.
Need I fill out the form?
_Dïng sau c¸c tõ nh if/whether/only/scarcely/hardly/no one.
Eg: I wonder if I need fill out the form?
This is the only form you need fill out.
_Needn't + have + PII: lÏ ra kh«ng cÇn ph¶i
Eg: You needn't have come so early, only waste your time.
_Needn't = kh«ng cÇn ph¶i, trong khi mustn't = kh«ng ®îc phÐp.

II/ Dare.
1. Khi dïng víi nghÜa "d¸m"
_Kh«ng dïng ë thÓ kh¼ng ®Þnh, chØ sö dông ë nghi vÊn vµ phñ ®Þnh. Cã thÓ dïng víi to
do hoÆc b¶n th©n nã. §éng tõ sau nã vÒ mÆt lý thuyÕt cã to nhng trªn thùc tÕ thêng bá.
Eg: Did they dare (to) do such a thing?
= Dared they do such a thing?
He didn't dare (to) do anything.
=He dared not do anything.
_Dare kh«ng dïng ë kh¼ng ®Þnh trõ thµnh ng÷:
I daresay = I dare say.
Mang hai nghÜa nh sau:
+T«i cho r»ng
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Eg: I daresay there will be a restaurant car at the end of the train.
+T«i thõa nhËn lµ
Eg: I dare say you're right.
_How dare (dared) + S + verb in simple form = Sao... d¸m (tá sù giËn d÷).
Eg: How dared you open my letters?
2. Dare ®îc dïng nh mét ngo¹i ®éng tõ mang nghÜa th¸ch thøc.
Dare somebody to do something.
Eg: They dare the boy to swim across the river in such cold weather.

§éng tõ khuyÕt
(B¶ng 1 - P.112)

I/ §Æc tÝnh
_Kh«ng cã tiÓu tõ to ®»ng tríc.
_§éng tõ ®i sau nã ph¶i bá to
_Kh«ng cÇn dïng víi trî ®éng tõ mµ dïng víi chÝnh b¶n th©n nã trong d¹ng c©u hái vµ
c©u nghi vÊn.
_Hai ®éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt kh«ng bao giê ®i cïng nhau. NÕu cã th× ®éng tõ thø hai tiÕn
sang d¹ng kh¸c.
Eg: Will have to Will be able to will be allowed to
Must can may
_§éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt cã chøc n¨ng:
 DiÔn ®¹t thêi t¬ng lai.
 DiÔn ®¹t c©u ®iÒu kiÖn.
1. §iÒu kiÖn cã thÓ thùc hiÖn ®îc ë hiÖn t¹i:
If + S + simple present - S + will/shall/may/can + verb in simple form

Eg: If he tries much more, he will improve his grade in math class.
2. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®îc ë hiÖn t¹i:
If + S + simple past - subject + would/should/could/might + verb in simple form

Eg: If I had enough money now, I would buy this house (But now I don't have
enough).
+§éng tõ to be sau if trong lo¹i c©u nµy ph¶i chia lµ were trong tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i.
Eg: If I were you, I wouldn't do such a thing.
+Trong mét sè trêng hîp, bá if vµ ®¶o were lªn trªn chñ ng÷.
Eg: Were I you, I wouldn't do such a thing.
3. §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thùc hiÖn ®îc ë qu¸ khø.
If + S + had + PII - S + would/should/could/might + have + PII

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Eg: If I had studied harder for that test, I would have passed it. (In fact he didn't study
hard enough)
Trong mét sè trêng hîp bá if vµ ®¶o had lªn trªn chñ ng÷.
4. Note: C©u ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng ph¶i lóc nµo còng tu©n theo quy luËt trªn. Trong mét sè tr-
êng hîp mét vÕ cña ®iÒu kiÖn sÏ lµ qu¸ khø, nhng vÕ cßn l¹i ë hiÖn t¹i do thêi gian quy
®Þnh.
Eg: If she had caught the train, she would be here by now.

II/ C¸ch sö dông c¸c ®éng tõ WILL/WOULD
Th«ng thêng chóng kh«ng ®îc sö dông víi if trong c©u ®iÒu kiÖn. Ngo¹i lÖ:
_ If you will/would: NÕu... vui lßng: thêng ®îc dïng trong c¸c yªu cÇu lÞch sù. would
lÞch sù h¬n will.
Eg: If you will/would wait for a moment, I will go and see if Mr.Corner is here.
_ If + S + will/would: NÕu... chÞu: diÔn ®¹t ý tù nguyÖn.
Eg: If he will listen to me, I can help him.
Will cßn ®îc dïng trong mÉu c©u nµy ®Ó diÔn ®¹t sù ngoan cè: NÕu... nhÊt ®Þnh/ NÕu... cø
Eg: If you will turn on the music loudly late tonight,
_ If you could: xin vui lßng. DiÔn ®¹t lÞch sù mét yªu cÇu mµ ngêi nãi cho r»ng ngêi kia
sÏ ®ång ý nh mét lÏ ®¬ng nhiªn.
Eg: If you could open your book, please!
_ If + S + should ... imperative (mÖnh lÖnh thøc) = vÝ pháng nh... : diÔn ®¹t t×nh huèng
dï cã thÓ ®îc song khã x¶y ra.
Eg: If you should find any dificulty in using that T.V, please call me this number.
Trong mét sè trêng hîp, bá if vµ ®¶o should lªn trªn chñ ng÷.
Eg: Should you find any...

III/ Mét sè c¸ch dïng thªm cña IF
1. If... then: NÕu... th×
Eg: If she can't come to us, then we will have to go and see her.
2. If trong d¹ng c©u kh«ng ph¶i ®iÒu kiÖn: ®éng tõ ë c¸c mÖnh ®Ò diÔn biÕn b×nh thêng
theo thêi gian cña chÝnh nã.
Eg: If you want to learn a musical instrument, you have to practise it.
If you did not do much maths at school, you will find economics difficult to
understand.
If that was Mary, why didn't she stop and say "hello"?
3. If... should = If... happen to = If... should happen to = ngé nhì: diÔn ®¹t sù kh«ng
ch¾c ch¾n.
Eg: If you should happen to pass a supermarket, you could get some eggs for me.
4. If... was/were to: diÔn ®¹t ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt hoÆc tëng tîng ë t¬ng lai:
Eg: If the boss was/were to come in now, we would be in a real trouble..
What would we do if I was/were to lose my job?
 HoÆc cã thÓ diÔn ®¹t mét ý lÞch sù khi ®a ra mét ®Ò nghÞ.
Eg: If you were to move your chair a bit, we could all sit down.

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 Note: CÊu tróc nµy tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®îc dïng víi c¸c ®éng tõ tÜnh hoÆc chØ c¸c tr¹ng
th¸i t duy.
Eg: Correct: If I knew her name, I would tell you.
Incorrect: If I was/were to know...
5. If it + to be + not + for: NÕu kh«ng v×, nÕu kh«ng nhê vµo.
Eg: If it wasn't/weren't for the children, that couple wouldn't have anything to talk
about.
If it hadn't been for your help, I don't know what we would have done.
6. Not ®«i khi ®îc thªm vµo nh÷ng ®éng tõ sau if ®Ó bµy tá sù nghi ngê, kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n.
(cã nªn... hay kh«ng)

7. It would... if S + would = sÏ lµ... nÕu... (kh«ng dïng cho v¨n viÕt).
Eg: It would be better if they would tell everybody in advance.
How would we feel if this would happen to our family?
8. It... 'd have - 'd have: dïng trong v¨n nãi, kh«ng dïng trong v¨n viÕt. DiÔn ®¹t ®iÒu
kiÖn kh«ng thÓ cã trong qu¸ khø.
Eg: If I'd have known, I'd have told you.
If she'd have recognised him, it'd have been funny.
9. If preposition + noun/verb (S + be bÞ lîc bá).
Eg: If in doubt, ask for help! = If you are in doubt...
If about to go on along journey (if you are about to go on... ), try to have a good
night sleep.
10. If dïng kh¸ phæ biÕn víi any, anything, ever, not: diÔn ®¹t phñ ®Þnh.
Eg: There's a little if any good evidence for flying saucer.
I'm not angry. If anything I feel a little surprise. (If anything = mµ tr¸i l¹i)
Thµnh ng÷ nµy cßn diÔn ®¹t ý ím thö: nÕu cã...
Eg: I would say he was more like a father, if anything.
11. If + adj = although (cho dï lµ)
_NghÜa kh«ng m¹nh b»ng although. Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t quan ®iÓm riªng hoÆc mét vÊn ®Ò.
Eg: His style, if simple, is pleasant to read.
The profit, if little lower than last year's, are still extremely how...
CÊu tróc nµy cã thÓ thay = may... but.
Eg: His style may be simple, but it's pleasant to read.

IV/ C¸ch sö dông as if, as though. (chõng nh lµ, nh thÓ lµ)
_MÖnh ®Ò ®»ng sau thµnh ng÷ nµy thêng xuyªn ë d¹ng ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®îc,
gåm hai thêi:
 Thêi hiÖn t¹i: nÕu danh tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò tríc chia ë hiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n th× mÖnh ®Ò sau chia ë
qu¸ khø ®¬n gi¶n. To be ®æi thµnh were ë tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i. (C«ng thøc 1 trang 119)
 Thêi qu¸ khø: nÕu ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò tríc chia ë qu¸ khø ®ín gi¶n th× mÖnh ®Ò sau chia
ë qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh. (C«ng thøc 2 trang 119).

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 Note: mÖnh ®Ò sau as if/as though kh«ng ph¶i lóc nµo còng tu©n theo quy luËt trªn. NÕu
®iÒu kiÖn trong c©u lµ cã thËt hoÆc theo quan niÖm cña ngêi nãi, ngêi viÕt lµ cã thËt th×
hai c«ng thøc trªn kh«ng ®îc sö dông. §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau diÔn biÕn b×nh thêng theo
mèi quan hÖ víi ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.

V/ C¸ch sö dông Hope/Wish.
_Hai ®éng tõ nµy tuy cïng nghÜa nhng kh¸c vÒ c¸ch sö dông vµ b¶n chÊt ng÷ ph¸p.
 §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau hope sÏ diÔn biÕn b×nh thêng theo thêi gian cña chÝnh mÖnh ®Ò
®ã.
Eg: We hope that they will come.
 §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau wish (íc g×, mong g×) ph¶i ë d¹ng ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn
®îc. §iÒu kiÖn ®ã gåm ba thêi:
+ Kh«ng thùc hiÖn ®îc ë t¬ng lai: ®éng tõ sau wish cã d¹ng:
would/could + v hoÆc were + V-ing.
+ Kh«ng thùc hiÖn ®îc ë hiÖn t¹i (c«ng thøc 2 trang 121): ®éng tõ sau wish chia ë qu¸
khø ®¬n gi¶n. To be chuyÓn thµnh were.
+ Kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®îc ë qu¸ khø: ®éng tõ sau wish chia ë qu¸ khø hoµn thµnh hoÆc
could have + PII (c«ng thøc 3 trang 121)
 Note:
+ §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau wish chØ cã thÓ bÞ ¶nh hëng cña wish lµ b¾t buéc ph¶i ë d¹ng
®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®îc. Nhng ®iÒu kiÖn ®ã ë thêi nµo l¹i phô thuéc vµo chÝnh
thêi gian cña b¶n th©n mÖnh ®Ò chø kh«ng phô thuéc vµo thêi cña wish.
Eg: She wishes that she could have been there yesterday.
He wished that he could come to visit us next week.
The photographer wished we stood closer than we are standing now.
+ CÇn ph©n biÖt wish (íc, mong) víi wish mang nghÜa chóc trong mÉu c©u I wish
somebody/something.
+ Ph©n biÖt wish víi wish mang nghÜa muèn trong hai mÉu c©u:
To wish to do something
Eg: - Why do you wish to see the manager?
- I wish to make a complain.
To wish somebody to do something.
Eg: The government does not wish Pr.Jekyll Hyde to accept a professorship at a
foreign university.
+ Wish (lÞch sù, trang träng nhÊt) = would like (lÞch sù) = want (th©n mËt).

VI/ C¸ch sö dông USED TO/ TO BE, GET USED TO
_Used to + verb = thêng hay, ®· tõng: chØ mét thãi quen, hµnh ®éng thêng hay x¶y ra
trong qu¸ khø. (C«ng thøc 1 trang 123)
 Nghi vÊn:
Did + S + use to = Used + S + to + verb.
 Phñ ®Þnh:
S + did not + use to + verb = S + used not to + verb.

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_To be/ to get used to + V-ing/noun = trë nªn quen víi. (C«ng thøc 1 trang 124).
Eg: He got used to American food.
Note: Used to + verb cã thÓ thay b»ng would nhng Ýt v× dÔ bÞ nhÇm.

VII/ C¸ch sö dông Would rather
_Would rather... than = prefer... to (thÝch... h¬n lµ)
 §»ng sau would rather b¾t buéc lµ ®éng tõ bá to, nhng sau prefer lµ mét V-ing vµ cã
thÓ bá ®i ®îc.
 would rather... than nÕu mang nghÜa "thµ... cßn h¬n lµ" th× prefer to kh«ng thÓ thay
thÕ ®îc.
Eg: They would rather die in freedom than live in slavery.
He prefers dogs to cats ≠ He would rather have dogs than cats.
_ViÖc sö dông would rather cßn phô thuéc vµo sè chñ ng÷ vµ nghÜa cña c©u.
1. Lo¹i c©u cã mét chñ ng÷:
Would rather... than: mang nghÜa kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®îc.
 HiÖn t¹i: sau would rather lµ mét nguyªn thÓ bá to. NÕu muèn thµnh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh
th× ®Æt not tríc nguyªn thÓ bá to (C«ng thøc 1 trang 125)
 Qu¸ khø: ®éng tõ sau would rather: have + PII. NÕu lµ phñ ®Þnh th× ®Æt not tríc have
(C«ng thøc 2 trang 125)
2. Lo¹i c©u cã 2 chñ ng÷
Would rather that = íc g×, mong g×. Dïng trong mét sè trêng hîp sau:
a- Gi¶ ®Þnh ë hiÖn t¹i: lµ lo¹i c©u ngêi mét muèn ngêi hai lµm viÖc g× nhng lµm hay kh«ng
cßn phô thuéc vµo ngêi 2.
Trong trêng hîp nµy ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò 2 ë d¹ng nguyªn thÓ bá to.
NÕu lµ phñ ®Þnh th× ®Æt not tríc nguyªn thÓ bá to.
Ng÷ ph¸p ngµy nay (®Æc biÖt lµ ng÷ ph¸p Mü) cho phÐp bá that mµ vÉn gi÷ nguyªn h×nh
thøc gi¶ ®Þnh.
Eg: We would rather (that) he not take this train.
b- Lo¹i c©u kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®îc ë hiÖn t¹i: §éng tõ cña chñ ng÷ 2 ë simple past. To be
chuyÓn thµnh were cho tÊt c¶ c¸c ng«i. (C«ng thøc 2 trang 126)
NÕu lµ phñ ®Þnh: didn't + V hoÆc were not sau chñ ng÷ 2.
c- Lo¹i c©u kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®îc ë qu¸ khø: ®éng tõ sau chñ ng÷ 2 ë d¹ng past
perfect. NÕu lµ phñ ®Þnh: had not + PII.
+ Note: trong lèi nãi b×nh thêng hµng ngµy: dïng wish thay would rather than

VIII/ Would like
_ DiÔn ®¹t mét c¸ch lÞch sù lêi mêi mäc hoÆc ý m×nh muèn lµm g× (C«ng thøc 2 trang
128).
_Kh«ng dïng Do you want khi muèn mêi ngêi kh¸c.
_Trong tiÕng Anh cña ngêi Anh, nÕu ®Ó diÔn ®¹t sù a thÝch cña chñ ng÷ th× sau like lµ mét
V-ing.
Eg: He does like reading novel.
_§Ó diÔn ®¹t sù lùa chän hoÆc thãi quen th× sau like lµ mét ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ.
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Eg: Between socer and tennis, I like to watch the former (c¸i thø nhÊt).
When making tea, I usually like to put a slice of lemon and some sugar in first.
(habit)
_Nhng trong tiÕng Anh cña ngêi MÜ th× kh«ng cã sù ph©n biÖt nµy. Sau like ®Òu lµ ®éng tõ
nguyªn thÓ.
_Wouldn't like = kh«ng a.
Don't want = kh«ng muèn.
Eg: Would you like some more coffee?
Polite: No, thanks / No, I don't want anymore.
Impolite: I wouldn't like.
_Lu ý khi like ®îc dïng víi nghÜa cho lµ ®óng, cho lµ hay, cho lµ kh«n ngoan th× bao giê
theo sau còng lµ mét nguyªn thÓ cã to.
Eg: She likes the children to play in the garden.
(She thinks they are safe playing there)
I like to go to the dentist's twice a year.
_Would like = would care, would hate, would love, would prefer + to + verb: diÔn ®¹t
mét hµnh ®éng cô thÓ ë t¬ng lai.
Eg: Would you like/ care to come with me?
I'd love to (kh«ng thÝch: I'd hate to)
_Would like = would care for, would Ñnoy + V-ing: khi diÔn ®¹t khÈu vÞ hoÆc ý thÝch
nãi chung cña ngêi nãi.
Eg: She would like/ would Ñnoy riding if she should ride better.
I wonder if Tom would care for/enoy hanging glinding.

