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6

the Capacity of Employer Organization in Myanmar
to promote Decent Work Principles and Sustainable
Enterprises" trnf&Sd Project wpfcktm; (2016)ckESpf?

International Labour Organization(ILO)ES i f h uk e f o nf p uf r I
toif;csKyf (UMFCCI)wkdYyl;aygif;í tvkyf&SifESifhtvkyform;wkdYtMum;

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11

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omrSmrqkd þokdY rGefjrwfpGmaom opömw&m;wkdY&Sdygonf/

To understand the Truth is our common solution to our commom
problems.

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2014? Zl v k d i f v ? 3 &uf /

12

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13

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tarjzpfwJhrif;orD;u oifvkduf? pma&;q&mtazu oifvkduf? awGU
wJhynm½SifBuD;awGuvnf; oifvkdufeJY em;&nfawG0NyD;awmh 'Dynmukd
tazu oifcikd ;f wm/ uGsefawmfwo
Ydk ifwt
hJ cgrSm jrefrmZmwfobifrmS ½Sw
d hJ
a½S;a[mif;ynm½SifBuD;awG? vl½TifawmfBuD;awG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;usefyg
w,f/ OD;"mwfpuf? OD;"mwfcdk? OD;ocFg? aemufNyD;awmh OD;qmrd/ aemuf
'DbufrmS vl½iT af wmfawGawmfawmfrsm;rsm; ukv
d ad r®mw
f ?Ykd ukzd ufBuD;wdu
Yk p
NyD;awmh uRefawmfwkdY rDScJhw,f/ tJonfhvlawG[m tifrwef obifukd
BuD;xGm;apcsifw,f/ uRefawmfhtazeef;awmfa½SUq&mwifu om;ukd
ucdkif;r,fqdkawmh b,folurS ykdufqHay;ay;? ray;ay; vmuMuw,f/
q&m 'Duav;ukd ajrmS ufwifygvdYk tm;vH;k u ajymMuw,f/ tara':jr&if
awmh tJonft
h csderf mS r½Sad wmhygbl;/ tara':jr&ifu uRefawmfrif;om;
wifvkdY av;? ig;v&rS tedpöa&mufoGm;w,f/ bbOD;aA'gu t&if/
tara':aiGNrdKifu olUqDukdtyfzdkYajymw,f/ taru rtyfbJeJY olwdkYESpf
a,muf uRefawmfhukd0dkif;oifMuvdkY uRefawmfwdkYZmwfxJrSm ygvmwJhvl½Tif
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om;vwfESpfa,mufyg&ygw,f/ vl½Tifawmfav;a,mufyJ½Sdygw,f/ tysdK
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tJonfrh mS rif;om;tay:rSm oHa,mZOf½v
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ac:Muw,f/ 'Drif;om;BuD;yGm;atmif? wd;k wufatmif a½Teef;wifrrS [kwyf g
bl;/ b,frif;om;jzpfjzpf a½S;obifynm½SifawGu tJonfvdkarG;vm
w,f/ odkY&mwGif ynm,lwJhtcgusawmh q&mBuD;awGay;Edkifwmu
a½S;wkef;u ZmwfobifuoHk;cJhwJhpma[mif;aya[mif; U U U'gu ½Sifbk&if
ajymwJh pum;/ 'gu 0efBuD;ajymwJph um;/ 'gu tdraf ½SUrif;ajymwJph um;/
tJ'grsdK;oifcJhawmh olUqDu &if0,fykdufvmw,f/ obifpmtkyfqdkvdkY
uAsmhbPfwdkufwpftkyfyJ½Sdygw,f/ obifrSm½SdwJh oD;jcm;pmayr½Sdbl;/
bbOD;zdk;pdef bmjzpfvdkYemrnfBuD;wmwkef;/ 'DrSmu pma&;q&mu
½Sdoavmuf ZmwfxkyfawGtopfa&;Edkifw,f/ atmufjynfZmwfu Zmwf
xkyftopfa&;Edkifwm r½Sdawmhbl;/ atmufjynfuqdk&if u&ifrvSaiG
wdkY? odkufordkif;wdkY? xdk;ZmwfwdkY uMuw,f/ txufjrefrm jynfuqdk&if
pma[mif;aya[mif;awGeJY 'gyJusuf? 'gyJuqdkawmh obifynm[m
bbOD;zd;k pdeu
f bmvdw
Yk pfacwfjzpfwmwke;f qd&k if olu pma&;q&mawGeYJ
igh[miguaewJhtajctaejzpfw,f/ tJonfhrSm uGsefawmfhtazu
a½Tref;OD;wifarmifqDukd ac:oGm;w,f/ (1947) rSm a½Tref;wifarmif
awmfawmfemrnfBuD;NyD/ uRefawmfhukd yk*Hq&mBuD; cspfaqGqdkwm
ac:ay;ygw,f/ aemuf OD;BuD;ñGefY/ aemuf wrÜ0wDu Zmwfpma&;q&m
OD;barmif/
tJonfrh mS pma&;q&mBuD;awGu a&;awmh uGsefawmft
h azeJt
Y aru
uGsefawmfhukdoifay;wmu 'DCm0keef;wufbk&m;avmif; U U U tJonfh
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aeNyD;awmh pma&;q&mBuD;awGac:NyD;awmh 0d"l&qdkwJhZmwfawmfawGukd
tucdkif;xm;NyD;awmh ukd,fh[mukd,fpma&;/ 'grS Zmwfxkyftopftopf
edygwfawmfawGukd rif;uwwfrSm/ tJonfvdkuaeNyD;awmh 'g[m trSef
qH;k yJqNkd yD; uGsefawmfu 'gukpd w
JG ,f/ uGsefawmfwZYkd mwfobifrmS tpwke;f
u uRefawmfwrYkd if;om;rjzpfcifu jyifyrSm/ 0efuvnf; vufywfem&DBuD;
awGeYJ rsufreS af wGe/YJ cifAsm;wdrYk ukid ef v
YJ Ykd i,fi,fu tJonfvakd jymw,f/
aygifBuD;ay:wif&if aygifBuD;ygjywfoGm;vdrfhr,f/ rsufrSefvnf; rvkyfeJY/
'gu tif ; 0acwf u srS a y:wm/ rsuf r S e f w yf w mawG rvk y f M ueJ Y O D ; /
aemufNyD;awmh rEÅav;rSm Zmwfo?H Zmwfpum;? ZmwfajymzdYk rEÅav;om;
awG tifrwefyo
D ygw,f/ rSL;awmfrwfawmfrsm; U U U bk&m;/ rSL;awmfrwf
awmfrsm; U U U bk&m;/ av rausmf&bl;/ uRefawmfwkdYukd oifwmrS

