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Study of sedimentary rocks Dr.

Braide
Mechanisms of plate formation Dr. Braide
Basin classification Dr. Braide
Basins and sequence stratigraphy Dr. Braide
Basic Petrophysical Concepts Dr. Opuwari
Well logging Dr. Braide
Sokari Braide Sokari Braide
APG 711 APG 711 - - Course Content Course Content
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY PETROLEUM GEOLOGY
Well logging Dr. Braide
Core analysis Dr. Opuwari
Calibration of Log/core Dr. Opuwari
Overburden correction Dr. Opuwari
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 1
Lecture 14
Sokari Braide Sokari Braide Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Slide 2
What is Sequence Stratigraphy What is Sequence Stratigraphy
Sokari Braide Sokari Braide Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Slide 3
Sokari Braide
Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
A framework of genetically related
stratigraphic facies geometries and their
bounding surfaces used to determine
depositional setting
Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Establish Setting
Slide 4
Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
(a) Passive margin
Sedimentary sequences form on
the edges of continents when
sediment influx is modified by
fluctuations in sea level.
Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
Schematic profiles of three types of continental margins. (a) Passive margin. (b) Active margin of the
Marianas type. (c) Active margin of the Andean type.
(b) Active margin of the Marianas type
(c) Active margin of the Andean type
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 5
Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
Sedimentary
sequences form on
the edges of
continents when
sediment influx is
modified by
fluctuations in sea
level.
(a) How a turbidity current forms in the oceans.
These currents can erode and transport large
quantities of sand down the continental slope.
Submarine canyons are deep valleys eroded
into the continental shelf and slope by turbidity
currents.
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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(b) Sandfall at the head of a submarine canyon at
the edge of the continental shelf. These falls
generate sandy flows, such as turbidity currents,
that lay down fans of sandy sediments at the
foot of the continental slope.
Slide 6
Sokari Braide
Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
East Coulee Delta (approximately 1 m wide; modified from Posamentier et al.,
1992a; demonstrating the applicability of sequence stratigraphic concepts at
virtually any scale. In this example, the highstand systems tract was left behind,
and it was subsequently incised as a result of the fall in the local (pond) base level
during the progradation of the lower elevation lowstand delta.
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 7
Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
Until a few decades ago, geologists had to rely on rock outcrops or by drilling to map stratigraphic
successions.
Technological advancement in seismology now allow us to see below Earths surface without
actually going there.
From seismic data, we can construct three-dimensional images of deeply buried structures.
Basic geologic unit observed bounded by unconformities is a sedimentary sequence.
This type of detailed geologic mapping is called sequence stratigraphy.
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 8
Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
In this example, sediment is laid down in a delta.
As the sediment builds up the seafloor to sea level, the delta advances toward the sea.
When the sea level falls, the deltaic deposits are exposed to erosion.
The shoreline shifts inland when the sea level rises again, and a new deltaic sequence begins to cover the
old one, creating an unconformity.
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Slide 9
Sequence Stratigraphy Sequence Stratigraphy
Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
Over millions of years, this cycle may be repeated many times, producing a complex set of sedimentary
sequences.
Because sea level fluctuations are worldwide, we can match sedimentary sequences of the same age over
wide areas (see next slide).
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Slide 10
Eustatic Cycles Eustatic Cycles Sokari Braide
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 11
Sokari Braide
Walthers Law Walthers Law
Fig. 7
Facies Analysis Facies Analysis
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Walthers Law: the principle that connects the lateral and vertical shifts of facies within
a sequence (i.e., a relatively conformable succession of genetically related strata).
Slide 12
Sokari Braide
Fig. 7
Sequence stratigraphic vs. lithostratigraphic frameworks, starting from the
same set of facies data.
Walthers Law Walthers Law
Facies Analysis Facies Analysis
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1. The reconstruction of paleodepositional environments via facies analysis is an important
pre-requisite for sequence stratigraphic interpretations. The nature of stratigraphic contacts
(scoured, conformable) also needs to be assessed via sedimentological analysis.
Slide 13
Sokari Braide
Sequence stratigraphic vs. lithostratigraphic frameworks, starting from the
same set of facies data.
Walthers Law Walthers Law
Fig. 7 continued
Facies Analysis Facies Analysis
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2. The sequence stratigraphic framework is constructed by correlating the key sequence
stratigraphic surfaces. All sequence stratigraphic surfaces shown on the cross section are good
chronostratigraphic markers (low diachroneity), with the exception of the transgressive wave -
ravinement surface which is highly diachronous.
Slide 14
Sokari Braide
Sequence stratigraphic vs. lithostratigraphic frameworks, starting from the
same set of facies data.
