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WCDMA Physical Layer Design

A. Chockalingam
Assistant Professor
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-12

achockal@ece.iisc.ernet.in
http://ece.iisc.ernet.in/~achockal
Outline

◆ WCDMA Network Architecture
◆ WCDMA Physical Layer
– Physical / Transport / Logical Channels
– Uplink
» Spreading - Channelisation / Scrambling
» Transport Formats and Configuration
» Multiplexing and Channel Coding
– Downlink
» Spreading / Scrambling / Channelisation
» Multiplexing and Channel Coding

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 2
2G to 3G Evolution

EDGE
D
A
GSM T
GPRS
A
WCDMA IMT2000

I
S
IS-95A 9
IS-95B cdma2000
9

IMT2000: ITU’s Standardization Effort towards 3G
(IMT-2000 previously termed as FPLMTS)
UMTS: European Effort (Specified by 3G Partnership Project 3GPP)
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 3
UMTS NW Model
Non-access Stratum
(Protocols between UE and Core NW)

Access Stratum Home
(Protocols between UE and Access NW)
Network
Zu
Serving
Access Network Transit
Mobile Network Network
USIM Equipment PS/CS
Cu Uu Iu Yu

User Equipment Access Network Core Network

Stratum: Refers to a way of Infrastructure
grouping protocols handling activities
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 4
UMTS NW Architecture
Uu Iu
UTRAN CN
RNS CN (CS Domain)
Iub
Node B
3G MSC 3G
UE RNC / VLR GMSC
Node B
Registers

UE
Iur HLR/AuC/EIR
(Home Network)
RNS
Node B
CN (PS Domain)

RNC
Node B SGSN GGSN
UE

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 5
WCDMA System Features
◆ UTRA FDD mode and TDD mode
◆ UTRA FDD features
– Multiple Access: CDMA
– Channel Spacing: 5 MHz
– Chip Rate: 3.84 Mcps
– Frame Length: 10 msec
– Time Slots: 15 slots per 10 msec frame
– Spreading Factor: 4 to 512
– Multi-rate: Through Multi-code or
Orthogonal Variable Spreading

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 6
UTRA FDD Features
– FEC Codes: Rate 1/2, 1/3 convolutional code
with constraint length K = 9
Rate 1/3, 8-state Turbo coding
– Interleaving: Intra- or Inter-frame interleaving
(10, 20 40, 80 msec)
– Modulation: QPSK
– Detection: Coherent based on pilot symbols
– Micro diversity: RAKE in BS and UE
– Power Control: Fast closed-loop at 1500 Hz rate
– Intra-frequency HO: Soft / Softer Handover
– Inter-frequency HO: Hard Handover
– Interference Cancellation: Support for multiuser detection
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 7
Radio Interface Protocol Model

CONTROL PLANE USER PLANE
L3
RRC U-Plane Radio Bearers (Radio Network Layer)

Signalling User Plane
Radio Bearers Radio Bearers
Control
PDCP
BMC L2
(Radio Link Layer)
RLC
Logical Channels

MAC
Transport Channels

PHY L1
(Radio Physical Layer)
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 8
WCDMA Radio Channels

◆ Physical Channels
– Transmission media.
– Two types of physical channels defined in L1; FDD and TDD.
– FDD is characterized by frequency, code, I/Q phase
– Follow a layered structure of “radio frames” and “time slots”
◆ Transport Channels
– describes the way information is transferred over the radio interface
◆ Logical Channels
– the type of information transferred characterizes a logical channel

UE BS RNC

Logical Channels
Transport Channels
Physical Channels
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 9
Physical Channels

◆ Corresponds to a specific carrier frequency,
code, relative phase in I and Q branches
◆ Dedicated and Common Physical Channels
◆ Layered structure of radio frames and time slots
◆ A radio frame = 10 msec = 15 slots/frame
◆ 1 frame = 38400 chips, 1 slot = 2560 chips
◆ Slot configuration varies depending on the
channel bit rate of the physical channel
– # bits/slot different for different physical channels
– may vary with time (on a frame by frame basis)
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 10
U/L Physical Channels