IX/ §éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i hiÖn t¹i
1. Could, may, might + V(simple form) = cã lÏ, cã thÓ: kh¶ n¨ng cã thÓ x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i
nhng ngêi nãi kh«ng d¸m ch¾c.
Eg: It might rain tomorrow = It will possibly rain tomorrow.
2. Should + verb (simple form) = nªn: diÔn ®¹t mét lêi khuyªn, sù gîi ý, sù b¾t buéc nh-
ng kh«ng m¹nh l¾m.
= cã khi, cã lÏ: diÔn ®¹t lêi nãi mong muèn ®iÒu ®ã x¶y
ra (expect)
_ C¸c thµnh ng÷ ë b¶ng 1 trang 129 ®Òu mang nghÜa t¬ng ®¬ng víi should víi ®iÒu kiÖn
®éng tõ to be trong thµnh ng÷ be supposed to chia ë hiÖn t¹i.
_Thµnh ng÷ be supposed to cßn mang nghÜa b¾t buéc ph¶i, quy ®Þnh ph¶i:
Eg: We are supposed to have a science test this afternoon, but it was postponed
because the teacher had to attend a conference.
3. Must + verb (simple form) = ph¶i
_ Mang nghÜa b¾t buéc rÊt m¹nh.
_ H¼n lµ: chØ sù suy luËn logic dùa trªn nh÷ng hiÖn tîng cã thùc ë hiÖn t¹i.
_ Ngêi ta dïng have to thay must trong nh÷ng trêng hîp sau:
+ Past: had to
+ Future: will have to
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Eg: We will have to take an exam next week.
+ HiÖn t¹i: have to thay must ®Ó hái xem b¶n th©n m×nh b¾t buéc ph¶i lµm g× hoÆc ®Ó
diÔn ®¹t sù b¾t buéc do kh¸ch quan ®em l¹i nh»m lµm gi¶m tÝnh b¾t buéc cña must
Eg: Guest: Do I have to leave a deposit?
Receptionist: No, you needn't. But you have to leave your I.D card number
written down in this register. I'm sorry but that's the way it is.
_ Have got to + verb = must: thêng dïng nhiÒu trong v¨n nãi.
Eg: He has got to come to the office tonight.
§Æc biÖt nã thêng xuyªn dïng cho c¸c hµnh ®éng ®¬n lÎ, t¸ch biÖt.
Eg: I have to work every day exept Sunday. But I don't have got to work a full day on
Saturday.

X/ §éng tõ khiÕm khuyÕt diÔn ®¹t c¸c tr¹ng th¸i cña qu¸ khø
1. Could, may, might + have + PII = cã lÏ ®·: diÔn ®¹t mét kh¶ n¨ng cã thÓ ë qu¸ khø
song ngêi nãi kh«ng d¸m ch¾c.
Eg: I may have rained last night, but I'm not sure.
2. Could have + PII = lÏ ra ®· cã thÓ (trong thùc tÕ lµ kh«ng)
Eg: He could have gotten the ticket for the concert last night (but he couldn't)
3. Might + have been + V-ing: cã lÏ lóc Êy ®ang
Eg: I didn't hear the telephone ring. I might have been sleeping at that time.
4. Should have + PII = lÏ ra ph¶i, lÏ ra nªn: chØ mét viÖc lÏ ra ®· ph¶i x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø
nhng trong thùc tÕ lµ kh«ng.
Eg: John should have gone to the post office this morning
(He didn't go to the post office)
_ Note: form should have PII = was/were supposed to + verb (simple)
5. Must have + PII = h¼n lµ ®·: chØ sù suy ®o¸n logic dùa trªn nh÷ng hiÖn tîng cã thùc
trong qu¸ khø.
Eg: The grass is wet. It must have rained last night.
6. Must have been + V-ing = h¼n lóc Êy ®ang
Eg: I didn't hear you knock. I must have been gardening behind the house at that
time.

XI/ Should trong mét sè trêng hîp cô thÓ
_ DiÔn ®¹t kÕt qu¶ cña mét yÕu tè tëng tîng = sÏ
Eg: If I was asked to work on Sunday, I should resign.
_ Dïng trong c¸c mÖnh ®Ò contact sau nh÷ng tÝnh tõ chØ tr¹ng th¸i tinh thÇn nh anxcious,
sorry, happy, concern, delighted (lÊy lµm)
Eg: I'm anxcious that she should be well cared for.
We are sorry that you should feel uncomfortable.
_ Dïng víi If / in case chØ mét ®iÒu khã cã thÓ x¶y ra. Ngêi nãi ®a ra ý kiÕn chØ ®Ó phßng
ngõa = ngé nhì, nÕu ch¼ng may.
Eg: If you should change your mind (Should you change your mind, please)

35
In case he should have forgotten to go to the airport, nobody would be there to
meet her.
_ Dïng sau so that, in order that = sao cho: ®Ó chØ môc ®Ých (thay cho could/would)
Eg: He puts the suitcase so that he should be able to make an early start.
She repeated the instrution slowly in order that he should understand.
_ Dïng trong nh÷ng lêi yªu cÇu lÞch sù.
Eg: I should like to make a phone call if possible.
_ Dïng víi imagine, say, think ®Ó ®a ra lêi ®Ò nghÞ = thiÕt tëng, cho lµ
Eg: I should imagine it will take 3 hours for this work.
I should say she is over 40
_ Dïng cho c¸c c©u hái diÔn t¶ sù nghi ngê, thiÕu quan t©m
Eg: How should I know?
Why should he think that?
_ Dïng víi c¸c ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn: what, where, who ®Ó diÔn t¶ sù ng¹c nhiªn. Thêng dïng
víi but.
Eg: I was thinking of going to see John when who should appear but John himself.
What should I find but an enormous spider.

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C¸ch sö dông to Be trong mét sè trêng hîp

1. To be of + n = to have: cã (dïng ®Ó chØ tÝnh chÊt hoÆc t×nh c¶m)
Eg: Mary is of a gentle nature (= Mary has a gentle nature)
2. To be of + n: nhÊn m¹nh cho danh tõ ®»ng sau.
Eg: The newly - opened restaurant is of the leicester square.
3. To be + to + V lµ d¹ng cÊu t¹o ®Æc biÖt ®îc sö dông trong nh÷ng trêng hîp:
 TruyÒn ®¹t c¸c mÖnh lÖnh hoÆc chØ dÉn tõ ng«i thø nhÊt qua ng«i thø hai ®Õn ng«i thø ba
(mÖnh lÖnh thøc gi¸n tiÕp)
Eg: No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police.
 Dïng víi mÖnh ®Ò IF khi mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh diÔn ®¹t mét c©u tiÒn ®iÒu kiÖn: mét ®iÒu ph¶i
x¶y ra tríc nhÊt nÕu muèn mét ®iÒu kh¸c x¶y ra (nÕu muèn... th× ph¶i)
Eg: If we are to get thereby lunch time we had better hurry.
Something must be done quickly if the endangered birds are to be saved.
He knows he would have to work hard if he was to pass his exam.
 §îc dïng ®Ó th«ng b¸o nh÷ng yªu cÇu xin chØ dÉn.
Eg: He asked the air traffic control where he was to land.
 §îc dïng rÊt phæ biÕn ®Ó truyÒn ®¹t mét dù ®Þnh, mét sù s¾p ®Æt (®Æc biÖt lµ sù chÝnh
thøc) (mang tÝnh th«ng b¸o).
Eg: She is to get married next month.
The expedition is to start in a week.
We are to get a ten - percent wage rise in time.
NÕu dïng will th× tÝnh th«ng b¸o mang tÝnh kh¸ch quan (kh«ng ®îc hái, tù nhiªn th«ng
b¸o).
 CÊu tróc nµy rÊt th«ng dông trªn b¸o chÝ vµ khi lËp tùa ®Ò b¸o th× to be ®îc bá ®i ®Ó tiÕt
kiÖm chç.
Eg: The Prime Minister (is) to make a statement tomorrow.
4. Were + Subject + to verb = if + S + were + to verb: ThÕ nÕu... (diÔn ®¹t mét gi¶ thiÕt)
Eg: Were I to tell you that he passed his exam, would you believe me?
5. Was/were + to + verb: diÔn ®¹t ý tëng vÒ mét sè mÖnh ®· ®Þnh s½n.
Eg: They said goodbye without knowing that they were never to meet again.
Since 1840, American presidents elected in years ending in zero were to be died
in office.
6. To be about to + V = near future.
Eg: They are about to leave = they are going to leave.
7. Dïng trong mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt:
 Be + adj: më ®Çu cho mét mÖnh ®Ò phô = tá ra.
Eg: Be careless in a nation park where there are bears around and the result is likely
to be tragical indeed.
 Be + S + adj/noun/noun phrase = cho dï lµ.

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Eg: Societies have found various methods to support and train their artists, be it the
Renaissance system of royal support of the sculptors and painters of the period or
the Japanese tradition of passing artistic knowledge from father to son.
To have techniques is to posses the physical expertise to perform whatever step a
given work way contain, be they simple or complex.
 Note: c¸c cÊu tróc trªn chØ sö dông trong v¨n viÕt, kh«ng sö dông trong v¨n nãi.

C¸ch sö dông to Get trong mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt

1. To get + PII
Eg: to get washed/dressed/prepared/lost/drawned/engaged/divorced
_ChØ viÖc chñ ng÷ tù lµm lÊy hoÆc tr¹ng th¸i mµ chñ ng÷ ®ang ë trong ®ã.
Eg: He got lost in the maze of this town yesterday.
You will have five minutes to get dressed
Note:
+TuyÖt nhiªn kh«ng ®îc lÉn trêng hîp nµy víi ®éng tõ ë d¹ng bÞ ®éng.
+To be cã thÓ thay thÕ trong lo¹i c©u nµy.
2. Get + V-ing = start + V-ing.
Eg: We'd better get moving. It's late.
3. Get somebody/something + V-ing = ai/c¸i g× b¾t ®Çu.
Eg: Please get him talking about the main task.
Once we get heater running, the whole car will start warm - up.
4. Get + to + verb:
 T×m ®îc c¸ch.
Eg: We couldn't get to enter the stadium without ticket.
 Cã c¬ may:
Eg: When do I get to have a promotion?
 §îc phÐp
Eg: At last we got to meet the general director to take the interview.
5. Get + to + verb (chØ vÊn ®Ò hµnh ®éng) = Come + to + verb (chØ vÊn ®Ò nhËn thøc) =
Gradually.
Eg: We will get to speak English more easily as time go by.
He comes to understand that learning English is not much difficult.

38
§éng tõ G©y nguyªn nh©n

_ §ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ diÔn ®¹t ®èi tîng 1 g©y cho ®èi tîng 2 ®iÒu g× víi mét sè mÉu c©u
sau:
1. To have somebody do something = to get somebody to do something: sai ai, khiÕn
ai, b¶o ai lµm g×.
Eg: Mary had John wash the car
Mary got John to wash the car.
2. To have/to get something done: ®a c¸i g× ®i lµm, b¶n th©n kh«ng lµm mµ ngêi kh¸c
lµm.
Trong khuynh híng nµy, want vµ would like còng cã thÓ ®îc dïng víi mÉu c©u nh vËy
To want/would like something done
(?): What do you want done to?
Eg: What do you want done to your car?
I want/ would like it washed.
3. To make somebody do something = to force somebody to do something: buéc ai,
lµm cho ai ph¶i lµm g×.
Eg: The robber made the teller give him the money.
The robber forced the teller to give him the money.
 §»ng sau t©n ng÷ cña make cßn cã thÓ sö dông mét tÝnh tõ: to make
somebody/something + adj.
Eg: Wearing flowers made her more beautiful.
Chemical treatment will make this wood more deerable.
4. To make somebody + PII: lµm cho ai bÞ lµm sao
Eg: Working all night on Friday made me tired on Saturday.
NÕu t©n ng÷ cña MAKE lµ mét V - inf th× ph¶i ®Æt it gi÷a make vµ tÝnh tõ. V - inf ®a ra
sau: To make it + adj + V as object.
Eg: The wire service made it possible to collect and distribute news faster and
cheaper.
Nhng nÕu t©n ng÷ cña MAKE lµ mét danh tõ hoÆc mét ng÷ danh tõ th× ph¶i bá IT gi÷a
MAKE vµ tÝnh tõ: to make + adj + noun/noun phrase as S.
Eg: The wire service made possible much speeder collection and distribution of news.
5. To cause something + PII: lµm cho c¸i g× bÞ lµm sao.
Eg: The big thuderstorm caused many water front houses damaged.
6. To let somebody do something = to permit/to allow to do something: ®Ó ai, cho phÐp
ai lµm g×.
Eg: John let his dog swim.
7. To help somebody do/ to do something.
NÕu t©n ng÷ cña help lµ mét ®¹i tõ v« nh©n xng mang nghÜa ngêi ta th× kh«ng cÇn ph¶i
nh¾c ®Õn t©n ng÷ ®ã lµ bá to ë ®éng tõ ®»ng sau.
Eg: This wonderdrug will (people to) help recover more quickly.

