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Research on Fuzzy VQC in Substation Based on MATLAB

LI Sheng, XIN Pulin


School of Electric Power Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing, China
e-mail:sora2008@126.com


Abstract

A design example of voltage and reactive power
fuzzy logic controller for 110kV substation based on
MATLAB is done in this paper. 56 fuzzy control rules
are extracted on the basis of nine-area diagram
divided the area of prior switching of capacitors.
MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox is used to build fuzzy
logic controllers fuzzy inference system and MATLAB
SimPowerSystems Blockset is used to set up a simulink
model of single machine-infinity bus system to validate
controllers performance, and a satisfied controlling
result is achieved. Compared with traditional nine-
area diagram strategy, the fuzzy logic controller can
reduce adjusting times of OLTC taps effectively.
Simulation course is introduced and some advertences
are pointed out that using MATLAB simulate and
analyze fuzzy control of voltage and reactive power in
substation.


1. Introduction

In order to improve the voltage quality and reduce
the power loss, local voltage and reactive power
control (VQC) carried out in substation has been
widely used. VQC adopts methods of the adjustment of
OLTC transformer taps and switch of capacitors (or
reactors) to change the voltage and reactive power in a
substation. Generally, main transformer low side bus
voltage and high-voltage side reactive power (or power
factor) are taken as the objects of regulation control in
a VQC system. VQC in substation is a multi-variable,
strong coupling of complex non-linear control problem
affected by voltage, reactive power, time, loading rate,
load voltage characteristics, switch information, OLTC
transformer taps, shunt capacitors groups switching
state and other factors. Its control rules are difficult to
express with precise mathematical model. However,
fuzzy logic control does not require a precise
mathematical model. Fuzzy controller can be seen as
an estimator mainly imitating the experience of people
and doesnt dependent on the model. It is mainly
dependent on the fuzzy control rules and the
membership functions of fuzzy variables, and does not
have to know mathematical interdependent relationship
between the input and output. Therefore the fuzzy
control theory is suitable for the study of the VQC
issue in substation. In addition, fuzzy control algorithm
facilitates the realization by using single-chip or DSP,
which from the practical and economic point of view is
very favorable.
In view of this, VQC in substation based on fuzzy
control theory is emphasized by many power
technology workers. Authors of [1]-[3] have discussed
the application of fuzzy logic control theory in VQC.
However, when the fuzzy controller of voltage and
reactive power is designed, the membership functions
of fuzzy input/output variables and the extraction of
fuzzy control rules often contain the designer's
subjective color, which can not guarantee the
controllers capability and effect. Therefore it is
necessary to adopt a method of digital simulation to
analyze and verify fuzzy controller of voltage and
reactive power. Then the membership functions and
fuzzy control rules can be modified so as to enable the
fuzzy controller achieve more satisfactory control
effect. This paper uses MATLAB Fuzzy Logic
Toolbox to design a voltage and reactive power fuzzy
controller for 110kV substation, and also uses
MATLAB SimPowerSystems Blockset (SPS) to carry
out the simulation analysis to its control performance
and the control effect.

2. Design of fuzzy controller

Suppose that a 110kV terminal substation, main
transformer rated capacity is 40MVA, voltage rating is
110 81.25%/10.5kV. The 10kV bus side has been
installed 4 groups of capacitors, each of capacity
Q
0
=6000kvar. The permissible changed range for 10kV
voltage bus is 10~10.7kV. Design of fuzzy controller
includes the determination of the controller structure
and fuzzy input/output variables, the establishment of
membership functions, the extraction of fuzzy rules
2009 Sixth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery
978-0-7695-3735-1/09 $25.00 2009 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/FSKD.2009.132
356
2009 Sixth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery
978-0-7695-3735-1/09 $25.00 2009 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/FSKD.2009.132
356
and fuzzy inference, and defuzzy. Design of voltage
and reactive power fuzzy controller takes main
transformer low-voltage side bus voltage deviation EU
(compared with the average voltage of the upper and
lower limits) and high-voltage side reactive power
deviation EQ (compared with the 0) as the controller's
input variables, and transformer taps controlled
quantity (TAP) and capacitors switching controlled
quantity (CAP) as the controller's output variables.
This is a dual-input dual-output structure model of
first-order.
The key of the fuzzy controller design is the
extraction of the fuzzy control rules. Therefore the
fuzzy controller is called the fuzzy rule controller. The
extraction of fuzzy rules in this design is conducted on
the base of nine-area diagram used to divide the area of
prior switching of capacitors. In figure 1, U
H
, U
L
, Q
H
,
Q
L
, denote respectively upper and lower limits of
voltage and reactive power. U
0
is the arithmetic mean
values of the voltage of the upper and lower limits. Q
0