◆ Dedicated U/L Channels
– DPDCH
– DPCCH
◆ Common U/L Channels
– PRACH
» Preamble part
» Message part
– PCPCH
» Preamble part
» Message part
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 11
Dedicated U/L Physical Channels
◆ Two types
– Dedicated Physical Data CHannel (DPDCH)
– Dedicated Physical Control CHannel (DPCCH)
– Both are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame
◆ U/L DPDCH carries the DCH transport channel
◆ U/L DPCCH carries L1 control bits such as
– Pilot bits (to enable channel estimation for coherent detection at BS)
– Transmit power control (TPC) commands
– Feedback Information (FBI)
» used for CL transmit diversity and Site Selection Diversity
Transmission (SDTC)
– Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI)
» for several simultaneous services. Informs the rx of the transport
format combination of the transport channels mapped to DPDCH
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 12
U/L Frame Structure
◆ There is only one U/L DPCCH on each radio link
◆ There can be 0, 1, or several DPDCHs on each radio link
◆ 10 msec frames divided into 15 slots
1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 msec
S0 S1 S2 S3 S13 S14

1 time slot = 2/3 msec
DPDCH
(on I-Chl) DATA (Ndata bits)

DPCCH
Pilot TFCI FBI TPC
(on Q-Chl)
10 bits = 2560 chips => SF = 256
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 13
I, Q Spreading for DPDCH, DPCCH

Cc, Cd,n: Channelization codes
DPDCH-1 Sdpch,n: Scrambling code
Bd, Bc: Gain factors
Cd,1 Bd ∑
I
DPDCH-3

Cd,3 Bd I+jQ

DPDCH-2 Sdpch,n

Cd,2 Bd ∑Q
DPCCH-2 j

Cc Bc Up to 6 DPDCHs in parallel
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 14
WCDMA Transmission Rates (U/L)

◆ System Chip Rate : 3.84 Mcps
◆ Symbol Rates on Uplink
– Chl Symb Rate Chl Bit Rate SF Bits/frame Ndata
15 Ks/s 15 Kb/s 256 150 10
30 Ks/s 30 Kb/s 128 300 20
60 Ks/s 60 Kb/s 64 600 40
120 Ks/s 120 Kb/s 32 1200 80
240 Ks/s 240 Kb/s 16 2400 160
480 Ks/s 480 Kb/s 8 4800 320
960 Ks/s 960 Kb/s 4 9600 640

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 15
WCDMA Channelisation Codes

◆ Orthogonal codes
◆ Used for channel separation both in U/L and D/L
directions
◆ Can have different spreading factor values (thus
support different symbol rates)
◆ Cch,SF,k : SF - Spreading Factor, k is the code
number 0<=k<= SF-1
◆ Spreading factor value indicates how many bits of
those codes are used in a connection

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 16
U/L Channelization Codes
◆ Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF)
channelization codes
◆ Separates data / control channels from same UE
◆ Preserves orthogonality between these channels
SF=4
SF=2 (1,1,1,1)
SF=1
(1,1)
C(SF,k) (1) (1,1,-1,-1)

(1,-1) (1,-1,1,-1)

SF: Spreading Factor
(1,-1,-1,1)
k: code number 0<k<=SF-1
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 17
U/L Scrambling Codes

◆ Use complex valued scrambling code
◆ Long scrambling sequences (2^24)
– Gold sequences (linear combination of two m-sequences)
◆ Short scrambling sequences (2^24)
– from a family sequence of periodically extended S(2)
codes
◆ Long or short sequences for DPCCH / DPDCH
◆ Only long sequences for message parts of PRACH
and PCPCH
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 18
WCDMA Code Types