14

tazuaum? taruaum ynm½Si/f vl½iT af wmfawGuvnf; ynmonf
vl½TifawmfawG/ rif;om;a½SUuae rjzwf&bl;/ rif;orD;a½SUukd ykd;yef;NyD;
awmh rjyuf&bl;/ 'gaMumifh Zmwfqdkwm[m vifr,m;ESpfyg;oGm;wm/
vif½Sd&JUom;eJY rif;orD;ukd ykd;yef;jyuf&if r,m;cdk;jyufvHk;vdkYac:ygw,f/
'gaMumifh uRefawmfwdkYacwfwkef;u awmfawmfukd½kdif;½kdif;pdkif;pdkif;ygao;
w,f/ aemufawmh bk&m;BuD;u q&mawmfBuD;awG uefYuGufwJhtwGuf
aMumifh ½kid ;f pdik ;f wJ?h omoemxdyg;wJph um;vH;k awG tJonfu
h srS aysmufomG ;
wm/ aemuf½Sdao;w,f U U U npfnpfnrf;nrf;eJY uefawmhyg&JU acgif;ay:
uae &ifbwftxd atmufrqif;&/ npfnrf;wJzh ½kó0gpmawG rajymeJ/Y
a0gueJ? a0gueJ &,f&atmif/ uGsefawmfwu
Ykd sawmhvnf; uGsefawmft
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u a½Teef;wifqNkd yD;emrnfay;NyD;awmh olUuk,
d u
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q&mwif? taru ay:vifwif/ emrnfESpfckpvHk;ygawmh eef;wif/ rif;
om;jzpfawmh taz&,f U U U eef;wifyJxm;yg? a½Tav;awmh wpfvHk;xnfh
OD;rSayghqdkawmh a½Teef;wif/ ol[m rsdK;cspfpdwfxufoefwJhtazyDyD jynf
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wifqw
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awmh wpf&uf? ESpf&ufeJYjyefr,fqdkwmeJY tazu tck uRefawmfqdkwJh
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obifh&ifaoG;av;yg½Sif U U U yOöodcFewfa'0g U U U tJonfvdk uGsefawmfh
tazu tarGay;awmh uRefawmfwdkYu ½Sifbk&ifwdkY? okdufordkif;wdkY
rucsifawmhbl;/
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bmoDcsif;vJ/
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ArmZmwfukd tm;vHk;rSwfMuatmif wabmifoHatmifvHxlawmhrnf/
NAdwdoQeJYtar&duef jrefrmtoHukdqvHoonf/ tifrwef odrfarGU,Of
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a&;ygonfqdkwJh yxrqHk;aw;oDcsif;yJ/ Zmwfxkyfuawmh t*Fkvdrmv/