39
NÕu t©n ng÷ cña help vµ t©n ng÷ cña ®éng tõ sau nã trïng víi nhau th× cã thÓ bá t©n ng÷
sau help vµ bá to ë ®éng tõ ®»ng sau.
Eg: The body fat of the bear will help (him) (to) keep him alive during hibernation.
8. Ba ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt:
_ §ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ mµ ng÷ nghÜa cña chóng sÏ thay ®æi chót Ýt khi ®éng tõ sau t©n ng÷
cña chóng ë c¸c d¹ng kh¸c nhau.
To see/ watch/hear somebody/something do something: xem, theo dâi, nghe ai/ c¸i g×
lµm g× (hµnh ®éng chøng kiÕn tõ ®Çu ®Õn cuèi)
Eg: I hear the telephone ring.
I see her sing.
To see/watch/hear somebody/something doing something: xem, theo dâi, nghe ai, c¸i
g× ®ang (hµnh ®éng kh«ng chøng kiÕn trän vÑn mµ cã tÝnh nhÊt thêi)
Eg: I hear the telephone ringing.

§éng tõ nèi
_ §ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ë b¶ng 1 trang 136 cã nh÷ng ®Æc tÝnh sau:
 Kh«ng diÔn ®¹t hµnh ®éng mµ diÔn ®¹t tr¹ng th¸i hoÆc b¶n chÊt sù vËt, sù viÖc.
 §»ng sau chóng ph¶i lµ tÝnh tõ, kh«ng ®îc lµ phã tõ.
 Kh«ng ®îc chia ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn dï díi bÊt cø thêi nµo.
be appear feel become seem look remain sound
smell stay taste
_ Note: trong b¶ng nµy cã c¸c cÆp ®éng tõ:
to seem to happen
= = dêng nh
to appear to change
Chóng cã thÓ thay thÕ lÉn cho nhau nhng tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®îc thay thÕ ngang hoÆc chÐo.
_ C¸c ®éng tõ trªn ®îc dïng nh÷ng mÉu sau:
 Dïng víi chñ ng÷ gi¶ it.
Eg: It seems that they have passed the exam. = It happens/ changes they have passed
the exam.
 Dïng víi chñ ng÷ thËt:
Eg: They seem / appear to have passed the exam = they happen/change to have
passed the exam.
_ Happen/ change cßn mang nghÜa: t×nh cê, ngÉu nhiªn, may lµ
Eg: She happened to be out/ It happened that she was out when he called.
She changed to be in/ I happened that she was in when he called.
_ Ba ®éng tõ to be, to become, to remain trong mét sè trêng hîp cã mét danh tõ hoÆc
côm danh tõ theo sau. Khi ®ã chóng mÊt ®i chøc n¨ng cña mét ®éng tõ nèi.
Eg: Christine became class president after a long, hard campaign.
Doug remained chairman of the board despite the opposition.

40
_ C¸c ®éng tõ to feel, to look, to smell, to taste trong mét sè trêng hîp cã thÓ lµ mét
ngo¹i ®éng tõ ®ßi hái mét t©n ng÷ ®i sau nã. Lóc nµy nã mÊt ®i chøc n¨ng cña mét ®éng tõ nèi
- cã thÓ cã mét phã tõ ®i bæ trî - thay ®æi vÒ mÆt ng÷ nghÜa.
 To feel: sê, n¾n ®Ó kh¸m
 To smell: ngöi
Chóng ®îc phÐp chia ë thêi tiÕp diÔn.

Nh÷ng ®éng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn

§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ë b¶ng 1 trang 191 vµ b¶ng 1 trang 192, dÔ nhÇm vÒ ng÷ nghÜa,
chÝnh t¶ hoÆc ph¸t ©m.
1. To rise: tù d©ng lªn (kh«ng cÇn t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp)
Eg: The sun rises early in the summer.
2. To raise something/somebody: n©ng ai, c¸i g× lªn (cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp)
Eg: The students raise their hands in class.
3. To lie: n»m, ë t¹i.
 to lie in: ë t¹i
 to lie down: n»m xuèng
 to lie on: n»m trªn
Eg: The university lies in the western section of town.
The old dog lay on the grass watching the children at play.
CÇn ph©n biÖt ®éng tõ nµy víi To lie mang nghÜa nãi dèi b»ng mÉu c©u: to lie to
somebody about something.
Eg: He lying to you about the test.
4. To lay: ®Æt, ®Ó
 to lay on: ®Æt trªn
 to lay in: ®Æt vµo
 to lay down: ®Æt xuèng
Eg: Don't lay your clothes on the bed.
The nurse laid the baby in the crib.
Thêi hiÖn t¹i cña ®éng tõ nµy rÊt dÔ bÞ nhÇm víi qu¸ khø ®¬n gi¶n cña to lie. CÇn ph©n
biÖt b»ng ng÷ c¶nh cô thÓ.
5. To seat
 to seat in: ngåi t¹i, ngåi trong
 to seat on: ngåi trªn (®· ngåi s½n)
Eg: I sat down on the chair.
I'm off to class.
6. To set = to put = to lay
Eg: The little girl helps her father set the table every night.

41
Ph¸t ©m ë th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n gi¶n cña ®éng tõ nµy dÔ lÉn víi simple past cña TO SEAT. CÇn
ph¶i ph©n biÖt b»ng ng÷ c¶nh.
7. Mét sè thµnh ng÷ dïng víi c¸c ®éng tõ trªn:
 To set the table for: bµy bµn ®Ó
Eg: My mother has set the table for the family dinner.
 To lay off (workers, employes): cho th«i viÖc, gi·n thî.
Eg: The company had to lay off twenty - five employees because of a production
showdown.
 To set (broken bones in): bã nh÷ng x¬ng g·y vµo.
Eg: Dr. Jacobs has set many broken bones in plaster casts.
 To set one's alarm for: ®Æt ®ång hå b¸o thøc vµo lóc.
Eg: John set his alarm for six o'clock.
 To set fire to something: lµm ch¸y c¸i g×.
Eg: While playing with matches, the children set fire to the sofa.
 To raise (animals, plants) for a living: trång, nu«i ®Ó kinh doanh.
Eg: The farmer raises chickens for a living.

mét sè ®éng tõ ®Æc biÖt kh¸c

§ã lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ gièng hÖt nhau vÒ mÆt h×nh thøc nhng kh¸c nhau vÒ ng÷ nghÜa nÕu
chóng ë trong nh÷ng mÉu c©u kh¸c nhau.
 Agree to do something: ®ång ý lµm g×.
Eg: He agreed to leave early tomorrow morning.
 Agree to somebody's doing something: ®ång ý víi viÖc ai lµm g×.
Eg: E agreed to my leaving early tomorrow morning.
 Mean to do something: ®Þnh lµm g×
Eg: I mean to get to the top of the hill before sunrise.
 If it + mean + V-ing: cho dï cã c¶ viÖc, bao hµm c¶ viÖc
Eg: My neighbour was determined to get the ticket for Saturday's game if it meant
standing in line all night.
 Propose to do something: cã ý ®Þnh lµm g×
Eg: I propose to start tomorrow.
 Propose doing something: ®Ò nghÞ lµm g×
Eg: I proposed waiting till the police came.
 Go on doing something/something: tiÕp tôc lµm g×/c¸i g× (mét viÖc ®ang bÞ bá dë)
Eg: He went on writing after a break.
 Go on to do something: quay sang tiÕp tôc lµm g× (vÉn vÒ cïng mét vÊn ®Ò nhng
chuyÓn sang khÝa c¹nh kh¸c)
Eg: He showed the island on the map and went on to tell about the climate.

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 Try to do something: cè g¾ng lµm g×
Eg: He tried to show this math problem but he failed.
 Try doing something: thö lµm g×
Eg: I tried sending her flowers, writing her letters, giving her presents, but she still wouldn't
speak to me.

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C¸c lo¹i c©u hái

TiÕng Anh cã nhiÒu lo¹i c©u hái bao gåm:

I/ Yes/no questions. (C«ng thøc 1 - P.92)
_Së dÜ gäi nh vËy v× khi tr¶ lêi ®îc dïng yes vµ no ë ®Çu c©u. Nªn nhí r»ng
Yes + positive verb
No + negative verb.
Kh«ng ®îc tr¶ lêi theo d¹ng c©u tiÕng ViÖt.

II/ C©u hái th«ng b¸o
_Dïng víi mét lo¹t ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn.
1. Who/What lµm chñ ng÷. (C«ng thøc 1 - P.93)
 Lµm chñ ng÷ vµ quyÕt ®Þnh viÖc chia ®éng tõ.
 §éng tõ sau nã nÕu ë thêi hiÖn t¹i th× ph¶i chia ë ng«i thø ba sè Ýt cho dï trong nã lµ sè
nhiÒu.
2. Whom/What lµm t©n ng÷. (C«ng thøc 2 - P.93)
 §øng ®Çu c©u nhng lµm t©n ng÷ cho c©u hái.
 Trong tiÕng Anh quy chuÈn ph¶i dïng whom dï trong v¨n nãi cã thÓ sö dông who thay
whom. (Lçi c¬ b¶n)
3. C©u hái nh»m vµo c¸c bæ ng÷: when/where/how/why. (C«ng thøc 1 - P.94)

III/ C©u hái gi¸n tiÕp.
_Lµ lo¹i c©u hái mang nh÷ng ®Æc tÝnh sau:
 C©u cã hai thµnh phÇn nèi víi nhau b»ng mét ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn.
 §éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò 2 ph¶i ®Æt xu«i theo chñ ng÷, kh«ng ®îc cÊu t¹o c©u hái.
 §¹i tõ nghi vÊn kh«ng chØ lµ mét tõ mµ cßn bao gåm hai hoÆc ba tõ.
(C«ng thøc 2 - P.94; c«ng thøc 1 - P.95)

IV/ C©u hái cã ®u«i
 C©u chia lµm hai thµnh phÇn t¸ch biÖt nhau bëi mét dÊu ",".
 NÕu ®éng tõ ë thµnh phÇn chÝnh chia ë thÓ kh¼ng ®Þnh th× ®éng tõ ë phÇn ®u«i chia ë thÓ
phñ ®Þnh vµ ngîc l¹i.
 Thêi cña ®éng tõ ë phÇn ®u«i ph¶i theo thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
 To be ®îc phÐp dïng trùc tiÕp. §éng tõ thêng dïng víi trî ®éng tõ to do. C¸c ®éng tõ ë
thêi kÐp dïng víi chÝnh trî ®éng tõ cña nã.
 There is, there are, it is ®îc dïng l¹i ë phÇn ®u«i.
 Trong tiÕng Anh cña ngêi Mü, to have lµ ®éng tõ thêng, do vËy nã dïng víi trî ®éng tõ
to do.
Note: Khi sö dông lo¹i c©u hái nµy, nªn nhí ngêi hái thêng nh»m ®Ó kh¼ng ®Þnh ý kiÕn
cña m×nh chø kh«ng nh»m ®Ó hái. V× vËy khi chÊm c©u hiÓu trong TOEFL ph¶i dùa vµo
thÓ ®éng tõ cña phÇn chÝnh chø kh«ng dùa vµo thÓ ®éng tõ ë phÇn ®u«i.

44
Eg: John can get Mary to play this, can't he?
Correct answer: John believes that Mary will play this for us.

Lèi nãi phô ho¹ kh¼ng ®Þnh vµ phñ ®Þnh

1. Lèi nãi phô ho¹ kh¼ng ®Þnh
_Lµ lèi nãi phô ho¹ l¹i ý kh¼ng ®Þnh cña ngêi kh¸c. T¬ng ®¬ng víi cÊu tróc tiÕng ViÖt lµ
"còng thÕ".
_CÊu tróc ®îc dïng lµ so, too.
_To be ®îc phÐp dïng trùc tiÕp.
_§éng tõ thêng th× sö dông víi trî ®éng tõ to do.
_C¸c ®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp dïng víi chÝnh trî ®éng tõ cña nã.
(C«ng thøc 1 - P.98, c«ng thøc 1, 2 - P.99)

2. Lèi nãi phô ho¹ phñ ®Þnh
_Phô ho¹ l¹i ý phñ ®Þnh cña ngêi kh¸c. T¬ng ®¬ng víi cÊu tróc tiÕng ViÖt lµ "còng
kh«ng".
_Thµnh ng÷ ®îc sö dông lµ neither, either.
_Nhí r»ng either + negative verb.
Neither + positive verb.
_Sö dông gièng lèi nãi phô ho¹ kh¼ng ®Þnh víi ba lo¹i ®éng tõ: to be, ®éng tõ thêng, c¸c
®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp.
C«ng thøc 1 - P.100.

45
C©u phñ ®Þnh

_§Ó cÊu t¹o c©u phñ ®Þnh, ®Æt not sau: to be, trî ®éng tõ to do cña ®éng tõ thêng, c¸c trî
®éng tõ ë thêi kÐp.
_§Æt any tríc danh tõ ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh phñ ®Þnh.
Nhí r»ng trong tiÕng Anh cña ngêi Mü: not... any + noun = not... a single + noun.
Eg: He didn't sell a single magazine yesterday.
_Trong mét sè trêng hîp, ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh phñ ®Þnh cña danh tõ, ®Æt ®éng tõ ë d¹ng kh¼ng
®Þnh vµ ®Æt no tríc danh tõ.
Lóc ®ã no = not... at all.
Eg: John has no money.
_Mét sè c©u hái ë phñ ®Þnh sÏ mang hai nghÜa:
 NhÊn m¹nh cho sù kh¼ng ®Þnh cña ngêi nãi.
Eg: Shouldn't you put on your hat, too?
Didn't you say you would come to the party tonight?
(ThÕ anh ®· ch¼ng nãi h«m nay anh ®i dù tiÖc lµ g×)
 Dïng ®Ó t¸n d¬ng:
Eg: Wasn't the weather beautiful yesterday?
(Thêi tiÕt h«m qua ®Ñp tuyÖt vêi)
Wouldn't it be nice that you didn't have to work on Friday!
_Negative + negative = positive (nhÊn m¹nh)
Eg: It's unbelieveable that he is not rich. (He is very rich)
_Negative + comparative (more/less) = superlative.
Eg: I couldn't agree with you less. (absolutely agree with you)
You couldn't have gone to the beach on a better day.
(today is the best day to go to the beach)
Khi sö dông mÉu c©u nµy ph¶i hÕt søc cÈn thËn.
Eg: He couldn't have been more unfriendly when I met him first. (the most
unfriendly)
The surgery couldn't have been more unecessary. (absolutely unecessary)
_Negative + even less/still less/much less + noun/verb in simple form = Kh«ng... mµ
l¹i cµng kh«ng.
Eg: These students don't like reading novels, much less text book.
It's inbelieveable how he could have survived after such a free fall, much less live
to tell about it on television.
(ThËt khã cã thÓ tin ®îc anh ta cã thÓ cßn sèng sau mét có ng· nh thÕ, mµ l¹i
cµng kh«ng thÓ sèng sãt ®îc ®Ó lªn ti vi kÓ vÒ nã).
_Mét sè c¸c phã tõ trong tiÕng Anh mang nghÜa phñ ®Þnh, khi ®· dïng nã trong c©u tuyÖt
®èi kh«ng ®îc cÊu t¹o thÓ phñ ®Þnh cña ®éng tõ n÷a.
Hardly/barely/scarcely = almost no.
Hardly ever/rarely/seldom = almost never.