◆ Scrambling Codes, Channelisation Codes

Uplink Downlink
Scrambling codes User separation Cell separation

Channelisation Data and Control Users within a
codes channels from the cell
same terminal

Spreading code = Scrambling code x Channelisation code

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 19
Common U/L Physical Channels
◆ Two Types
– Physical Random Access CHannel (PRACH)
– Physical Common Packet CHannel (PCPCH)
◆ Physical Random Access CHannel (PRACH)
– carries RACH
– Uses S-ALOHA technique with fast Acquisition Indication
– Access slots (15 access slots per 2 frames)
– RA transmission consists of
» several 4096 chip preambles (uses 256 repetitions of 16 chips
signature sequence) and 1or 2 frame message

Preamble Preamble Message Part (1 or 2 frames)

4096 Chips
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 20
Random Access

UE BS

PRACH: Preamble sent (initial access)

No detection on AICH

PRACH: Preamble sent (initial access)

AICH: Preamble sent detected

PRACH: Random Access Info sent

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 21
Common U/L Physical Channels

◆ Physical Common Packet CHannel (PCPCH)
– Carries CPCH
– CPCH is based on DSMA-CD technique with fast
Acquisition Indication
– Access slot timing and structure are identical to those
defined for RACH
– Transmission consists of
» Access preamble(s) - one or several each 4096 chips
» Collision Detection preamble
» DPCCH Power Control Preamble (0 or 8 slots)
» Message of variable length (Nx10 msec)
– PCPCH good for carrying small sized bursty data
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 22
Transport Formats / Configurations

◆ Transport Block (TB)
» Basic unit of data exchanged between L1 & MAC for L1
processing
◆ Transport Block Size: Number of bits in a TB.
◆ Transport Block Set (TBS)
» A set of TBs exchanged between L1 and MAC at the same
time instant using the same transport channel
◆ Transport Block Set Size: Number of bits in a TBS
◆ Transmission Time Interval (TTI)
» Periodicity at which a TBS is transferred by the physical layer
on to the radio interface - {10, 20, 40, 80 ms}
» MAC delivers one TBS to the physical layer every TTI
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 23
Transport Formats / Configurations
◆ Transport Format (TF)
– Format offered by L1 to MAC (and vice versa) for the delivery of a
TBS during a TTI on a given transport channel (TrCH)
– Dynamic part (TB size, TBS size)
– Semi-static part (TTI, type/rate of coding,size of CRC)
– TB size, TBS size, TTI define the TrCH bit rate before L1 processing
» e.g., TB size = 336 bits (320 bit payload + 16 bits RLC header)
» TBS size = 2 TBs per TTI, TTI = 10 ms
» DCH Bit rate (with RLC header) = 336*2/10 = 67.2 Kbps
» User Bit rate (without RLC header) = 320*2/10 = 64 Kbps
– Variable bit rate can be achieved by changing (between TTIs)
either the TBS size only, or both the TB size and TBS Size
◆ Transport Format Set (TFS)
– a set of TFs associated with a TrCH
– semi-static part of all TFs in a TFS is the same
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 24
Transport Formats / Configurations
◆ Transport Format Combination (TFC)
» Multiple TrCHs each having a TF
» Authorized combination of the currently valid TFs that can be
submitted to L1 on a CCTrCH, containing one TF from each TrCH
◆ Transport Format Combination Set (TFCS)
» A set of TFCs on a CCTrCH. Produced by RNC
» TFCS is given to MAC by L3 for control
» MAC chooses between the different TFCs specified in the TFCS
» MAC has control over only the dynamic part of the TFs. Semi-static part
relates to QoS (e.g., quality) and is controlled by RNC admission control
» Bit rate can be changed quickly by MAC with no need to L3 signaling
◆ Transport Format Indicator (TFI)
» A label for a specific TF within a TFS. Used between MAC and L1
◆ Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI)
» Used to inform the receiving side of the currently valid TFC