uGsefawmfhtazu idkcsif;ra&;zl;ygbl;/ 'gayr,fh uGsefawmfhtaru
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ndK;wpfaxmifjynfhp&m? Oyrmqdk&rSmjzifh? r,fr,f&,f U U U wpfckomvdk
awmhygaMumif; U U U / Ny;D awmh t"dymÜ ,fu 'D a'G;csKd ;rSm yxrtcsKd ;uwnf;
uqifw,f/ OyrmOyar,srygbl;/ 'DvdkyJ oleJYywfoufwJhpma&;q&m
BuD;awGu uGsefawmfu eef;awmftaMumif; a½Teef;wifqdkwmajymcsifvdkY/
aMomf U U U uGsefawmfhtazu eef;awmfa½SUq&mwif? uRefawmfu
a½Teef;wif/ aAG&dyfuef aeAdrmef a'gif;ysHpufu[ U U U U U U ~~~~
rSL;BuD;rwf&m aoemywd U UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU q&mwif? q&m
wifu a½Teef;wifjzpfcyhJ gw,f/ ol y&duaH jymwmupNyD;awmh a½S;wke;f u
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ukdajym wJhtcgrSm Zmwfq&m U U U cGifhav;jyKygaemf/ Zmwfq&mwdkYtazeJY
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q&mwifu wD;ay;wmvm;/
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16

2014 Zl v k d i f 11 &ef u k e f
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taqmifjyK&efum; &[EÅmyHkawmftm;aqmif&efwnf;/
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,Mwm/ / arG;eHaxmifhwGifykodrfqefwpfawmif; uyfvSLum vdk&mqk,lygav/
taqmif/ / bdk;awmfodMum;rif;yHkawmftm; taqmifjyKyg/
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/ / ykyÜg;r,fawmfBuD; yHkawmfudkaqmif&efwnf;/

17

tcsyf y d k aemuf a usmrS t quf

a':atmifqef;pkMunf yckuúLwGif 0gqdkouFef;uyf

or®wjzpfatmifBuKd ;pm;rnf[k
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YOH

18

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arwÅmydkYocJhaMumif; od&onf/
owif;ESifh"mwfykH- apmzkd;cGm;