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Eg: John rarely comes to class on time.
_§Æc biÖt lu ý r»ng c¸c phã tõ nµy kh«ng mang nghÜa phñ ®Þnh hoµn toµn mµ mang nghÜa
gÇn nh phñ ®Þnh. §Æc biÖt nh÷ng tõ nh barely, scarcely khi ®i víi enough, only hoÆc nh÷ng
thµnh ng÷ chØ sù chÝnh x¸c.
Eg: She barely makes it to class on time. (C« ta ®Õn líp võa vÆn ®óng giê)
(make it to somewhere: ®Õn)
-Do you have enough money for the tution fee?
-Only barely (specially enough).
_§èi víi nh÷ng ®éng tõ nh to think, to believe, to support, to imagine + that +
sentence: ph¶i cÊu t¹o phñ ®Þnh ë chÝnh c¸c ®éng tõ ®ã chø kh«ng ph¶i ë mÖnh ®Ò 2.
Eg: I don't believe she stays home now.
_Trong d¹ng tiÕng Anh dïng thêng ngµy, ®Æc biÖt trong v¨n nãi, mét cÊu tróc phñ ®Þnh
nhng hoµn toµn kh«ng mang nghÜa phñ ®Þnh ®«i khi ®îc sö dông sau nh÷ng ý chØ sù nghi ngê
hoÆc kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n. §Æc biÖt lµ d¹ng c©u phñ ®Þnh kÐp. CÊu tróc nµy ®îc kh«ng ®îc phÐp
dïng cho v¨n viÕt.
Eg: I shouldn't be surprise if they didn't get married soon. (=if they got married soon).
I wonder whether I oughtn't to go and see a doctor. I'm feeling a bit funny.
_No matter + who/what/which/where/when/how + S + V(in present): Dï cã... ®i
ch¨ng n÷a th×
Eg: No matter who telephones, say I'm out.
No matter where you go, you will find Cocacola.
_Note:
 No matter who = whoever
 No matter what = whatever.
Eg: No matter what/whatever you say, I won't believe you.
 C¸c cÊu tróc nµy cã thÓ ®øng cuèi c©u mµ kh«ng cÇn mÖnh ®Ò theo sau.
Eg: I will always love you, no matter what.
_Not... at all: ch¼ng chót nµo.
Eg: I didn't understand anything at all.
He was hardly frightened at all.
_At all cßn ®îc dïng víi c©u hái. §Æc biÖt khi dïng víi nh÷ng tõ nh if, ever, any.
Eg: Do you ever play tennis at all?
He will become before dinner if he comes at all.
You can come whenever you like - any time at all.
_Not at all: kh«ng cã g× (®¸p l¹i lêi c¶m ¬n).
_S + link verb in negative + at all + adj.
Eg: He isn't at all satisfied with his paper.

MÖnh lÖnh thøc

47
_MÖnh lÖnh thøc gi¸n tiÕp thêng dïng víi mét sè ®éng tõ: to order, to ask, to say, to tell
+ somebody to do/not to do something.
_CÇn ph©n biÖt let's vµ let's us (h·y ®Ó chóng t«i).
 Let's go
 Let's us go.
_C©u hái cã ®u«i cña let's lµ shall we.
Eg: Let's go out for dinner, shall we?

C¸ch sö dông Enough

_Enough lu«n ®øng ®»ng sau tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ nhng ®øng tríc danh tõ. (C«ng thøc 1, 2
trang 152)
_Trong mét sè trêng hîp, nÕu danh tõ ®· ®îc nh¾c ®Õn ë tríc th× ë díi chØ cÇn dïng
enough nh mét ®¹i tõ lµ ®ñ.

Tõ nèi

§ã lµ nh÷ng tõ nèi gi÷a hai thµnh phÇn trong mét c©u víi nh÷ng cÊu tróc ®Æc biÖt.

I/ BECAUSE/ BECAUSE OF
_§»ng sau because lµ mét c©u hoµn chØnh. Nhng sau because of lµ mét ng÷ danh tõ
(C«ng thøc 1, 2 trang 154)
_because of = on account of = due to
Nhng nªn dïng due to sau ®éng tõ to be cho chuÈn.
Eg: The accident was due to the heavy rain.
_Dïng as a result of ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh vµo hËu qu¶ cña hµnh ®éng hoÆc sù vËt, sù viÖc:
Eg: He was blinded as a result of a terrible accident.

II/ Tõ nèi chØ môc ®Ých vµ kÕt qu¶
_Trong cÊu tróc nµy dïng thuËt ng÷ so that (sao cho, ®Ó cho)
_§éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò sau so that ph¶i ë t¬ng lai so víi thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Eg: He studied very hard so that he could pass the test.
_CÇn ph©n biÖt so that trong cÊu tróc nµy so víi so that mang nghÜa "do ®ã" (therefore).
C¸ch ph©n biÖt duy nhÊt lµ ®éng tõ ®»ng sau so that (therefore) diÔn biÕn b×nh thêng so víi
thêi ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò tríc.
Eg: We heard nothing from him so that we wondered if he had moved away.

III/ Tõ nèi chØ nguyªn nh©n vµ kÕt qu¶
Trong lo¹i tõ nèi nµy dïng cÊu tróc so/such...that: qu¸ ... ®Õn nçi mµ
Gåm nhiÒu c¸ch sö dông:
_Dïng víi tÝnh tõ/phã tõ: so...that (c«ng thøc 1 trang 156)

48
_Dïng víi danh tõ sè nhiÒu: so...that nhng ph¶i dïng many, few tríc danh tõ ®ã (c«ng
thøc 2 trang 156)
_Dïng víi danh tõ kh«ng ®Õm ®îc: so...that nhng ph¶i dïng much, little tríc danh tõ ®ã.
(C«ng thøc 3 trang 156)
_Dïng víi danh tõ/tÝnh tõ sè Ýt: such a...that: Cã thÓ dïng so nhng ph¶i chuyÓn a xuèng
sau tÝnh tõ, tríc danh tõ (Ýt phæ biÕn h¬n such) (C«ng thøc 1, 2 trang 157)
_Dïng víi tÝnh tõ/ danh tõ sè nhiÒu/kh«ng ®Õm ®îc: such..that. TuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®îc
dïng so. (C«ng thøc 3 trang 157)

IV/ Mét sè tõ nèi mang tÝnh ®iÒu kiÖn kh¸c
_Even if + negative verb = cho dï.
Eg: You must go tomorrow even if you aren't ready.
_Whether or not + positive verb = dï cã hay kh«ng
Eg: You must go tomorrow whether or not you are ready.
_C¸c ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn ®øng ë ®Çu c©u còng dïng lµm tõ nèi vµ ®éng tõ sau chóng ph¶i ë
ng«i thø ba sè Ýt.
Eg: Whether he goes out tonight depends on his girlfriend.
Why these pupils can not resolve this problem makes the teacher confused.
_Mét sè tõ nèi cã quy luËt riªng nÕu kÕt hîp víi nhau: And morover, and furthermore,
and in addition, and therefore, and thus, but nevertherless, or other way, but ... anyway,
and addition.
NÕu nèi gi÷a hai mÖnh ®Ò th× ®»ng tríc chóng ph¶i cã dÊu ","
Eg: He was exhausted, and therefore his judgement was not very good.
Tuy nhiªn nÕu nèi gi÷a hai tõ ®¬n th× kh«ng.
Eg: The missing piece is small but nevertheless significant.
_Unless + Positive verb = If ... not (trõ phi, nÕu kh«ng)
Eg You will be late unless you start at once.
_But for that + unreal condition = nÕu kh«ng th×, kÎo
 Present simple
Eg: My father pays my tuition fee, but for that I couldn't (wouldn't) be here
(But he is here learning)
 Past simple
Eg: My car broke down, but for that we would (could) have been here on time.
(But they were late)
_Otherwise + real condition = kÎo, nÕu kh«ng th×
Eg: We must be back before midnight, otherwise I will be locked out.
_ Otherwise + unreal condition = kÎo, nÕu kh«ng th×
 Present
Eg: Her father supports her finance, otherwise she couldn't conduct these experiments
(But she can with her father's support)
 Past
Eg: I used the computer, otherwise I would have taken longer with these caculations

49
(But she didn't take any longer)
_Note: Trong tiÕng Anh th«ng tôc, dïng or else ®Ó thay thÕ otherwise
_Provided/providing (that) = as long as: víi ®iÒu kiÖn lµ, miÔn lµ
Eg: You can camp here, proving (that) you leave no mess.
_supposed/supposing = what ... if: gi¶ sö ... th× sao; nÕu ... th× sao
Eg: Supposed the plane is late? (What will happen if the plane is late?)
_Note: - supposed cßn cã thÓ ®îc dïng ®Ó ®a ra lêi gîi ý
Eg: Supposed you ask him = why don't you ask him?
- Thµnh ng÷ What if I am = t«i thÕ th× ®· sao nµo (mang tÝnh th¸ch thøc)
_If only + S + simple present/will + V = hope that
Eg: If only he comes in time
If only he will learn harder for the test next month.
_ If only + S + simple past/past perfect = wish that = gi¸ mµ (®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc
hiÖn ®îc)
 Present:
Eg: If only he came in time now (But he don't)
 Past:
Eg: If only she has studied harder for that test (But she didn't)
_ If only + S + would + V
 DiÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i.
Eg: If only he would drive more slowly = We wish he drove more slowly.
 DiÔn ®¹t mét íc muèn v« väng vÒ t¬ng lai:
Eg: If only it would stop raining (But maybe it will)
_immediate = as soon as = the moment that/the instance that = directly = ngay lËp
tøc.
Eg: Tell me immediately (as soon as) you have any news
Phone me the moment that you get the result.
I love you the instance that I saw you.
Directly I walked in the door, I smelled smoke.

50
C©u bÞ ®éng

_Ngêi ta dïng c©u bÞ ®éng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh vµo t©n ng÷ cña c©u chñ ®éng.
_Th× cña ®éng tõ ë c©u bÞ ®éng ph¶i tu©n theo th× cña ®éng tõ ë c©u chñ ®éng.
_NÕu lµ lo¹i ®éng tõ cã hai t©n ng÷, muèn nhÊn m¹nh vµo t©n ng÷ nµo th× ®a t©n ng÷ ®ã
lµm chñ ng÷. Nhng th«ng thêng chñ ng÷ hîp lý cña c©u bÞ ®éng lµ t©n ng÷ gi¸n tiÕp.
Eg: I gave him a book = I gave a book to him - He was given a book by me.
_§Æt by + t©n ng÷ míi ®»ng sau tÊt c¶ t©n ng÷ kh¸c.
_NÕu sau by lµ mét ®¹i tõ v« nh©n xng mang nghÜa ngêi ta (by people, by somebody) th×
bá h¼n.
_TÊt c¶ biÕn ®æi vÒ thêi vµ thÓ ®Òu nh»m vµo to be.
_C¸c néi ®éng tõ (®éng tõ kh«ng yªu cÇu t©n ng÷) kh«ng ®îc dïng ë bÞ ®éng.
Eg: My leg hurts.
_§Æc biÖt khi chñ ng÷ chÞu tr¸ch nhiÖm chÝnh vÒ hµnh ®éng cña m×nh còng kh«ng ®îc
chuyÓn thµnh c©u bÞ ®éng.
_NÕu lµ ngêi hoÆc vËt trùc tiÕp g©y hµnh ®éng th× dïng by.
_NÕu lµ ngêi hoÆc vËt gi¸n tiÕp g©y hµnh ®éng th× dïng with.
Eg: The bird was shot by the hunter.
The bird was shot with the gun.
_Trong mét sè trêng hîp, to be/to get + PII kh«ng mang nghÜa bÞ ®éng mµ mang hai
nghÜa
 ChØ tr¹ng th¸i chñ ng÷ ®ang ë trong ®ã
Eg: Could you please check my mail box while I'm gone?
He got lost in the mase of the town yesterday.
 ChØ viÖc chñ ng÷ tù lµm lÊy
Eg: The little boy get dressed very quickly
A: Could i give you a hand with these tires?
B: No, thanks. I will be done (with them) when i finish tightening these botts.
_To be made of: ®Ò cËp ®Õn chÊt liÖu lµm nªn vËt.
Eg: This table is made of wood.
_To be made from: ®Ò cËp ®Õn viÖc nguyªn vËt liÖu bÞ biÕn ®æi hoµn toµn khái tr¹ng th¸i
ban ®Çu ®Ó lµm nªn vËt.
Eg: Paper is made from wood.
_To be made out of: ®Ò cËp ®Õn qu¸ tr×nh lµm ra vËt.
Eg: This cake is made out of flour, butter, sugar, eggs and milk.
_To be made with: ®Ò cËp ®Õn chØ mét trong sè nhiÒu chÊt liÖu lµm nªn vËt.
Eg: This soup tastes good because it was made with a lot of spices.
_Ph©n biÖt c¸ch dïng marry/divorce trong hai thÓ bÞ ®éng vµ chñ ®éng.
 Khi kh«ng cã t©n ng÷: get married/get divorced trong d¹ng informal English.
Eg: LiLi and Joe got married last week (informal)
LiLi and Joe married last week (formal English)

51
After three - very unhappy years, they got divorced (informal)
After three - very unhappy years, they divorced (formal)
 Sau marry/divorce lµ t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp kh«ng cã giíi tõ: marry/divorce somebody.
Eg: She married a builder.
Andrew is going to divorce Carola.
 To be/to get married to somebody (Giíi tõ to lµ b¾t buéc)
Eg: She got married to her childhood sweet heart.
He has been married to Lousa for 16 years and he still doesn't understand her.

C©u phøc hîp vµ §¹i tõ quan hÖ thay thÕ

TiÕng Anh cã hai lo¹i c©u:
 C©u ®¬n gi¶n: cã mét thµnh phÇn vµ chØ cÇn vËy c©u còng ®· ®ñ nghÜa.
 C©u phøc hîp: cã hai thµnh phÇn chÝnh, phô nèi víi nhau b»ng mét tõ gäi lµ ®¹i tõ quan
hÖ thay thÕ. (B¶ng 1 trang 175)

I/ That/Which lµm chñ ng÷ c©u phô
 §øng ®Çu c©u phô thay thÕ cho danh tõ bÊt ®éng vËt ®øng tríc nã lµm chñ ng÷ c©u phô,
do ®ã kh«ng thÓ bá nã.

II/ That/ Which lµm t©n ng÷ c©u phô
_That thay thÕ cho danh tõ bÊt ®éng vËt ®øng tríc nã, më ®Çu c©u phô nhng lµm t©n ng÷.
V× vËy cã thÓ bá nã.
_Dïng that chø kh«ng dïng which khi:
 §øng tríc nã lµ mét tÝnh tõ so s¸nh bËc nhÊt + danh tõ.
Eg: That is the best novel that has been written by this author.
 Khi ®»ng tríc nã lµ mét sè tõ phiÕm chØ: all, some, any, anything, everything, much,
little, nothing...
Eg: I want to see all that he posses.
Some apples that fall are eaten by pigs.

III/ Who lµm chñ ng÷ c©u phô
 Nã thay thÕ cho danh tõ chØ ngêi hoÆc ®éng vËt ®øng tríc nã lµm chñ ng÷ c©u phô. Do
®ã kh«ng ®îc bá nã.
Eg: The man who are in this room are angry.

IV/ Whom lµm t©n ng÷ c©u phô
_Thay thÕ cho danh tõ chØ ngêi hoÆc ®éng vËt ®øng tríc nã vµ lµm t©n ng÷ c©u phô. V×
vËy cã thÓ bá nã.
Eg: The man whom I don't like are angry.
_NÕu whom lµm tÝnh tõ cña mét ng÷ ®éng tõ gåm mét ®éng tõ vµ mét giíi tõ th× lèi viÕt
chuÈn nhÊt lµ ®a giíi tõ ®ã lªn tríc whom
Eg: The man to whom you have just talked is the chairman (to talk to somebody)

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_NÕu whom lµm t©n ng÷ cña mét ng÷ ®éng tõ gåm mét ®éng tõ vµ hai giíi tõ th× hai giíi
tõ ®ã vÉn ph¶i ®øng sau ®éng tõ.
Eg: The man whom you are looking forward to is the chairman (to look forward to
sb)
_Note: Kh«ng dïng that thay who hoÆc whom dï nã ®îc chÊp nhËn trong v¨n nãi.
Kh«ng dïng who thay whom trong v¨n viÕt dï ®îc chÊp nhËn trong v¨n nãi.