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 25
Transport Formats / Configurations
Transport Format
Combination (TFC)

DCH1 TB
TB TB
TTI TTI TTI
Transport Block Set
(TBS)
TB
TB TB
DCH2 TB TB TB
TTI TTI TTI
Transport Format
Transport Format Combination Set
Set (TFS) Transport Format (TF) (TFCS)
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 26
TFI and TFCI (Transmitter)
E.g: Two transport channels mapped to a single physical channel
Transport Chl 1 Transport Chl 2
Transport Transport
Block Block

Higher Transport Transport
TFI TFI
Layer Block Block
This dotted line
represents the Iur interface
in case of NW side
Physical
Layer Coding and
TFCI Multiplexing
Physical Physical
Control Chl Data Chl
DPCCH (Q-Chl) DPDCH (I-Chl)
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 27
TFI and TFCI (Receiver)

Transport Chl 1 Transport Chl 2

Transport Transport
Block & EI Block & EI

Higher Transport Transport EI: Error
TFI TFI
Layer Block & EI Block & EI Indication

Physical
Layer TFCI Decoding and
Decode Demultiplexing
Physical Physical
Control Chl Data Chl
DPCCH (Q-Chl) DPDCH (I-Chl)
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 28
TFI and TFCI

◆ Each transport channel is accompanied by a TFI at each
time event at which data is expected to arrive from HL

◆ Physical layer combines the TFI info from different
transport channels to the TFCI

◆ TFCI is sent on the DPCCH to inform the receiver about
the instantaneous transport format combination of the
transport channels mapped to the U/L DPDCH
transmitted simultaneously

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 29
Transport Format (e.g., Speech)

◆ Conversational Speech (12 Kbps)
– 12.2 Kbps max.
– TTI: 20 msec
– Transport Formats (TF) available:

TF RAB1 RAB2 RAB3
TF0v 0 x 81 0 x 103 0 x 60 (e.g., silence)
TF1v 1 x 81 1 x 103 1 x 60 (e.g, active voice)
two other formats too (see Stds. Doc.)
– TFC: (TF0, TF0, TF0) e.g., during silence
(TF1, TF1, TF1) e.g., during active voice periods

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 30
Transport Format (e.g., Data)

◆ Interactive/Background Data (64 Kbps)
– 64 Kbps max.

– TTI: 20 msec

– Transport Block (TB) size = 336 bits

– Transport Formats (TF) available:
» TF0 - 0 x 336

» TF1 - 1 x 336

» TF2 - 2 x 336

» TF3 - 3 x 336

» TF4 - 4 x 336
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 31
Transport Format (Speech + Data)

◆ Conversational speech (12 Kbps) +
Interactive/Background Data (64 Kbps)
Voice TrCH Data TrCH
TFC1: (TF0v, TF0v, TF0v) TF0d
TFC2: (TF0v, TF0v, TF0v) TF1d
TFC3: (TF0v, TF0v, TF0v) TF2d
TFC4: (TF0v, TF0v, TF0v) TF3d
TFC5: (TF0v, TF0v, TF0v) TF4d
TFC6: (TF1v, TF1v, TF1v) TF0d
TFC7: (TF1v, TF1v, TF1v) TF1d
TFC8: (TF1v, TF1v, TF1v) TF2d
TFC9: (TF1v, TF1v, TF1v) TF3d
TFC10: (TF1v, TF1v, TF1v) TF4d
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 32
Multiplexing & Channel Coding

◆ Data arrives at the coding/mux unit in transport block sets,
once every transmission time interval (TTI)
◆ TTI depends on the transport channel; {10, 20, 40, 80 ms})
◆ Main steps
– Add CRC to each block
– transport block concatenation and block segmentation
– channel coding
– first interleaving (per TTI)
– radio frame segmentation (when TTI > 10 ms)
– rate matching (repetition or puncturing)
– multiplexing of transport channels (CCTrCH)
– insertion of DTX indication bits
– physical channel segmentation
– second interleaving (per radio frame, ie., among bits in 1 radio frame)
– mapping to physical channel