is the capacity of 1 capacitor group. Two shadow plots
are dead zone set to prevent oscillation (That is, do not
adjust transformer taps and switch capacitors) at the
expense of sacrificing the reactive power indicators to
ensure the voltage qualified rate. But this will avoid at
least twice adjusting times of control equipments.
Figure 1 totally extracts 87=56 fuzzy IF-THEN rules,
see table 1 below.
H
U
L
U
H
Q
L
Q
0
Q
0
Q 5 . 0
0
Q
0
0
Q 5 . 1
0
Q 2
0
U
Figure 1. Fuzzy subsets division and fuzzy
rules extraction
MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox is used to establish
fuzzy inference system (FIS) file of the designed
voltage and reactive power fuzzy controller. Then save
it to the workspace of MATLAB in order to introduce
into Simulink. FIS uses Mamdani minimum engine
(and operator takes "min", or operator takes "max",
implication takes "min", aggregation takes "max"). The
defuzzy uses the centroid method (defuzzification
takes "centroid").
Table 1. Fuzzy rules
EU
EQ
NB NM NS Z PS PM PB
PB
PM
/NB*
PM
/NS*
PM
/NS*
PB
/Z
PB
/Z
PB
/Z
PB
/Z
PM
PS
/NB*
PS
/NS*
PS
/NS*
PM
/Z
PM
/Z
PM
/Z
PM
/Z
PS
Z
/NB*
Z
/NS
Z
/NS
PS
/Z
PS
/Z
PS
/Z
PS
/Z
PZ
Z
/NM
Z
/NS
Z
/NS
Z
/Z
Z
/Z
Z
/Z
Z
/Z
NZ
Z
/Z
Z
/Z
Z
/Z
Z
/Z
Z
/PS
Z
/PS
Z
/PM
NS
NS
/Z
NS
/Z
NS
/Z
NS
/Z
Z
/PS
Z
/PS
NS
/PB*
NM
NM
/Z
NM
/Z
NM
/Z
NM
/Z
NS
/PS*
NS
/PS*
NM
/PB*
NB
NB
/Z
NB
/Z
NB
/Z
NB
/Z
NM
/PS*
NM
/PS*
NB
/PB*
In table 1: The "numerator/denominator" expresses
that TAP/CAP (tap controlled quantity/capacitors
switching controlled quantity), * denotes priority
actions.

3. Simulation and analysis of fuzzy VQC

In order to perfect control performance of the
designed fuzzy controller of voltage and reactive
power and simulate and analyze its control effect,
MATLAB SPS is used to establish a single machine-
infinity bus system, then the 110kV substation is
introduced into the system [4], the simulink model is
shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 is the simulink model of
established voltage and reactive power fuzzy controller.
Supposes that the transformer tap is 0 at 0:00pm,
the capacitors are thrown 3 groups. Take 24 time
intervals (0:00~23:00) load data (which comes from
[5]) in a typical date of the 110kV substation to carry
on the simulation to the fuzzy controller's control
effect.
We can use the load flow and machine initialization
tool provided by Powergui (power system analysis
components) to run the new load and obtain generator's
steady-state value under this load. "Update Load Flow"
function can be used to auto-update the synchronous
generators initial value and its two inputs, mechanical
power Pm and internal potential E, so that the
simulation can be carried out under the steady-state [6].
The simulation uses the Phasors method that ignores
the DC component and other harmonic components to
carry out the dynamic simulation. That is, only the
voltage amplitude and phase angle are calculated and
can greatly reduce the simulation time [7].


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Figure 2. Single machine-infinity bus system model


Figure 3. Fuzzy logic controller model

The simulation result shows that under fuzzy
control, load voltage values in a day all qualified and at
the same time reactive power values have been greatly
improved. The adjusting of transformer taps is 6 times,
switching of capacitor groups is only 1 time. In
addition, the simulation computation result according
to the traditional nine-area control strategy,
demonstrates that the adjusting of transformer taps is
10 times, and switching of capacitor groups is 1 time.
Figure 4 is voltage curves of the fuzzy control, nine-
area method control and without VQC. Obviously the
fuzzy control and nine-area method control can
improve voltage quality significantly. But according to
substation VQC control objectives: to ensure qualified
voltage, to maintain the reactive power basic balance,
to reduce adjusting times of the control equipments,
especially adjusting times of OLTC taps, fuzzy VQC
is obviously much better than the nine-area method
control.