V/ MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc vµ kh«ng b¾t buéc.
1. MÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc
_ Lµ lo¹i mÖnh ®Ò b¾t buéc cã mÆt trong c©u. NÕu bá th× c©u mÊt nghÜa ban ®Çu.
_ Nªn dïng that lµm chñ ng÷ cho lo¹i c©u nµy dï which vÉn ®îc chÊp nhËn.
_ MÖnh ®Ò phô thêng ®øng xen hoÆc nèi liÒn víi mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh vµ kh«ng t¸ch rêi khái
nã bëi bÊt cø dÊu phÈy nµo.
2. MÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng b¾t buéc.
_ Lµ lo¹i mÖnh ®Ò mang th«ng tin phô trong c©u. NÕu bá nã th× c©u kh«ng mÊt nghÜa ban
®Çu.
_ Kh«ng ®îc dïng THAT mµ b¾t buéc ph¶i dïng which dï which cã lµ t©n ng÷ cña mÖnh
®Ò phô còng kh«ng ®îc phÐp bá nã.
_ C©u phô thêng xen c©u chÝnh hoÆc cuèi c©u vµ b¾t buéc ph¶i t¸ch khái mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh
b»ng dÊu ","
_ TOEFL kh«ng b¾t lçi mÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc nhng sÏ trõ ®iÓm nÕu ph¹m ph¶i mÖnh ®Ò
phô kh«ng b¾t buéc.

VI/ TÇm quan träng cña dÊu "," ®èi víi mÖnh ®Ò phô.
_ë nh÷ng mÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc khi kh«ng dïng dÊu "," , tøc lµ mÖnh ®Ò phô ®ã giíi h¹n
hoÆc x¸c ®Þnh víi danh tõ tríc nã (t¬ng ®¬ng víi tiÕng ViÖt: chØ cã)
Eg: The travelers who knew about the flood took another road.
The wine that was in the cellar was ruined.
_§èi víi mÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng b¾t buéc khi cã dÊu "," ng¨n c¸ch th× mÖnh ®Ò phô ®ã
kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh hoÆc giíi h¹n danh tõ ®øng tríc nã (t¬ng ®¬ng víi tiÕng ViÖt: tÊt c¶)
Eg: The travelers, who knew... (TÊt c¶ du kh¸ch, mµ biÕt... )
The wine, which was in the cellar was ruined.
_C¸c nguyªn t¾c trªn ®©y chØ dïng cho v¨n viÕt, kh«ng dïng cho v¨n nãi.

VII/ C¸ch sö dông all, both, some, several, most, few... + of + whom/which
_TuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®îc dïng ®¹i tõ nh©n xng t©n ng÷ (them, us...) trong trêng hîp nµy.
Eg: Their sons, both of whom are working abroad, ring them up every week.
The buses, most of which were full of passengers, began to pull out.

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_ What = The thing/ the things + that: cã thÓ lµm t©n ng÷ cho mÖnh ®Ò phô vµ cïng lóc
lµm chñ ng÷ cho mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Eg: What we have expected is the result of the test.
HoÆc lµm chñ ng÷ cña c¶ hai mÖnh ®Ò.
Eg: What happened to him yesterday might happen to us tomorrow.

VIII/ Whose = cña ngêi mµ, cña con mµ
_ Thay thÕ cho danh tõ chØ ngêi hoÆc ®éng vËt ®øng tríc nã vµ chØ sù së h÷u cña ngêi
hoÆc vËt ®ã ®èi víi danh tõ ®i sau.
_ Trong lèi v¨n viÕt trang träng, nªn dïng of which thay thÕ danh tõ bÊt ®éng vËt dï
whose vÉn ®îc chÊp nhËn.
Eg: Savings account, of which interest rate is quite high, is very common now.
_ HoÆc dïng with + noun/ noun phrase thay whose.
Eg: The house whose walls were made of glass.
The house with the glass wall.

IX/ C¸ch lo¹i bá mÖnh ®Ò phô
_§èi víi nh÷ng mÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc, cã thÓ lo¹i bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ vµ to be (cïng víi trî
®éng tõ cña nã) trong mét sè trêng hîp sau:
 Tríc mét mÖnh ®Ò phô mµ cÊu tróc ®éng tõ ë thÓ bÞ ®éng.
 Tríc mét mÖnh ®Ò phô mµ sau nã lµ mét giíi tõ, mét ng÷ giíi tõ.
 Tríc mét cÊu tróc ®éng tõ ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn.
_Trong mét sè trêng hîp, khi ®¹i tõ quan hÖ trong mÖnh ®Ò phô b¾t buéc g¾n liÒn víi chñ
ng÷ tríc nã vµ mÖnh ®Ò ®ã diÔn ®¹t quy luËt vµ sù kiÖn x¶y ra theo tÇn sè th× lo¹i bá ®¹i tõ
quan hÖ vµ ®éng tõ chÝnh, thay vµo ®ã lµ mét V - ing. (Lèi viÕt nµy hay nhng khã, kh«ng
dïng khi cha hiÓu)
Eg: The passengers taking (who takes) this bus on a daily basic buy their tickets in
advance.
_Trong mÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng b¾t buéc, ngêi ta còng cã thÓ lo¹i bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ vµ ®éng
tõ to be khi nã ®øng tríc mét ng÷ danh tõ. Tuy nhiªn phÇn ng÷ danh tõ cßn l¹i vÉn ph¶i ®øng
gi÷a hai dÊu ","
_Lo¹i bá ®¹i tõ quan hÖ vµ ®éng tõ chÝnh, thay vµo ®ã lµ mét V-ing khi mÖnh ®Ò phô nµy
bæ nghÜa cho t©n ng÷. (lèi viÕt phæ biÕn)
Eg: The president made a speech for the famous man visiting (who visited) him.

C©u gi¶ ®Þnh

Lµ lo¹i c©u ®èi tîng 1 muèn ®èi tîng 2 lµm mét viÖc g× nhng lµm hay kh«ng cßn phô
thuéc vµo ®èi tîng 2.
Trong c©u ph¶i cã that trõ mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt.

I/ Dïng víi WOULD RATHER THAT
_Ng÷ ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i, ®Æc biÖt lµ ng÷ ph¸p Mü cho phÐp dïng would rather mµ kh«ng cÇn
dïng that trong lo¹i c©u nµy.

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Eg: We would rather (that) he not take this train.

II/ Dïng víi ®éng tõ
_B¶ng 1 trang 183 lµ nh÷ng ®éng tõ ®ßi hái sau nã ph¶i lµ mét mÖnh ®Ò ë d¹ng gi¶ ®Þnh.
Trong c©u ph¶i cã that nÕu nã diÔn ®¹t ý trªn.
advise Demand prefer require
ask insist propose stipulate
command move recommend suggest
decree order request urge

_§éng tõ sau chñ ng÷ 2 ë d¹ng nguyªn thÓ kh«ng chia bá to.
_NÕu muèn thµnh lËp thÓ phñ ®Þnh ®Æt not sau chñ ng÷ 2 tríc nguyªn thÓ bá to.
S1 + verb (any tense) + THAT + S2 + verb in simple form...

Eg: The judge insisted that the jury return a verdict immediately.
_NÕu bá that th× chñ ng÷ 2 trë vÒ d¹ng t©n ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ sau nã trë vÒ d¹ng nguyªn thÓ
cã TO. C©u mÊt tÝnh chÊt gi¶ ®Þnh vµ trë thµnh mét d¹ng mÖnh lÖnh thøc gi¸n tiÕp.
_Trong ng÷ ph¸p Anh - Anh ®»ng tríc ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò 2 thêng cã should. Ngêi Anh
chØ bá should khi nã lµ ®éng tõ to be. Nhng ng÷ ph¸p Anh - Mü kh«ng dïng should cho tÊt c¶
®éng tõ ®»ng sau. (Cã should lµ sai)

III/ Dïng víi tÝnh tõ
_B¶ng 1 trang 184 lµ nh÷ng tÝnh tõ ®ßi hái mÖnh ®Ò sau nã ph¶i ë d¹ng gi¶ ®Þnh.
Advised necessary recommended urgent
Important obligatory required imperative
Mandatory proposed suggested

_Trong c©u ph¶i cã that vµ ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò 2 ë d¹ng nguyªn thÓ bá to khi nã diÔn ®¹t
ý trªn.
_Lu ý trong b¶ng nµy cã mét sè tÝnh tõ lµ PII cÊu t¹o tõ c¸c ®éng tõ cña b¶ng 1 trang 183
dïng lµm tÝnh tõ.
_NÕu muèn cÊu t¹o phñ ®Þnh th× ®Æt not sau chñ ng÷ 2 tríc ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ bá to
It + be (any tense) + adj + THAT + S + verb in simple form...

Eg: It is necessary that he find the books.
_NÕu bá that th× chñ ng÷ 2 biÕn thµnh t©n ng÷ sau giíi tõ for. §éng tõ trë vÒ d¹ng
nguyªn thÓ cã to vµ c©u mÊt tÝnh chÊt gi¶ ®Þnh, trë thµnh mét d¹ng mÖnh lÖnh thøc gi¸n tiÕp.
Eg: It is necessary for him to find the books.
_Note:
 C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi hai lo¹i trªn thêng ®îc dïng trong c¸c v¨n b¶n hoÆc th giao dÞch
diÔn ®¹t lêi ®Ò nghÞ tõ phÝa A ®èi víi phÝa B mµ kh«ng cã tÝnh b¾t buéc.
Eg: We purpose that next time the good be in time.

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 Kh«ng chØ cã ®éng tõ vµ tÝnh tõ míi ®îc dïng theo d¹ng nµy. TÊt c¶ nh÷ng danh tõ xuÊt
ph¸t tõ nh÷ng ®éng tõ vµ tÝnh tõ trªn ®Òu buéc mÖnh ®Ò sau nã ph¶i ë d¹ng gi¶ ®Þnh nÕu
nã diÔn ®¹t c¸c yÕu tè trªn.
Eg: There is suggestion from the doctor that his patient stop smoking.
It is recommendation that the vehicle owner be present at the court.

IV/ C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi mét vµi trêng hîp kh¸c
_Dïng ®Ó diÔn ®¹t mét íc muèn hoÆc mét lêi nguyÒn rña thêng bao hµm c¸c thÕ lùc siªu
nhiªn.
God be with you = Good bye.
Curse this toad.
_Dïng víi ®éng tõ may trong mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt:
 Come what may: dï thÕ nµo ch¨ng n÷a, dï bÊt cø chuyÖn g×.
Eg: Come what may we will stand by you.
 May as well not do something if = cã thÓ ®õng ... nÕu
Eg: You may as well not come if you can't be on time.
 May/might + (just) as well do something = ch¼ng mÊt g× mµ l¹i kh«ng, lµm nh vËy
ch¼ng h¹i g×.
Eg: Since nobody wants that job, we might (just) as well let him have it.
 May diÔn ®¹t mét gi¶ ®Þnh trong lêi ®Ò nghÞ mµ ngêi nãi cho r»ng cha ch¾c nã ®· ®îc
thùc hiÖn.
Eg: The sign on the lawn said clearly that people may not walk on the grass.
Kh«ng dïng should trong trêng hîp nµy.
 May + S + link verb + adj/ verb + complement : cÇu chóc cho
Eg: May you both be very happy!
May the conference be successful.
Long may she live to enjoy her good fortune.
_IF need be = if necessary: nÕu cÇn
Eg: If need be we can take another road.
_Dïng víi to be bá to sau if ®Ó chØ mét sù gi¶ ®Þnh cha ®îc ph©n ®Þnh râ lµ ®óng hay sai.
Eg: If that be right, then it would be no defence for this man to say that he is
innocent.
If that be error and upon me proved (nÕu ®ã lµ lçi vµ cø nhÊt ®Þnh g¸n cho t«i)
_Let it be me = gi¶ sö ®ã lµ t«i
Eg: Husband: let it be me...
Wife (suddenly appearing): If that be you, what would you do?
_Be that as it may = whether that is true or not: cho dï lµ ph¶i thÕ hay kh«ng
Eg: Be that as it may you must accept it.
_Then so be it: cø ph¶i vËy th«i.
Eg: If we have to pay 2000$ then so be it...

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V/ C©u gi¶ ®Þnh dïng víi It + to be + time
_It is time for somebody to do something: ®· ®Õn lóc ai ph¶i lµm g× (thêi gian võa vÆn,
kh«ng mang tÝnh gi¶ ®Þnh)
Eg: It is time for me to get to the airport.
_It is time/hightime/about time + S + simple past: ®· ®Õn lóc mµ (thêi gian ®· trÔ, mang
tÝnh gi¶ ®Þnh.
Eg: It is high time the city government did something to stop this traffic jam.

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Nh÷ng c¸ch sö dông kh¸c cña That
I/ THAT dïng víi t c¸ch mét liªn tõ (r»ng)
_§»ng sau bèn ®éng tõ ë b¶ng 1 trang 181, that cã thÓ bá ®i ®îc.
Eg: John said he was...
_§»ng sau bèn ®éng tõ: to mention, to declare, to report, to state, that b¾t buéc ph¶i
cã mÆt.
_ that vÉn buéc ph¶i dïng ë mÖnh ®Ò hai trong c©u sau dÊu "," nÕu vÉn cïng chung lµ
mét mÖnh ®Ò sau bèn ®éng tõ trªn.
Eg: The mayor declare that on June the first he would anounce the result of the search
and that he would never overtook the crime punishment.

II/ MÖnh ®Ò cã THAT.
_Lµ mÖnh ®Ò cã hai thµnh phÇn vµ ph¶i cã that trong c©u.
_Dïng víi chñ ng÷ gi¶ it vµ tÝnh tõ.
IT + be + adj - that - S + verb = that - S + verb ... + be + adj
Eg: It is well known that many residents of third world countries are dying.
= That many residents of third world countries are dying is well known.
_Dïng víi ®éng tõ t¹o thµnh mét mÖnh ®Ò ®éc lËp
IT + verb + complement - that - S + verb = that - S - + verb... -verb + complement
Eg: It surprises me that John would do such a thing.
That John would do such a thing surprises me.
_Note: Ngêi ta dïng chñ ng÷ gi¶ it trong v¨n nãi ®Ó dÔ nhËn biÕt vµ that lµm chñ ng÷ thËt
trong v¨n viÕt.
_Trong mét sè trêng hîp, ngêi ta ®¶o ng÷ giíi tõ lªn ®Çu c©u. §éng tõ nèi hoÆc ®éng tõ
tÜnh ®¶o lªn trªn that vµ sau ®ã míi lµ chñ ng÷ thËt.
Preposition phrase + link verb/stative verb - THAT - sentence as real subject - and THAT -
sentence as real subject

Eg: Among the surprising discoveries were that T.rex was a farsleeker but more
powerful carnivore than previous thought perhaps weighing less than 6.5 tons
more than a bull elephant, and that T.rex habitat was forst, not swamp or plain as
previous believed.
_The fact that + sentence/the fact remains that + sentence/the fact of the matter is
that... = thùc tÕ lµ.
Eg: The fact that Simon has not been home for 3 days didn't seem to worry anybody.