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 33
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (U/L)

CRC Attachment CRC Attachment
TrCH-1 TrBk Concatenation/ TrBk Concatenation/ TrCH-2
Code Block Segmentation Code Block Segmentation
Channel Coding Channel Coding
Radio Frame Equalization Radio Frame Equalization
1st Interleaving 1st Interleaving
Radio Frame Segmentation Radio Frame Segmentation
Rate Matching Rate Matching

TrCH Multiplexing
CCTrCH
Physical Channel Segmentation

2nd interleaving

Physical Channel Mapping
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 34
PhCH#1 PhCH#2
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Applicable to DCH, RACH, CPCH, DSCH, BCH,
FACH, PCH
◆ CRC
– add CRC to each transport block for error detection
– CRC calculated on entire transport block
– Size of CRC: 24, 16, 12, 8, 0 bits
– what CRC size is used for each TrCH is signaled from
higher layers

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 35
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ TrBk Concatenation & Code Block Segmentation
– all transport blocks in a TTI are concatenated
– if no. of bits in a TTI after concatenation (X) is greater than
the maximum size of the code block (in the channel coding
block), then code block segmentation is done
– max. size of the code block (Z) depends on whether
» Convolutional code ( Z = 504 bits) or
» Turbo code ( Z = 5114 bits) is used for the TrCH
– Code blocks after segmentation are of the same size
– Filler bits (zeros) added to 1st coded block to
» to make integer number of code blocks, or
» if X < 40 bits when Turbo code is used
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 36
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Channel Coding
Type of TrCH Coding Scheme Coding Rate
BCH Convolutional
PCH Coding 1/2
(constraint
RACH length = 9)
DPCH, DCH, 1/3, 1/2
DSCH, FACH Turbo Coding 1/3

If number of coded blocks is greater than 1, they are
serially concatenated

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 37
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Radio Frame Equalization
– padding the input bit sequence in order to ensure that
the output can be segmented into data segments of
equal size
– I.e., number of bits per segment is same after radio
frame equalization
– performed only on the U/L
◆ 1st Interleaving
– block interleaver
– among bits in a TTI
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 38
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Radio Frame Segmentation
– when TTI > 10 msec, input bit sequence is segmented
and mapped on to Fi consecutive radio frames
◆ Rate Matching
– means that bits on a transport channel are repeated or
punctured to ensure that the total bit rate after TrCH
multiplexing is identical to the total channel bit rate
of the allocated dedicated physical channels
– higher layers assign a rate-matching (semi-static)
attribute for each transport channel
– this attribute is used to calculate the number of bits to
repeat or puncture, spreading factor, number of PhCHs
needed, rate matching pattern
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 39
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ TrCH Multiplexing
– every 10 msec, one radio frame from each TrCH is
delivered to the TrCH multiplexing
– these radio frames are serially concatenated into a
coded composite transport channel (CCTrCH)
◆ Physical Channel Segmentation
– when more than once PhCH is used, the physical
channel segmentation divides the bits among different
PhCHs
◆ 2nd Interleaving
– among bits within a radio frame
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 40
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Insertion of Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
Indication Bits
– only on the D/L
– used to fill up the radio frame with bits
– insertion point depends on whether fixed positions (1st
Insertion) or flexible positions (2nd Insertion) of the
TrCHs in the radio frame are used
– During connection setup, NW decides if fixed or flexible
position is used for each CCTrCH
– DTX Indication bits are not transmitted; they only tell
when the Tx must be turned off

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 41
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Transport Format Detection
– TFCI Based Detection
– Explicit Blind Detection
» using receive power ratio
» by use of channel decoding and CRC check
– Guided Detection
» Explicit blind detection used on Guiding TrCH
» Guiding TrCH has the same TTI as the TrCH under
consideration