,ciftywfrS tquf

MK /
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MK /
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OD;tHhBuD;/
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MK /
/ tefu,f jrefrmoHukd bm
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OD;tHhBuD;/
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MK /
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jrefrmBuD;wpfa,muf&JUtoHav U U U vocal power
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qdkwm/
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MK /
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rajymwwfbl;/ em;vnfxm;wJholuawmh odaew,f/
MK /
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¤if;\orD;/ / taz ppfukdif;awmif BudKufw,fqdk/ ajcqif;
vnf;ygw,f U U U tukefygw,fqdkwmav/
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vdkY "mwfjym;awGawmif aysmufukefNyD/ r½Sdawmhbl;/ odwJholu
ajymjyawmh uGsefawmfqdkwm/
MK /
/ rSwfrdoavmuf qdkjyygOD;/
OD;tHhBuD;/
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awmiftxufem;qDu ta½SUwvTm;½Ivu
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w&m;½Smay U U U Ak'b
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qdkjyw,f/
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ovJ/
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oHk;q,fxuf ykdr½Sdbl;/
MK /
/ Youtube rSm tefu,fwdkYeJY tar&duefawGeJY
wD;Muwm wifxm;wmawGUw,f/
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rSmav/
OD;tHhBuD;/
/ tJ'gav;awGu ½Sdw,f/
MK /
/ tefu,f rSwfrdvm;/
OD;tHhBuD;/
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qdjk ywm/ {nfo
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rSef½Sdw,fqdkNyD; uGsefawmfhukdac:NyD; qdkcdkif;wm/ tJ'gav;awG½SdcJhw,f/
tJ'g uGsefawmfawmif rrSwfrdawmhbl;/ uGsefawmfu 0goemygvkdY
'gvkyfwm/
MK /
/ uGsefawmfodcsifwmu bDwDb&m;om; nDtpfukd
armifESrawGtm;vHk;xJrSm tefu,fwpfa,mufyJ bmaMumifhxl;xl;

cGsefcGsefjzpfvmovJ/
OD;tHhBuD;/
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awmh BuD;BuD;us,fus,fqdkwwfatmif vkyfr,fqdkwJhol wpfa,mufrS
r½S d b l ; / uG s ef a wmf w d k Y i g;a,muf x J r S m uG s ef a wmf u tqd k q H k ; yJ /
qdkwwfvdkYvnf; r[kwfbl;/ pcJhwmeJY qdkcJhwm/
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qufw,f/ tHBh uD;uwJh U U U rif;uawmh emrnfev
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OD;tHhBuD;/
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wif/ olwdkYoDcsif;awGvnf; uGsefawmfqdkcJhw,f/
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olu oDcsif;qdkovdkr[kwfbl;/ wpfa,mufukd ajymjyaeovdkyJ/
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OD;tHhBuD;/
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wmaMumifh igqdkwm olwdkYoabmusyHk&w,f/ olwdkYauseyfawmhvnf;
igvnf;aysmfw,f/
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a,muf&wm awmfawmfukdwefzdk;BuD;w,f/ tefu,fvdk jrefrmoDcsif;ukd
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vdkvlrsdK; jrefrmjynfu&wm tifrwefwefzdk;BuD;w,f/ tJ'gaMumifh
tefu,fhukd uGsefawmfwdkYav;vnf;av;pm;w,f/ tefu,fh oDcsif;
awGu 'DuaeYtxd acwftqufquf jyefqdkaeMuwkef;yJ/ tefu,fh
version ukdyJ jyefqdkaeMuwkef;yJ/
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rawGUawmhbl;/ at;at;av;yJ xdkifaew,f/ 'DvdkeJYyJ touf (90)
ausmfvmNyD/
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OD;tHhBuD;/
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rvkyfbl;/
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owif;pmxJxnfhw,f/ acgif;pOfav;u owif;pmrSmygw,f/ "mwfjym;
u &wmtukefvHk;ukd NrdwfrD;avmifwmukd vSLwm/
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w½kwfvlrsdK;qdkovdkqdkrS uGsefawmfu BudKufw,f/ tJ'DrSm w½kwfvdkqdk
w,f/ *syefrSmvnf; *syefvlrsdK;tppftwdkif; qdkovdkqdkw,f/ aemuf
tif'dkeD;½Sm;? rav;½Sm;/ [dkwkef;u vkyfygOD;? qdkygOD;qdkvdkY qdkjy&w,f/