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C¸ch sö dông cña Ph©n tõ I trong mét sè trêng hîp

I/ Dïng víi mét sè c¸c cÊu tróc ®éng tõ:
 Had somebody/something + V-ing = cause (lµm cho ai ph¶i...)
Eg: He had us laugh all through the meal.
 S + won't have somebody + V-ing = S + won't allow somebody to do something.
Eg: I won't have him telling me what to do.
- C¸c côm hiÖn t¹i ph©n tõ adding, reminding, warning, reasoning that, pointing out
®Òu cã thÓ më ®Çu cho mét mÖnh ®Ò phô gi¸n tiÕp.
Eg: He told me to start early, reminding me that the road would be crowded.
Reasoning that he could only get to the lake, we followed that way,
- To catch somebody doing something: b¾t gÆp ai ®ang lµm g× (hµnh ®éng cña t©n ng÷
lµm phËt lßng chñ ng÷)
Eg: If she catches you reading her diary, she will be furious.
- To find somebody/something doing: thÊy ai, c¸i g×.
Eg: I found him standing at the doorway,
He found a tree lying across the road.
- To leave somebody doing something: ®Ó ai lµm g×
Eg: I left Bob talking to the director after the introdution.
- Go, come doing something (dïng cho thÓ thao vµ mua s¾m)
- To spend time doing something: bá thêi gian ra lµm g×
Eg: He usually spends much time preparing his lesson.
- To waste time doing something.
Eg: She wasted all afternoon having small talk with her friends
(have small talk with somebody: t¸n gÉu víi ai)
- To have a hard time/trouble doing something: gÆp khã kh¨n khi lµm g×
Eg: Scientists have had a hard time agreeing about the beginning of the wheel.
He has trouble listening to English.
- To be worth doing something: ®¸ng lµm g×
Eg: This project is worth spending time and money on.
- Be busy doing something: bËn lµm g× (chØ dïng víi ®éng tõ hµnh ®éng)
Eg: She is busy packing now.
- Be no/ not much/any/some + good doing something: kh«ng cã Ých, ch¶ mÊy Ých lîi
khi
Eg: Is no good talking to him.
What good is this asking her.

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II/ Ph©n tõ I ®îc sö dông ®Ó rót ng¾n nh÷ng c©u dµi
_ Hai hµnh ®éng x¶y ra song song cïng lóc. Hµnh ®éng 2 ë d¹ng V - ing. Hai hµnh ®éng
kh«ng t¸ch rêi khái nhau bëi bÊt k× dÊu "," nµo.
Eg: He drives away and whistles = He drives away whistling.
_ Khi hµnh ®éng 2 hoÆc c¸c hµnh ®éng tiÕp theo sau nã lµ mét phÇn trong qu¸ tr×nh diÔn
biÕn cña hµnh ®éng 1 th× hµnh ®éng 2 hoÆc c¸c hµnh ®éng tiÕp sau nã ë d¹ng V-ing. Gi÷a hai
hµnh ®éng ng¨n c¸ch nhau bëi dÊu ","
Eg: She went out and slammed the door = She went out, slamming the door.
_ Khi hµnh ®éng 2 hoÆc c¸c hµnh ®éng theo sau nã lµ kÕt qu¶ cña hµnh ®éng 1 th× hµnh
®éng thø hai vµ c¸c hµnh ®éng tiÕp theo sau nã ph¶i ë d¹ng V-ing. Chóng sÏ ng¨n c¸ch víi
hµnh ®éng chÝnh b»ng 1 dÊu ","
Eg: He fired two shots, killing a robber and wounding the other.
_ Hµnh ®éng 2 kh«ng cÇn chung chñ ng÷ víi hµnh ®éng 1 mµ chØ cÇn lµ kÕt qu¶ còng ®·
cã thÓ ë d¹ng V-ing:
Eg: The plane crashed, its bomb exploding when it hit the ground.
Ants and termites are the enemy, ants always being agressive.

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Mét sè trêng hîp ®Æc biÖt sö dông nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh

Would like
+ to have + PII = nh÷ng muèn (diÔn ®¹t mét íc muèn kh«ng thµnh)
Would like
Should like
Eg: He would like to have seen the photos = he would have liked to see the photos
(but he couldn't)
_ Dïng víi mét sè ®éng tõ: to happen, to appear, to seem, to pretend + to have + PII.
 Hµnh ®éng cña nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Eg: He seems to have passed the exam = It seems that he has passed the exam.
She pretended to have read the mederial = She pretended that she had read the
mederial.
_ To be sorry + to have + PII: hµnh ®éng cña nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh x¶y ra tríc sorry.
Eg: The girl was sorry to have missed the Rock concert = The girl was sorry that she
has missed the Rock concert.
_ Dïng víi mét sè ®éng tõ sau ë thÓ bÞ ®éng: to acknowledge, to believe, to consider, to
find, to know, to record, to say, to suppose, to think, to understand.
 Hµnh ®éng cña nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Eg: He was believed to have gone out of the country = It was believed that he had
gone out of the country.
_ Dïng víi to claim, expect, hope, promise.
 §Æc biÖt lu ý hµnh ®éng cña nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh sÏ ë t¬ng lai hoµn thµnh so víi th×
®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Eg: He expects to have graduated by June = He expects that he will have graduated
by June.
He promised to have told me the secret by the end of this week = He promised that he
would have told me the secret by the end of this week.

Lèi nãi bao hµm

§ã lµ lèi nãi gép hai ý trong c©u lµm mét th«ng qua mét sè c¸c thµnh ng÷:
1. Not only ... but also = kh«ng nh÷ng ... mµ cßn
_C¸c thùc thÓ sau hai thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i t¬ng ®¬ng nhau vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p (C«ng thøc 1,
2 trang 185)
_Thµnh phÇn sau but also thêng quy ®Þnh thµnh phÇn sau not only
Eg: Robert is not only talented but also handsome.
Beth plays not only the guitar but also the violin
He writes not only correctly but also neatly.
2. As well as = còng nh

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_C¸c thµnh phÇn tríc vµ sau thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i t¬ng ®¬ng nhau vÒ mÆt ng÷ ph¸p (C«ng
thøc 1, 2 trang 186)
Eg: Robert is talented as well as handsome.
_Kh«ng ®îc nhÇm thµnh ng÷ nµy víi as well as cña hiÖn tîng ®ång chñ ng÷ mang nghÜa
"cïng víi"
Eg: The teacher, as well as her students, is going to the concert.
3. Both ... and = c¶ ... lÉn
_C«ng thøc dïng gièng hÖt not only...but also
_Both chØ dïng ®îc víi and, kh«ng dïng ®îc víi as well as.

C¸ch sö dông TO KNOW, to know how

Know how to do something: biÕt c¸ch lµm g× nh thÕ nµo
_§»ng sau know cßn cã thÓ lµ mét danh tõ lµm t©n ng÷, mét ng÷ giíi tõ hoÆc mét c©u
hoµn chØnh (C«ng thøc 1, 2 trang 188)
Eg: Bill knows how to play tennis well.
Jason knew the answer to the teacher's question.
i didn't know that you were going to France.
_§»ng sau to know how còng cßn cã thÓ dïng mét c©u ®Ó diÔn ®¹t kh¶ n¨ng hoÆc sù b¾t
buéc.
Eg: At a glance she knew how she could solve this math problem

MÖnh ®Ò nhîng bé

_Lµ lo¹i mÖnh ®Ò diÔn ®¹t hai ý tr¸i ngîc nhau trong cïng mét c©u.

1. Despite/In spite of = bÊt chÊp
_§»ng sau hai thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i dïng mét côm danh tõ, kh«ng ®îc dïng mét c©u hoµn
chØnh (C«ng thøc 1 trang 189)
Eg: Despite his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
In spite of his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
2. Although/ Even though/ Though = mÆc dÇu
_Sau ba thµnh ng÷ nµy ph¶i dïng mét c©u hoµn chØnh, kh«ng ®îc dïng mét ng÷ danh tõ
(C«ng thøc 1 trang 190)
Eg: Although he has a physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
_Tuy nhiªn, nÕu though ®øng cuèi c©u t¸ch biÖt khái c©u chÝnh bëi mét dÊu ",", khi nãi
h¬i dõng l¹i mét chót th× nã mang nghÜa "tuy nhiªn" (however)
Eg: He promised to call me, till now I haven't received any call from him, though.
 However + adj + S + link verb: dï cã ... ®i ch¨ng n÷a th×
Eg: However strong you are, you can't move this rock.

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 Although/ Albeit (more formal) + adj/adv/adverbial modifier = dÉu sao, tuy r»ng.
Eg: Her appointment was a significant, although/ albeit temporary success.
He performed the task well, although/albeit slowly.

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tiÕng anh viÕt

TiÕng Anh viÕt kh¸c tiÕng Anh nãi v× nã quy ®Þnh ng÷ ph¸p vµ tõ vùng ph¶i hÕt søc quy
chuÈn ®Ó t¹o thµnh formal written English. Nã liªn quan ®Õn nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò sau:

sù phï hîp vÒ thêi ®éng tõ

Trong mét c©u tiÕng Anh cã hai thµnh phÇn cã liªn quan ®Õn nhau vÒ mÆt thêi gian th×
thêi cña ®éng tõ ë hai thµnh phÇn ®ã ph¶i t¬ng ®¬ng víi nhau, thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò
chÝnh sÏ quyÕt ®Þnh thêi ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò phô.
Main clause Dependent clause
- Simple present - Present progressive
Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra cïng lóc víi hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
- Simple present - Will/can/may/ be going to + v
Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra sau hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong mét thêi gian t¬ng
lai kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh hoÆc t¬ng lai gÇn.
Eg: P.205 (Clift)
- Simple present - Simple past
Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong mét qu¸ khø ®îc
x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ mÆt thêi gian.
Eg: I hope they arrived safely.
- Simple present -Presentperfect/Present perfect progressive
Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong mét qu¸ khø
kh«ng ®îc x¸c ®Þnh cô thÓ vÒ mÆt thêi gian.
Eg: P.205
- Simple past - Past progressive/simple past
Hµnh ®éng mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra cïng lóc víi hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong qu¸ khø.
Eg: P.205
- Simple past - Would/could/might + V
Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra sau hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh trong mét t¬ng lai cña
qu¸ khø.
Eg: P.206
- Simple past - Past perfect
Hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh, lïi s©u h¬n n÷a vµo
trong qu¸ khø.
Eg: P.206
Chó ý: Nh÷ng nguyªn t¾c trªn chØ ®îc ¸p dông khi c¸c mÖnh ®Ò trong c©u cã liªn hÖ víi
nhau vÒ mÆt thêi gian. Nhng nÕu c¸c mÖnh ®Ò trong c©u cã thêi gian riªng biÖt th× ®éng tõ ph¶i
tu©n theo thêi gian cña chÝnh mÖnh ®Ò ®ã.
Eg: He promised to call me, till now I haven't received any call from him, though.

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c¸ch sö dông to say, to tell
 NÕu sau chñ ng÷ kh«ng cã t©n ng÷ nµo mµ ®Õn liªn tõ that ngay th× dïng to say.
(C«ng thøc 1 trang 207)
 Nhng nÕu sau chñ ng÷ cã mét t©n ng÷ gi¸n tiÕp råi míi ®Õn liªn tõ that th× ph¶i dïng to
tell.
(C«ng thøc 2 trang 207)
Eg: He says that he will be busy tomorrow.
He tells me that he will be busy tomorrow.
 Sau to tell vÉn cã thÓ cã mét sè t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp dï bÊt k× hoµn c¶nh nµo.
(B¶ng 3 trang 207)

®¹i tõ nh©n xng one vµ you
Hai ®¹i tõ nµy ®Òu mang nghÜa ngêi ta, nhng ng÷ ph¸p sö dông cã kh¸c nhau.
 NÕu ë trªn ®· sö dông one th× c¸c ®¹i tõ t¬ng øng tiÕp theo ë mÖnh ®Ò díi ph¶i lµ one,
one's, he, his (Eg: P211)
 Lu ý r»ng mét sè ngêi do cÈn thËn muèn tr¸nh ph©n biÖt nam n÷ ®· dïng he or his, her
or she. Nhng ®iÒu ®ã kh«ng cÇn thiÕt. C¸c ®¹i tõ nµy chØ ®îc sö dông khi ë trªn cã
nh÷ng danh tõ chung chung: the size, the party.
Eg: The jugde will ask the defendant party if he or she admits the allegations.
 NÕu ®éng tõ ë trªn lµ you th× c¸c ®¹i tõ t¬ng tiÕp theo ë phÇn díi lµ you/your.
(C«ng thøc 1 P.212; Eg: P212)
- TuyÖt ®èi kh«ng dïng lÉn one vµ you trong cïng mét c©u hoÆc dïng they thay thÕ hai
®¹i tõ nµy.

tõ ®i tríc ®Ó giíi thiÖu
Trong mét c©u tiÕng Anh cã hai thµnh phÇn: nÕu 1 trong 2 thµnh phÇn ®ã cã dïng ®Õn
®éng tõ nh©n xng th× ë thµnh phÇn cßn l¹i ph¶i cã mét danh tõ ®i giíi thiÖu cho ®¹i tõ ®ã.
Danh tõ ®i giíi thiÖu ph¶i t¬ng ®¬ng víi ®¹i tõ nh©n xng ®ã vÒ mÆt gièng (®ùc, c¸i) vµ sè
(Ýt, nhiÒu) (Eg: P201)
ChØ cã mét danh tõ ®îc phÐp giíi thiÖu cho ®¹i tõ, nÕu cã hai sÏ g©y nªn sù nhÇm lÉn do
trïng lÆp. (Eg: P210)

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c¸ch sö dông ph©n tõ ë ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô