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 42
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Blind Transport Format Detection
– Using Received Power Ratio (for the case of 2 TFs)
» Ratio of the power received on DPDCH (Pd) and DPCCH (Pc)
» Full Rate TF: if ratio Pd/Pc > threshold
» Zero rate TF: if ratio Pd/Pc < threshold

– Using CRC (for the case of multiple TFs)
» Receiver knows only the possible TFs or end bit (thru’ L3 signaling)
» Receiver performs FEC (Viterbi) decoding
» path metric selection among the surviving paths in the decoding

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 43
D/L Physical Channels
◆ Dedicated D/L Channels
– DPDCH
– DPCCH
◆ Common D/L Channels
– Common PIlot CHannel (CPICH)
» Primary CPICH
» Secondary CPICH
– Common Control Physical CHannel (CCPCH)
» Primary CCPCH,
» Secondary CCPCH
– Synchronization CHannel (SCH)
» Primary SCH,
» Secondary SCH
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 44
Dedicated D/L Physical Channels

◆ Dedicated Physical CHannel (D/L DPCH)
– transmits dedicated data generated at L2 and above
– time-multiplexes with L1 control bits (Pilot, TPC,
TFCI)
◆ D/L DPCH
– Time-multiplex of a D/L DPDCH and a D/L DPCCH

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 45
DL Frame Structure

◆ 10 msec frames divided into 15 slots
1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 msec
S0 S1 S2 S3 S13 S14

1 time slot = 2/3 msec
DATA 1 TPC TFCI DATA 2 Pilot
DPDCH DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH
◆ No. of bits in different DPDCH field (Npilot, Ntpc, Ntfci, Ndata1,
Ndata2) are given in tables
◆ Which slot format to use is configured (and reconfigured) by
higher layers
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 46
D/L Transmission

◆ Multicode Transmission on D/L
– Multicode transmission can be employed on the D/L
– I.e., CCTrCH is mapped on to several parallel D/L
DPCHs using the same spreading factor
– In this case, L1 control information is sent only on the
first downlink DPCH
◆ Multiple CCTrCHs
– In case there are several CCTrCHs mapped to different
DPCHs transmitted to the same UE, different spreading
factors can be used on DPCHs
– multiple CCTrCHs feature for future release
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 47
WCDMA Transmission Rates (D/L)

◆ System Chip Rate : 3.84 Mcps
◆ Symbol Rates on Downlink
– Symb Rate Chl bit rate SF
7.5 Ks/s 15 Kb/s 512
15 Ks/s 30 Kb/s 256
30 Ks/s 60 Kb/s 128
60 Ks/s 120 Kb/s 64
120 Ks/s 240 Kb/s 32
240 Ks/s 480 Kb/s 16
480 Ks/s 960 Kb/s 8
960 Ks/s 1920 Kb/s 4

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 48
Common D/L Physical Channels

◆ Common Pilot CHannel (CPICH)
– 30 Kbps fixed rate channel (SF = 256)
– Primary CPICH
» Always uses the same channelization code
» Scrambled by primary scrambling code
» There is one and only one P-CPICH per cell
» Broadcast over the entire cell
» Provides a phase reference for several D/L channels
– Secondary CPICH
» Uses an arbitrary channelization code of SF=256
» Scrambled either by the primary or a secondary scrambling code
» A cell may contain 0,1, or several S-CPICH
» Broadcast over entire OR part of a cell
» A S-CPICH can be a phase reference to some D/L channels
(which is communicated to the UE thru’ higher layer signaling)
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 49
Common D/L Physical Channels
◆ Common Control Physical CHannel (CCPCH)
– Primary CCPCH (P-CCPCH)
» 30 Kbps fixed rate channel with SF=256
» Carries BCH transport channel
» No TPC, TFCI, pilot bits are sent
» the transport channel mapped to P-CCPCH (I.e., BCH) can
only have a fixed predefined TFC
– Secondary CCPCH (S-CCPCH)
» Carries FACH and PCH
» S-CCPCH can be with TFCI and without TFCI
» NW decides if TFCI has to be sent
» So UE should be (mandatory) capable of receiving with or
without TFCI (i.e., blind)
» S-CCPCH can support multiple TFCs using TFCI
– Main difference between CCPCHs and Dedicated Physical
Channels : a CCPCH is NOT inner loop Power Controlled
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 50
Common D/L Physical Channels