qufvufazmfjyygrnf/

19

,cif t ywf r S tquf
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aocsmonf/ q&mAkv
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ayghayghyg;yg;a&;xm;ojzifh tm;rvkt
d m;r&awmhjzpfro
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wkid ;f jynfuadk zmfxw
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vnf;awmhrajymwwfyg)onfhxufykdí xJxJ0if0ifzwf½IcGifh&Mu
vdrrhf nfxifonf/ aemufq;Hk awmh q&mAkv
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aomfvnf; b@maiGoHk;pGJcGifh bmrSr&Sd/ tdwfxJwpfjym;rSryg/
wifjyawmif;cHvmvQifay;p&mr&Sdojzifh b,fausmif;? b,fXmerS
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awmhrS ausmif;rsm;? aq;½Hkrsm;oGm;ppf&Jawmhonf/ wpfjym;rS
rygbJ/ ay;ydik cf iG rhf &Sb
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vdkY tajymcH&rSmaygh/
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uRefawmf 1997 ckESpf? 0efBuD;b0u jyKwfawmh uRef
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yef;uHk;pGyfwJh"mwfyHkawGeJYyg csawmhwmygyJ/
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aygvatmoHk;wm xifxif&Sm;&Sm;awGU
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vG w f uif ; atmif ra&S m if E d k i f } }}qdkawmh jrefrmEdkifiHol? EkdifiHom;rsm;
0#fa<u; rwifapcsif/ 0#fa<u;rwifatmif vkyfMuapcsifonf/ BuD;
Ekdifi,fn§if;vkyfu aocsmayguf0#fvdkufrSmaocsmygonf/ ukodkvfuH
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uRefawmfazmufwJhvrf; uRefawmfudk,fwdkifzGifhonf/ vrf;azmufpOfu
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awmh rod/
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awmh &xm;vrf;vnf; aysmufuG,foGm;awmhonf/ tusKd;&Sdwm r&Sd
wm rMunfh/ rludk rMunfh? vludkMunfhjcif;aMumifh jzpfonfxifygonf/

20

wu,fawmh vuf0J&pfu tEÅ&m,frsm;onf/ acwfrDpufacgif; rxnfh
EkdifvQif jzKwfvdku jzKwfoifhygonf/ vuf0J&pfjzpfonfh &xm;vrf;
tydkif;udkawmh vHk;0rjzKwfoifh[k uRefawmfxifygonf/ bmyJjzpfjzpf
&xm;vrf;zsufypfwmudk bmrSrajymvdkyg/ ajymvdkYvnf; &Edkifrnf
rxifyg/ vludk 'ku©&uf&ufpufpufray;wmudkyJ

aus;Zl;txl;wif&Sd ygonf/
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tjyifyg tEkynmvuf&mrsm;jzifh rGrf;rHjyKjyifxm;&m tEkynmjywdkuf
av;wpfckozG,f jzpfaeonf/ txl;ojzifh azmifawmf\twGif;wGif
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zl;orQtm;vHk; &yfoyf½IarmjzpfMu&onf/ jrefrmhtEkynmvuf&mrsm;
rnfrQ tqifhtwef;jrifhrm;onfudkvnf; od&SdEdkifonf/ azmifawmf\
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21

22

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(2000)u atmifcJhonf/
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TTL

23

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24

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*pfwmwwfcsifawmh oDcsif;ykad &;csif
vmwJhtcgusawmh uAsmawGa&;
jzpf a e? pmawG v nf ; zwf a eawmh
tJonfhuAsmawGukd oDcsif;vkyfcsif
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MunfhjrifwdkiftdrfrSm/
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&if;eJY yav;bGdKif;uae LPJ jzpfwmav/ uGsefawmfwdkYoifwm
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uGsefawmfwkdYu *pfwm&pfoefawG 0dkif;cwfayghav/ ESpfvavmufwuf
awmh uGsefawmfwkdYykdufqHr ay;Edkifbl;aygh/ ausmif;wuf&if;eJY tJonfh
acwfu av;q,fqdkwmvnf; renf;bl;av/ tJ'geJY uGsefawmf
bmvkyf&ovJqdkawmh tpfukd U U U uGsefawmfawmh ray;Edkifawmhbl;
qdkawmh ray;Edkifvnf; tvum;wuf uGmqdkNyD;awmh tJ'gwuf&wm/
olUcGifhjyKcsufeJY oHk;? av;? ig;vawmh wufjzpfwmaygh/ tJonfhrSm
&pfoefeJYywfoufwJhtajccHawG uGsefawmf awmfawmf&oGm;w,f/
&oGm;awmh ausmif;NyD;awmh ukdoufu tdkatppf pwl'D,dkaxmifw,f/
olUtaz ukdouftdrfrSm ukdoufeJY uGsefawmf U U U [efxGef;qdkwm
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uGsefawmfhvufxJrSm ukd,fykdifoHpOfoDcsif; tyk'foHk;q,f avmuf½SdaeNyD/
tJonfhtcsdefrSm pwl'D,dkrjzpfao;bl;ayghaemf/ rjzLoD&JUa,mufsm;
OD;atmifjrifhvmwmaygh/ ukdouftazuvnf; tJonfhrSm toHzrf;wm
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cifAsm;om; oli,fcsif;awG½w
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oDcsif;awGwD;Muw,f/ wD;Mu&if;eJY ukdodef;wefygac:NyD; ukdtHhBuD;
oDcsif;awGqdkNyD;awmh pwl'D,dk&JU sound quality ukd test
vkyfMuw,f/ tJ'gu (1977-78) avmuf½Sdr,f/ sound quality ukd
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ay;w,f/ tJ'gav;ukd uGsefawmfu aumfyDa&;vnf; ra&;wwfbl;/
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tJonfhaumfyDa&;oGm;a&m/ a&;oGm;awmh aemufykdif;usawmh
uGsefawmfu wyfxJa&mufoGm;awmh tquftoG,fjywfoGm;w,f/
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a&;ykdYw,f/ tJonfwkef;u uGsefawmf ajcvsifrSm U U U cv& (17)?