Trong mét c©u tiÕng Anh cã chung mét chñ ng÷ gåm hai thµnh phÇn: mÖnh ®Ò phô cã thÓ
më ®Çu b»ng mét V-ing (chiÕm ®a sè) - 1 PII (nÕu mang nghÜa bÞ ®éng) - 1 V-inf (nÕu chØ môc
®Ých) - 1 ng÷ danh tõ hoÆc mét ng÷ giíi tõ (nÕu chØ sù t¬ng øng)
Khi sö dông lo¹i c©u nµy cÇn hÕt søc lu ý chñ ng÷ cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh b¾t buéc ph¶i lµ chñ
ng÷ hîp lý cña mÖnh ®Ò phô. (Eg: P.213)
Th«ng thêng cã 6 giíi tõ ®øng tríc 1 V-ing më ®Çu cho mét mÖnh ®Ò phô: by (b»ng c¸ch,
bëi), upon, after (sau khi), before (tríc khi), while (trong khi), when (khi).
Note: On + ®éng tõ chØ tr¹ng th¸i/ In + ®éng tõ chØ hµnh ®éng = when/while
Eg: On finding (when finding) the door ajar, I aroused suspicion.
(Khi thÊy cö hÐ më, t«i n¶y sinh mèi nghi ngê)
In searching (while searching) for underground deposits of oil geologist often
rely on magnometer.
Thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò phô ph¶i do thêi ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh quyÕt ®Þnh. Hai
hµnh ®éng x¶y ra song song cïng lóc. (Eg: P213)
NÕu being vµ having më ®Çu c©u phô th× tríc chóng Èn giíi tõ because.
Eg: Being a good student, he can always pass his exam easily.
(Because he is...)
Having a terrible toothache, Phillip called the dentist for an appointment
(Because he had...)
V-inf chØ môc ®Ých më ®Çu c©u phô
Eg: Incorrect: To prevent cavities, detal floss should be used daily after brushing one's
teeth.
Correct: To prevent cavities, one should use dental floss after brushing one's teeth.
Ng÷ danh tõ hoÆc ng÷ giíi tõ më ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô chØ sù t¬ng øng.
Incorrect: A competitive sports, gymnasts must perform before a parel of judges who use
their knowledge of rules and skills to determine which participant will win.
Correct:In a gymnastic competitive sport game, gymnasts...
Ph©n tõ hai (PII) më ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô chØ bÞ ®éng:
Correct:Found in Tazania by Mary Leaky, the 3 million year - old forsils were estimated
by archeologists to be the oldest human remains that had ever been discovered.
Incorrect: Found in Tazania by Mary Leaky, some archeologists estimated that the 3
million year old forsils were the oldest human remains that were discovered.
CÊu tróc nµy cßn ¸p dông cho c¶ mÉu c©u cã mÖnh ®Ò phô më ®Çu = Although + adj/PII
Eg: Although (he was) nervous, he gained a wonderful speech.
Although (it had been) damaged, the machine was still functioning.
HoÆc cã thÓ dïng when + PII më ®Çu mÖnh ®Ò phô.
Eg: When (it is) shown through a prism, a beam of white light breaks into all the
colors of the rainbow.
NÕu hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh lÉn mÖnh ®Ò phô ®Òu x¶y ra trong qu¸ khø mµ hµnh
®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô lïi s©u h¬n n÷a vµo trong qu¸ khø th× c«ng thøc sÏ lµ:

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(Not) + having + PII... , S + simple past.
Tríc having cã Èn hai giíi tõ lµ because, after. ViÖc hiÓu 2 giíi tõ nµy cßn tuú thuéc ng÷
c¶nh cña mÉu c©u. (Eg: P.214)
NÕu hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò phô x¶y ra ë bÞ ®éng th× c«ng thøc lµ:
(After/because) + (not) + having been + PII ... S + simple past.
Eg: P.214
§Æc biÖt lu ý r»ng c¸c cÊu tróc nµy cßn cã thÓ ¸p dông cho c¶ mÉu c©u mµ c¶ hai thêi cña
®éng tõ sÏ diÔn biÕn ë present perfect - simple present (tuy r»ng rÊt hiÕm)
Eg: Having seen the children's work, Mr.Adams approved their request to go home.
(After she has seen... , Mr. Adams approves... )
Ph¶i hÕt søc lu ý r»ng ®iÒu quan träng nhÊt trong viÖc sö dông 2 mÉu c©u trªn vÉn ph¶i lµ
chñ ng÷ cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh ph¶i lµ chñ ng÷ hîp lý cña mÖnh ®Ò phô.

ph©n tõ dïng lµm tÝnh tõ

1. Ph©n tõ 1 PI dïng lµm tÝnh tõ khi nã ®¸p øng c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn sau:
 §øng ngay tríc danh tõ mµ nã bæ nghÜa.
 Hµnh ®éng ph¶i ë thÓ chñ ®éng
 Hµnh ®éng ®ã ®ang ë thÓ tiÕp diÔn
 §éng tõ ®îc sö dông lµm tÝnh tõ ph¶i kh«ng ®ßi hái mét t©n ng÷ nµo (néi ®éng tõ)
Eg: P217
2. Ph©n tõ II lµm tÝnh tõ khi nã ®¸p øng c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn sau:
 §øng ngay tríc danh tõ mµ nã bæ nghÜa.
 Hµnh ®éng ph¶i ë thÓ bÞ ®éng
 Hµnh ®éng ®ã ph¶i x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng cña mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.
Eg: P217.
Note: mét sè ®éng tõ nh to increase, to bore, to excite, to frighten... khi sö dông ph¶i rÊt
cÈn thËn vÒ viÖc nh÷ng ph©n tõ ®îc dïng lµm tÝnh tõ xuÊt ph¸t tõ nh÷ng ®éng tõ nµy mang
nghÜa chñ hay bÞ ®éng.

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c©u thõa

Khi th«ng tin trong mét c©u bÞ lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i díi d¹ng kh«ng cÇn thiÕt th× gäi lµ c©u thõa
vµ ph¶i lo¹i bá nã.
Ngêi Anh kh«ng dïng the reason because mµ dïng the reason that..
Eg: The reason I take this course is that it's necessary for me.
Ngêi Anh kh«ng dïng it is the time when mµ dïng mét trong 2.
Eg: It is the time I got to the airport hoÆc It is when...
Ngêi Anh kh«ng dïng it is the place where mµ chØ dïng 1 trong 2.
Eg: It is the place I was born.

CÊu tróc c©u song song

Khi th«ng tin trong 1 c©u ®îc ®a ra díi d¹ng hµng lo¹t th× c¸c thµnh phÇn ®îc liÖt kª ph¶i
song song víi nhau vÒ ng÷ ph¸p (danh tõ/danh tõ, tÝnh tõ/tÝnh tõ)
Th«ng thêng th× thµnh phÇn ®Çu tiªn sau ®éng tõ sÏ quyÕt ®Þnh c¸c thµnh phÇn cßn l¹i.
Eg: P222
Tuy nhiªn nÕu thêi gian trong c©u kh¸c nhau th× ®éng tõ còng ph¶i tu©n theo quy luËt thêi
gian. Lóc ®ã cÊu tróc song song kh«ng tån t¹i.

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Th«ng tin trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp

I. C©u trùc tiÕp vµ c©u gi¸n tiÕp
Trong c©u trùc tiÕp, th«ng tin ®i tõ ngêi 1 ®Õn th¼ng ngêi 2.
Eg: He said: "I bought a new motorbike for myself yesterday"
Trong c©u gi¸n tiÕp th«ng tin ®i tõ ngêi 1 qua ngêi 2 ®Õn ngêi 3 nªn c©u cã biÕn ®æi ng÷
ph¸p.
Eg: He said he had bought a new motorbike for himself the day before.
§Ó biÕn ®æi mét c©u trùc tiÕp sang gi¸n tiÕp cÇn:
 §æi chñ ng÷ vµ c¸c ®¹i tõ kh¸c trong c©u trùc tiÕp theo chñ ng÷ cña thµnh phÇn 1.
 Lïi ®éng tõ ë vÕ 2 xuèng 1 cÊp so víi lóc ban ®Çu.
 BiÕn ®æi c¸c ®¹i tõ chØ thÞ, phã tõ chØ thêi gian vµ ®Þa ®iÓm theo b¶ng díi.
Direct Indirect
Simple present Past simple
Present progessive Past progessive
Present perfect (progessive) Past perfect (progessive)
Simple past Past perfect
Will, shall Would, Should
Can/May Could/Might

B¶ng ®æi c¸c ®¹i tõ chØ thÞ, phã tõ
To day That day
Yesterday The day before
The day before yesterday Two days before
Tomorrow The next/the following day
The day after tomorrow In two days' time
Next + time The following + time
Last + time The previous + time
Time + ago Time before
This, these That, those
Here, over here There, over there

 NÕu lêi nãi vµ hµnh ®éng x¶y ra cïng mét ngµy th× kh«ng cÇn ph¶i biÕn ®æi thêi gian.
Eg:At breakfast this morning he said "I will be busy today"
At breakfast this morning he said he would be busy today.
 C¸c suy luËn logic vÒ mÆt thêi gian tÊt nhiªn cÇn thiÕt nÕu lêi nãi ®îc thuËt l¹i sau 1
hoÆc 2 ngµy.

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Eg: (On Monday) he said: "I will be leaving on Wednesday"
(On Tuesday) he said he would be leaving tomorrow.
(On Wednesday) he said he would be leaving today.

II. §éng tõ víi 2 t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp.
Mét sè ®éng tõ trong tiÕng Anh cã 2 lo¹i t©n ng÷: 1 trùc tiÕp vµ 1 gi¸n tiÕp. §ång thêi
còng cã 2 c¸ch dïng:
- Lèi dïng gi¸n tiÕp: ®Æt t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp sau ®éng tõ råi ®Õn t©n ng÷ gi¸n tiÕp ®i sau 2
giíi tõ for vµ to.
- Lèi dïng trùc tiÕp: ®Æt t©n ng÷ gi¸n tiÕp sau ®éng tõ råi ®Õn t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp. Hai giíi tõ
for vµ to bÞ lo¹i bá. (C«ng thøc 2 trang 225)
Eg: P.225
NÕu c¶ 2 t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp vµ gi¸n tiÕp lµ ®¹i tõ nh©n xng th× kh«ng ®îc dïng c«ng thøc
trùc tiÐep mµ ph¶i dïng c«ng thøc gi¸n tiÕp.
2 ®éng tõ to introduce, to mention ph¶i dïng c«ng thøc gi¸n tiÕp, kh«ng ®îc dïng c«ng
thøc trùc tiÕp.
To introduce st/smb to smb
To mention st to smb

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Sù ®¶o ngîc phã tõ

Trong mét sè trêng hîp, c¸c phã tõ kh«ng ®øng ë vÞ trÝ b×nh thêng cña nã mµ ®¶o lªn
®øng ®Çu c©u nh»m nhÊn m¹nh vµo chñ ng÷. Trong trêng hîp ®ã, ng÷ ph¸p sÏ cã biÕn ®æi: sau
phã tõ ®øng ®Çu c©u lµ trî ®éng tõ råi míi ®Õn chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ chÝnh. (C«ng thøc 1 trang
227)
Mét sè d¹ng phã tõ ®Æc biÖt ®øng ®Çu c©u:
 In/under no circumstances: dï trong bÊt cø hoµn c¶nh nµo còng kh«ng.
Eg: In/under no circumstances should you lend him the money.
 On no account: dï bÊt cø lý do g× còng kh«ng ®îc
Eg: On no account must this switch be touched.
 Only in this way: chØ b»ng c¸ch nµy
Eg: Only in this way could the problem solved.
 In no way: kh«ng sao cã thÓ
Eg: In no way could I agree with you.
 Negative... , nor + auxilary + S + main verb
Eg: He had no money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow.
(Anh ta kh«ng cã tiÒn, mµ anh ta còng kh«ng biÕt bÊt k× ai ®Ó cã thÓ vay ®îc).
 By no means: hoµn toµn kh«ng
Eg: By no means does he intend.
Khi mét mÖnh ®Ò më ®Çu b»ng c¸c thµnh ng÷ chØ n¬i chèn hoÆc trËt tù th× ®éng tõ chÝnh
cã thÓ ®æi lªn chñ ng÷ nhng tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®îc sö dông trî ®éng tõ trong trêng hîp nµy.
Clause of place/order + main verb + S (no auxilary)
Eg: In front of the museum is a statue.
First came the police, then came the ambulance.
Khi mét ng÷ giíi tõ lµm phã tõ chØ ®Þa ®iÓm hoÆc ph¬ng híng ®øng ë ®Çu c©u, c¸c néi
®éng tõ sÏ ®Æt lªn tríc chñ ng÷ nhng tuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®îc sö dông trî ®éng tõ trong lo¹i c©u
nµy. Nã rÊt phæ biÕn trong v¨n miªu t¶ khi nã ®îc diÔn ®¹t cïng víi mét sè chñ ng÷ kh«ng x¸c
®Þnh.
Eg: Under the tree was lying one of the biggest men I have ever seen.
Directly in front of them stood a great castle.
On the grass set an enormous frog.
Along the road came a strange procession.
TÝnh tõ còng cã thÓ ®¶o lªn ®Çu c©u ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh vµ sau ®ã lµ ®éng tõ nèi nhng tuyÖt ®èi
kh«ng ®îc sö dông trî ®éng tõ.
Eg: So determined was she that she taught school and gave music lessons for her
tution fees.
Trong mét sè trêng hîp ngêi ta còng cã thÓ ®¶o toµn bé ®éng tõ chÝnh lªn trªn chñ ng÷ ®Ó
nhÊn m¹nh. Nh÷ng ®éng tõ ®îc ®¶o lªn trªn trong trêng hîp nµy phÇn lín ®Òu mang s¾c th¸i bÞ
®éng nhng hoµn toµn kh«ng cã nghÜa bÞ ®éng.
Eg: Lost, however, are the secrets of the Mayan astronomers and the Inca builders as
well as many medicinal practices.

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(Tuy nhiªn, nh÷ng bÝ mËt cña nh÷ng nhµ thiªn v¨n ngêi Mayan, nh÷ng nhµ x©y dùng ng-
êi Inca còng nh nhiÒu bµi thuèc ®· mÊt ®i vÜnh viÔn)
Mét sè phã tõ ®i kÌm víi ®éng tõ chØ chuyÓn ®éng còng cã thÓ ®øng trªn ®©u c©u vµ sau
®ã lµ mét danh tõ lµm chñ ng÷.
Away/down/in/off/out/over/round/up ... + motion verb + noun/noun phrase (as
Subject)
Eg: Away went the runners.
Down fell a dozen of apples.
Chó ý: nhng nÕu sau chñ ng÷ lµ mét ®¹i tõ nh©n xng th× ®éng tõ ph¶i ®øng sau chñ ng÷.
Eg: Away they went
Around and round it flew.
Trong tiÕng Anh viÕt, c¸c ng÷ giíi tõ më ®Çu b»ng c¸c giíi tõ nh down, from, in, on,
over, out of, round up... cã thÓ ®îc theo sau ngay bëi c¸c ®éng tõ chØ vÞ trÝ nh crouch, hang,
lie, sit, stand hoÆc c¸c d¹ng ®éng tõ chØ chuyÓn ®éng hoÆc mét sè ®éng tõ nh be born, die,
live hoÆc mét sè d¹ng ®éng tõ kh¸c.
Eg: From the raffters hung the strings of onion.
In the doorway stood a man with a gun.
On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot.
Over the wall came a shower of stones.
(Come over: phñ lªn)
Lu ý: ba vÝ dô ®Çu cña c¸c vÝ dô trªn cã thÓ diÔn ®¹t b»ng mét V-ing më ®Çu cho c©u vµ
®éng tõ to be ®¶o lªn trªn chñ ng÷.
Eg: Hanging from the rafters was strings of onion.
Standing in the doorway was a man with a gun.
Sitting on a perch beside him was a blue parrot.
HiÖn tîng nµy cßn x¶y ra khi chñ ng÷ sau c¸c phã tõ so s¸nh nh as, than.
Eg: She was religious, as were most of her friends.
City dwellers have a higher death rate than do country people.
T©n ng÷ mang tÝnh nhÊn m¹nh còng cã thÓ ®¶o lªn ®Çu c©u.
Eg: Not a single word did he say.
Here, there hoÆc mét sè phã tõ ®i kÕt hîp víi ®éng tõ chØ chuyÓn ®éng ®øng ë ®Çu c©u
còng ph¶i ®¶o ®éng tõ lªn trªn chñ ng÷ nÕu chñ ng÷ ®ã lµ mét danh tõ.
Eg: Here come Freddy.
There goes your brother.
I stopped the car, and up walked a policeman.
Nhng nÕu chñ ng÷ lµ mét ®¹i tõ th× kh«ng ®îc ®¶o ®éng tõ.
Eg: Here he comes.
Off we go.