Figure 4. Voltage curves of main
transformer low-voltage side

4. Conclusion

This paper designed a voltage and reactive power
fuzzy controller for 110kV substation and proposed the
method of the fuzzy sets division, the design of
membership functions, the organization and extraction
of fuzzy IF-THEN rules, on the base of nine-area
diagram used to divide the area of prior switching of
capacitors. MATLABs Fuzzy Logic Toolbox and SPS
are used to simulate and design voltage and reactive-
power fuzzy logic controller. Simulation results show
that the fuzzy control strategy can ensure qualified
voltage and improve reactive power, at the same time
effectively reduce the adjusting times of transformer
taps, which have important significance in improving
voltage quality and maintaining the gird safety and
stable operation.
Using MATLABs toolboxes, blocksets and taking
digital simulation method to analyze the research
objects will enable the designers out of a lot of
programming work, so that designers can pay more
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attention to research the inherent problems of the
subjects.
The characteristics of SPS should be taken into
count when it is used to simulate and analyze the
control effects of voltage and reactive power fuzzy
controller. For example, since the three-phase load
model provided by SPS is the constant impedance load
model, so when organizing and extracting the fuzzy
control rules, we have to use the basic rules of voltage
and reactive-power control in substation: substation
synthesis load for constant impedance model, that is
shifting up (shifting down) a tap can increase
(decrease) transformation ratio, reduce (raise) the low-
voltage side bus voltage, and decrease (increase) high-
voltage side reactive power but the reactive power
property and power factor unchanged [8]. To more
tally with the actual situation, the pattern of parallel
load model of motor load and static load can be
considered.
When designing the fuzzy controller, designers act
according to their own subjective experience to carry
on the determination of membership functions and the
extraction of the fuzzy control rules. Therefore the
control effect of initial designed fuzzy controller
inevitably receives the suspicion. The method of digital
simulation may be used to verify the control effect of
the fuzzy controller. If the requirements are not
satisfied, we could go back to modify membership
functions and fuzzy control rules. The process is more
tedious, but designed fuzzy controller is more precise.
Discovered in the simulation process that bound nearby
of the voltage and reactive power is the control
sensitive region, it may need to spend massive time to
carry on the repeated simulation computation.

5. References

[1] WANG Lei, HUANG Chun, GUO Shanghua, The
design of voltage & reactive power comprehensive control
device of substation based on fuzzy control theory, Relay,
vol. 31, no.8, pp. 40-42, Aug. 2003.

[2] QI Xiaoman, LIU Dichen, and HE Sheng, A novel
comprehensive adaptive control of voltage & reactive power
in substation, Proc. of 1st International Power Electronics
and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC 2004), Xian,
China, 2004, pp. 873-877.

[3] LI Sheng, CHEN Xinji, and GAO Shan, Research on
voltage and reactive power control strategy based on FLC in
Substation, Power Capacitors, no.3, pp.21-24, Sept. 2005.

[4] LU Qiang, MEI Shengwei, and SUN Yuanzhang, Power
system nonlinear control (2nd edition). Beijing: Tsinghua
University Press, 2008.

[5] WEI Yuanhang, Research on voltage and reactive Power
control based on fuzzy neural network, Master degree
dissertation, Guangdong University of Technology,
Guangzhou, 2001.

[6] LI Sheng, A comparative study of power system
simulation based on MATLAB and ETAP, Journal of
Nanjing Institute of Technology (Natural Science Edition),
vol. 4, no.2, pp.50-55, Jun. 2006.

[7] WU Tianming, ZHAO Xinli, and LIU Jiancun, MATLAB
power system design and analysis (2nd edition), Beijing:
Defense Industry Press, 2007.

[8] LI Sheng, Effect of voltage static characteristic of load
on substation voltage and reactive power control strategy,
Proc. of 9th Youth Academic Conference of Chinese Society
for Electrical Engineering, Beijing, China, 2006, pp. 727-732.

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