25

pmrsufESm 25 rS tquf

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cifcifaeMuwmvdkcsifw,fuGmwJh/ ay:vpDu 'DavmufyJajymvdkufwm/
'kwd,tykd'fu wpfa,mufeJYwpfa,muf txifrSm;wmaygh/ pdkif;xD;qdkif
eJYarqGdjzpfvmwmaygh/ uGsefawmfu oHk;yk'fa&;&rSmav/ xm0&Nidrf;csrf;
a&;NyD;awmh yxrwpfyk'fa&;vdkufw,f/ 'Dwpfyk'fwnf;ukd tay:u
twdkif;qdk&if qufwdkufvTifhawmhrSm/ vTifh&if ukd,fhukd,fukd,f jyefowf
r,fhoDcsif;jzpfaer,f/ 2 version vkyfrS/ arqGdqdkNyD; vkyf/ pdkif;xD;
qdkifusawmh ½kd;&m beat av;eJY 'DvdkvkyfMu&atmifqdkNyD; vkyfvkdufw,f/
wpfcg ÓmPful&wmaygh/ wdkif;&if;om; version eJY 'Djyif version ukd
alternate vTifhae&if uGsefawmf enf;enf;oufomr,f/ bmjzpfvdkYvJ
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xG#fBuD;½Sdw,fAsm/ vmvmav U U U vmvmav U U U at;wlyltrQ
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ausmfvTm;EdkifrvJ/ awmfawmfcufwm/ tcuftcJBuD;ukd uGsefawmf
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rif; apmifhaewmMumwmeJY igpdwful;&NyD;a&;vdkufwmwJh/ zwfMunfhvdkuf
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awmh yufx&pfqDoGm;awmh qpfpftdwfwD;av;eJY csr,fqdkNyD; wdkYarG;ajr
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uGsefawmf aeYwdkif;a&;aew,f? tcsdefwdkif;a&;aew,f/ nvnf;a&;?
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jynfaxmifpkNydKuGJwm ightwGuf &NyDvdkY/ uGsefawmfhrSm a½SUrSmu
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axmifpkjzpfoGm;wm/ jzpfoGm;awmh cspfjcif;w&m;eJYjynfaxmifpkoDcsif;ukd
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u insert ygrSaumif;r,f/ insert&zdkYtwGufukd EdkifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;

26

OD;tHk;a*smf ajym&w,fAsm/ ½kdufwmwdkY? bmwdkYu satellite u t½kyfawG
ukdjzwfNyD;awmh jrefrmhtoH DG BuD;eJYpum; awGrsm;wmaygh/ olUqDrSm
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r,fvTm;r,f/ aoewfawGeJY ypfr,f/ tJonfhMum;xJrSm tqdkawmfu
tJonfah bmhpeD;,m; a&mufomG ;Ny;D awmh on field xJrmS uGseaf wmfwaYdk cwf
u mix avmufyJ ½Sdw,fav/ 'Dacwfvdk uGefysLwmu 'DavmufrSr½Sd
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27

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28

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29

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30

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(B.Eco-75-ta&;tcif;)
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(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
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31

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33

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36

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