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c¸ch lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi kh«ng ®óng trong bµi ng÷
ph¸p
Mét trong sè hai bµi thi ng÷ ph¸p cña Toefl ®îc cho díi d¹ng mét c©u cho s½n vµ ®Ó trèng
mét phÇn, díi lµ 4 c©u ®Ó ®iÒn. Trong 4 c©u chØ cã 1 c©u ®óng. §Ó t×m 1 c©u ®óng cÇn theo c¸c
bíc sau:
1. KiÓm tra lçi ng÷ ph¸p c¬ b¶n
 Sù hoµ hîp gi÷a chñ ng÷ vµ ®éng tõ vÞ ng÷.
 C¸ch sö dông c¸c tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ.
 VÞ trÝ cña c¸c phã tõ theo thø tù: chØ ph¬ng thøc hµnh ®éng - ®Þa ®iÓm - thêi gian - ph-
¬ng tiÖn hµnh ®éng - t×nh huèng hµnh ®éng.
 Sù phèi hîp gi÷a c¸c thêi ®éng tõ.
 Xem xÐt viÖc sö dông hîp lý c¸c ®¹i tõ trong c©u.
 CÊu tróc c©u song song.
2. Lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi mang tÝnh rêm rµ.
a. Lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi bao gåm 1 thµnh ng÷ dµi, tuy kh«ng sai nhng cã 1 tõ ng¾n h¬n
®Ó thay thÕ.
Eg: P.229
Lu ý: Ph¶i hÕt søc cÈn thËn v× mét sè tÝnh tõ tËn cïng b»ng ®u«i ly kh«ng thÓ cÊu t¹o
phã tõ b»ng ®u«i nµy. Phã tõ cña nh÷ng tÝnh tõ nµy lµ: in a + adj_ly +manner/ way
Eg: He bahaved me in a friendly way/manner.
Ph¶i cÈn thËn khi dïng tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ fresh.
In a fresh manner = mét c¸ch t¬i (adv)
Eg: This food is only delicious when eaten in a fresh manner.
Freshly + PII = võa míi
Eg: Freshly - picked fruit
Freshly - laid eggs (trøng gµ míi ®Î)
b. Lo¹i bá nh÷ng tõ thõa trong c©u thõa
3. Ph¶i ch¾c ch¾n r»ng tÊt c¶ c¸c tõ trong c©u ®îc chän ®Òu ph¶i phôc vô cho nghÜa cña
bµi. §Æc biÖt lµ c¸c ng÷ ®éng tõ.
let up: weather
let out: class
4. Lo¹i bá nh÷ng c©u tr¶ lêi bao hµm tiÕng lãng kh«ng ®îc phÐp dïng trong tiÕng Anh quy
chuÈn (former written English)
Eg: buck _ dollar
police_cop
Eg p.230: in a bunch of: mét ®èng, mét ®µn (tiÕng lãng)

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Nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm lÉn

- §ã lµ nh÷ng tõ rÊt dÔ bÞ nhÇm vÒ chÝnh t¶, ng÷ nghÜa, ph¸t ©m. CÇn ph¶i ph©n biÖt râ
chóng b»ng ng÷ c¶nh.
Page 264.
 To cite: trÝch dÉn
site: khu ®Êt
sight: khe ng¾m, tÇm ng¾m; quang c¶nh, c¶nh tîng.
to sight: quan s¸t, nh×n thÊy
- Dessert: mãn tr¸ng miÖng
Desert: sa m¹c
Desert: bá, bá mÆc
- Later: sau ®ã, råi th× (thêng céng víi ®éng tõ t¬ng lai)
Later >< early (tríc ®ã)
The latter: c¸i thø 2, ngêi thø 2, c¸i sau, ngêi sau. (>< The former)
- Principal: (n): hiÖu trëng (trêng phæ th«ng)
(adj): chÝnh, chñ yÕu
Principle: (n): nguyªn t¾c, luËt lÖ
- Affect: (v): t¸c ®éng ®Õn
Effect: (n): ¶nh hëng, hiÖu qu¶
(v): thùc hiÖn, ®em l¹i
- Already (adv): ®·
All ready: tÊt c¶ ®· s½n sµng
- Among: trong sè (dïng cho 3 ngêi, 3 vËt trë lªn)
- Between...and: gi÷a...vµ (chØ dïng cho 2 ngêi, 2 vËt)
Note:
+Between...and: cßn ®îc dïng ®Ó chØ vÞ trÝ chÝnh x¸c cña mét quèc gia n»m gi÷a nh÷ng
quèc gia kh¸c cho dï ®ã lµ 3 trë lªn.
Eg: Vietnam lies between China, Laos and Cambodia
+Among = one of/some of/included in (mét trong sè, mét sè trong, kÓ c¶, bao gåm)
Eg: Among the first to arrive was the ambassador.
He has a number of criminals among his friends.
+Between cßn ®îc dïng cho kho¶ng c¸ch giíi h¹n gi÷a c¸c vËt vÒ kh«ng gian vµ thêi
gian.
Eg: We need 2 metres between the windows.
I will be at your office between 9 and 11
+Dïng between khi muèn ®Ò cËp ®Õn 2 vËt hoÆc 2 nhãm vËt ë vÒ 2 phÝa.
Eg: A little valley between high mountains.
I saw something between the wheels of the car.
+Different + between: not among

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Eg: What are the differences between crow and jackdaws?
+Between each + noun (and the next) (more formal)
Eg: We need 2 meters between each window (and the next)
There seems to be let and let time between each birthday (and the next)
 Devide + between (not among)
Eg: He devided the gifts between his wife, his daughter and his teacher.
+ Share + between/among
Eg: He shared the food between/among all my friends
 Consecutive: liªn tôc (kh«ng cã tÝnh ng¾t qu·ng)
+ Successive: liªn tôc (cã tÝnh ng¾t qu·ng)
 Emigrant: ngêi di c
+ Immigrant: ngêi nhËp c
 Formerly: tríc kia
+ Formally: chØnh tÒ (¨n mÆc); chÝnh thøc.
 Historic: + næi tiÕng, quan träng trong lÞch sö
Eg: The historic spot on which the early setters landed in North America.
+ mang tÝnh lÞch sö
Eg: Historic times/ Historic building
- Historical: + thuéc vÒ lÞch sö
Eg: Historical research.
+ cã thËt trong lÞch sö
Eg: Historical people
Historical events
 Helpless: v« väng, tuyÖt väng
+ Useless: v« dông.
 Imaginary: kh«ng cã thùc, tëng tîng.
+ Imaginative: phong phó, bay bæng (vÒ trÝ tëng tîng)

75
mét sè nh÷ng tõ dÔ g©y nhÇm kh¸c

- Classic: chÊt lîng cao, hay, tèt
Eg: A classic novel
A classic football match
®Æc trng, ®Æc thï, tiªu biÓu
Eg: A classic example
- Classic (n): v¨n nghÖ sÜ, t¸c phÈm lu danh.
Eg: This novel may well become classic
- Classics (n): v¨n häc vµ ng«n ng÷ cæ Hyla
 Classical (adj): cæ ®iÓn, kinh ®iÓn
 Politic (adj): nhËn thøc ®óng, kh«n ngoan.
Eg: I don't think it would be politic to ask for a loan just now.
- Political (adj): thuéc vÒ chÝnh trÞ
Eg: A political career.
- Continual: liªn tôc, lÆp ®i lÆp l¹i (hµnh ®éng cã tÝnh c¸ch qu·ng)
Eg: Please stop your continual questions!
 Continuous (continuing): liªn miªn, suèt (hµnh ®éng kh«ng cã tÝnh c¸ch qu·ng)
Eg: A continuous flow of traffic.
 As (liªn tõ) = nh (+S + V)
Eg: When in Roma, do as Romans do.
+ Like (tÝnh tõ dïng nh mét giíi tõ) = nh ( + noun/noun phrase)
Eg: He fought like a mad man.
 Alike (adj): gièng nhau, t¬ng tù.
Eg: Although they are brothers, they don't look alike.
+ Alike (adv): nh nhau
Eg: The climate here is always hot, summer and winter alike.
 As: nh/víi t c¸ch lµ (dïng trong so s¸nh khi b¶n th©n chñ ng÷ cã chøc n¨ng nh ngêi/vËt
®îc so s¸nh)
Eg: Let me speak to you as a father.
+ Like: nh lµ (dïng trong so s¸nh khi b¶n th©n chñ ng÷ vµ c¸i/ngêi ®îc so s¸nh kh«ng
ph¶i lµ mét hoÆc kh«ng cã chøc n¨ng ®ång nhÊt)
Eg: Let me speak to you like a man above.
 Before: tríc ®©y, tríc ®ã (dïng khi so s¸nh mét thø víi tÊt c¶ nh÷ng thø kh¸c cïng lo¹i)
Eg: She has never seen such a beautiful picture before.
+ Before: tríc (chØ mét sù viÖc x¶y ra tríc mét sù viÖc kh¸c trong qu¸ khø. Thêng dïng
víi past perfect)
Eg: He lived in France in 1912, he had lived in England for years before.
+ Ago: tríc (tÝnh tõ hiÖn t¹i trë ngîc vÒ qu¸ khø. Thêng dïng víi simple past).
Eg: I went to England 3 years ago.

76
 Certain (discertain)
Eg: Certainly/I'm certain that he didn't steal it.
+ Sure: tin r»ng (kh«ng biÕt ch¾c, nãi theo c¶m nhËn, nghÜa yÕu h¬n certain)
Eg: Surely/I'm sure that he didn't steal it.
 Indeed
+ Very indeed (®øng sau mét tÝnh tõ hoÆc mét phã tõ)
Eg: Thank you very much indeed.
I was very pleased indeed to hear from you.
+ Indeed dïng sau to be hoÆc aux: x¸c nhËn hoÆc nhÊn m¹nh cho sù ®ång ý (thêng dïng
cho c©u tr¶ lêi ng¾n).
Eg: It is cold
It is indeed.
 Ill (B.E) = Sick (A.E) = èm
Eg: George didn't come in last week because he was ill (he was sick)
+ Sick + n = èm yÕu, bÖnh tËt
Eg: He spent 20 years looking after his sick - father.
+ Be sick = feel sick: n«n, buån n«n (say tÇu, xe)
Eg: He was sick 3 times in the night.
I feel sick! Where's the bathroom?
She's never sea sick.
 Welcome (adj) = ®îc mong ®îi, ®îc chê ®îi tõ l©u (thó vÞ)
Eg: A welcome guess: kh¸ch quý, kh¸ch bÊy l©u mong ®îi.
A welcome gift: mãn quµ thó vÞ
 Welcome to + n: cã quyÒn, ®îc phÐp sö dông.
Eg: You are welcome to any book in my library.
 Welcoming (ph©n tõ 1 cÊu t¹o tõ welcome, dïng lµm tÝnh tõ)
+ Chµo ®ãn, ®ãn tiÕp ©n cÇn
Eg: This country had given me a welcoming feeling.
+ Hoan nghªnh, t¸n ®ång (ý kiÕn)
Eg: To show a welcoming idea: béc lé ý kiÕn t¸n ®ång.
 Be certain/Sure of + V-ing: ch¾c ch¾n lµ (®Ò cËp ®Õn t×nh c¶m cña ngêi ®ang ®îc nãi
®Õn)
Eg: Before the game, she felt certain of wining, but after a few minutes, she realized
it wasn't going to be easy.
You seem very sure of passing the exam. I hope you are right.
 Be certain/sure + to + V (®Ò cËp ®Õn t×nh c¶m cña chÝnh ngêi nãi hoÆc ngêi viÕt c©u
®ã)
Eg: The repairs are certain to cost more than you think.
Elen is sure to win - the other girl doesn't have a chance.
 Be interested + to + v: thÊy thÝch, thÊy thó vÞ khi

77
Eg: I'm interested to read in the paper that scientists have found out how to talk to the
whales.
 Be interested in + V-ing/ + to + V: muèn biÕt, muèn ph¸t hiÖn, t×m ra
Eg: I'm interested in finding out/to find out what she did with all that money.
 Be interested in + V-ing: thÊy thÝch, thÝch, muèn.
Eg: I'm interested in learning higher education in the U.S

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giíi tõ

1. During: trong suèt (hµnh ®éng diÔn ra liªn tôc) (For + time: kh«ng cã hµnh ®éng, chØ
tr¹ng th¸i)
2. From (>< to)
 From...to: tõ...®Õn (dïng cho thêi gian vµ ®Þa ®iÓm)
 From time to time: ®«i khi, thØnh tho¶ng.
3. Out of: ra khái (>< into)
 Out of + noun: hÕt, kh«ng cßn
 Out of town: ®i v¾ng
 Out of date: cò, l¹c hËu, lçi thêi (>< up to date)
 Out of work: thÊt nghiÖp, mÊt viÖc
 Out of the question: kh«ng thÓ
 Out of order: háng, kh«ng ho¹t ®éng.
4. By
 §éng tõ chØ chuyÓn ®éng + by = ®i ngang qua
 §éng tõ tÜnh + by = ë gÇn
 By + thêi gian cô thÓ = tríc lóc, cho ®Õn lóc (hµnh ®éng cho ®Õn lóc ®ã ®· ph¶i x¶y ra)
 By + ph¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng = ®i
 By then = cho ®Õn lóc ®ã, tríc lóc ®ã (dïng cho c¶ qu¸ khø vµ t¬ng lai)
 By way of = via: theo ®êng, theo ng¶
 By the way: t×nh cê, ngÉu nhiªn; (=by the by): nh©n ®©y, tiÖn ®©y.
 By far + so s¸nh (thêng lµ bËc nhÊt): dïng ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh.
 By accident/by mistake: t×nh cê (>< on purpose: cã chñ ®Þnh)
5. In: bªn trong
 In + month/year
 In time (for) = in good time (for): ®óng giê (thêng kÞp lµm g×, h¬i sím h¬n so víi dù
®Þnh mét chót).
 In the street: díi lßng ®êng
 In the morning/afternoon/evening
 In the past/in the future: tríc kia, trong qu¸ khø, trong t¬ng lai.
 In future = from now on: tõ nay trë ®i.
 In the beginning, in the end = at first, at last: tho¹t ®Çu, rèt cuéc
 In the way: ®ç ngang lèi, ch¾n ngang lèi.
 Once in a while: ®«i khi, thØnh tho¶ng.
 In no time at all: trong nh¸y m¾t, trong mét tho¸ng
 In the mean time = at the same time = mean while: cïng lóc.
 In the middle of: ë gi÷a (®Þa ®iÓm)

79
 In the army/airforce/navy.
 In + the + sè thø tù + row: ë hµng thø
 In the event that: trong trêng hîp mµ
 In case: ®Ó phßng khi, ®Ó ngé nhì.
 To get, to be in touch/contact with somebody: liªn l¹c, tiÕp xóc víi (ai)
6.On: trªn (bÒ mÆt)
 On + thø (tuÇn), ngµy (th¸ng)
 On + a, the + ph¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng: trªn chuyÕn, ®· lªn chuyÕn
 On + phè = ë phè (B.A: in)
 On the + sè thø tù + floor: ë tÇng thø
 On time: võa ®óng giê (bÊt chÊp ®iÒu kiÖn bªn ngoµi). NghÜa m¹nh h¬n in time.
 On the corner of: ë gãc phè (gi÷a 2 phè)
Note: in the corner: ë gãc trong; at the corner: ë gãc ngoµi/ë ®Çu phè.

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