◆ Synchronization CHannel (SCH)
– Downlink signal used for cell search
– Consists of Primary and Secondary subchannels
– Primary SCH
» Uses Primary Sychronization Code (PSC), TX
once every slot
» PSC is the same for every cell in the system
– Secondary SCH
» Tx in parallel with Primary SCH
» SSC indicates which of the code groups (64
groups) the cell’s DL scrambling code belongs to
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 51
D/L Spreading

I

DL Physical
Serial to I+jQ
Channel data Cd,SF,m
Parallel
Conv.
Sdl,n
Q

j

Channelisation code: - Differentiate users in a cell
- OVSF
- UTRAN assigns channelisation codes to diff. phy. chls
Scrambling Code: Differentiate cells

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 52
Scrambling Codes

◆ # possible D/L scrambling codes = 2**18 -1 = 262143
◆ Scrambling codes divided into 512 sets
– 1 primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling codes
– So, there are 512 x 16 = 8192 codes
◆ Each cell is allocated one and only primary scrambling code
– The primary CCPCH (Common Control Physical CHannel) is Tx
always using this primary scrambling code
– Other D/L physical channels can be Tx with either the PSC or SSC
from the set associated with the PSC of the cell

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 53
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (D/L)

CRC Attachment CRC Attachment
TrCH-1 TrBk Concatenation/ TrBk Concatenation/ TrCH-2
Code Block Segmentation Code Block Segmentation
Channel Coding Channel Coding
Rate Matching Rate Matching
1st Insertion of DTX Indication 1st Insertion of DTX Indication
1st Interleaving 1st Interleaving
Radio Frame Segmentation Radio Frame Segmentation

TrCH Multiplexing
2nd Insertion of DTX Indication CCTrCH
Physical Channel Segmentation

2nd interleaving

Physical Channel Mapping
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 54
PhCH#1 PhCH#2
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Physical Channel Mapping
– on U/L: PhCHs are either completely filled or not
used at all
– on D/L: No bits in locations with DTX indication
» in compressed mode, no bits are mapped to certain slots
in a PhCH. Reducing the SF by a factor of 2, 7.5 slots
per frame is used in compressed mode

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 55
Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

◆ Insertion of Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
Indication Bits
– only on the D/L
– used to fill up the radio frame with bits
– insertion point depends on whether fixed positions (1st
Insertion) or flexible positions (2nd Insertion) of the
TrCHs in the radio frame are used
– During connection setup, NW decides if fixed or flexible
position is used for each CCTrCH
– DTX Indication bits are not transmitted; they only tell
when the Tx must be turned off

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 56
WCDMA Physical Channels

P-CCPCH
S-CCPCH
DPDCH
DPCCH
PDSCH
PCPCH
PRACH BS
UE
AICH
P-SCH
S-SCH
CSICH
CPICH
PICH
CD/CA-ICH
Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 57
Channel Mapping on the U/L

Logical
CCCH DTCH DCCH
Channels

Transport
Channels RACH DCH CPCH

Physical
Channels PRACH DPDCH DPCCH PCPCH

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 58
Channel Mapping on the D/L

Logical
BCCH PCCH CTCH CCCH DCCH DTCH
Channels

Transport
Channels BCH PCH FACH DCH DSCH

Physical
Channels P-CCPCH S-CCPCH DPDCH DPCCH PDSCH

Dr. A. Chockalingam Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore 59