Walthers Law Walthers Law
Fig. 7 continued
Facies Analysis Facies Analysis
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
3. Sequence stratigraphic cross section, showing key surfaces, within-trend facies contacts, and
paleodepositional environments. Within-trend facies contacts, marking lateral changes of facies, are
placed on the cross-section after the sequence stratigraphic framework is constructed. Facies
codes: Ameandering system; Bbraided system; Cestuary-mouth complex; Dcentral estuary;
Edelta plain; Fupper delta front; Glower delta frontprodelta.
Slide 15
Sokari Braide
Fig. 7 continued
Sequence stratigraphic vs. lithostratigraphic frameworks, starting from the
same set of facies data.
Walthers Law Walthers Law
Facies Analysis Facies Analysis
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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4. Lithostratigraphic cross-section. Three main lithostratigraphic units (e.g., formations) may
be defined: Aa sandstone-dominated unit; B and C mudstone-dominated units, with silty
and sandy interbeds. Formations B and C are separated by Formation A. Additional
lithostratigraphic units (e.g., memberssubdivisions of units A, B, C) may be defined as a
function of variations in lithology and colour.
Slide 16
Sokari Braide Facies Analysis Facies Analysis
MAIN FEATURES of sedimentary rocks that can be observed directly in the
field are:
Bedding including thickness, geometry, nature of bed boundaries,
dip and strike of the beds, and way-up criteria.
Sedimentary structures including erosional, depositional,
deformational, biogenic and chemogenic.
Textures including grain size, sorting, grading, porosity-
Summary Summary
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Textures including grain size, sorting, grading, porosity-
permeability, grain morphology, grain surface texture, and sediment
fabric.
Composition including clast types, mineralogy and fossil content.
Colour distinguishing between weathered and fresh surfaces.
Collectively, these attributes are used to define a sediment facies or
lithofacies (lithotype) or, simply, facies.
Slide 17
Sokari Braide Facies Analysis Facies Analysis
A sediment facies is defined as (or sedimentary rock) that displays
distinctive physical, chemical and / or biological characteristics (of the
sort listed above) that make it readily distinguished from the
associated facies.
These are the primary building blocks of all sedimentological studies.
They are used as a means of recording data, for describing sediment
Summary Summary
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They are used as a means of recording data, for describing sediment
outcrops and successions and, subsequently, for making interpretations
concerning, for example, depositional processes, environmental conditions
or economic significance.
In ancient deposits the vertical sequence of facies is generally much easier
to observe than the lateral sequence, a circumstance that is the exact
opposite of the situation in modern sediments.
Slide 18
Sokari Braide Facies Analysis Facies Analysis
In attempting to reconstruct
environments from facies, therefore,
geologists have often been guided by
Johannes Walters Law of Succession
of Facies = facies sequences
observed vertically are also found
laterally
Summary Summary
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Cross-section of a sedimentary basin to show the relationship
between facies, environment and time.
Highly simplified application of Walthers
Law of Succession of Facies
Sedimentary facies is defined as
any areally restricted part of a
designated stratigraphic unit
which exhibits characters
significantly different from those
of other parts of the unit.
Slide 19
Sokari Braide
Facies: the total textural, compositional and structural characteristics
of a sedimentary deposit resulting from accumulation and
modification in a particular setting.
Sedimentary Facies Sedimentary Facies
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Slide 20
Sokari Braide
Facies: the total textural, compositional and structural total textural, compositional and structural
characteristics of a sedimentary deposit resulting from
accumulation and modification in a particular setting.
Sedimentary Facies Sedimentary Facies
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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grain size, sorting, rounding grain size, sorting, rounding
lithology lithology
sedimentary structures sedimentary structures
bedding type bedding type
fossil assemblages fossil assemblages
Slide 21
Sokari Braide
Facies: the total textural, compositional and structural
characteristics of a sedimentary deposit resulting from
accumulation and modification in a particular setting.
EX: well-sorted, moderately rounded, trough cross-stratified, horizontally
burrowed & normally graded arkosic coarse sandstone
Sedimentary Facies Sedimentary Facies
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 22
Sokari Braide
Lithofacies & Lithofacies Codes Lithofacies & Lithofacies Codes
Sedimentary facies often get reduced to lithofacies
which detail grain-size, composition, and dominant
sedimentary structures only
EX: planar cross-stratified gravel, inversely graded massive
Sedimentary Facies Sedimentary Facies
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
EX: planar cross-stratified gravel, inversely graded massive
sandstone
This has led to lithofacies codes (after Miall, 1978).
EX: Gmm, St, Fsl
Slide 23
Sokari Braide Sedimentary Facies Sedimentary Facies
Facies: the total textural, compositional and structural
characteristics of a sedimentary deposit resulting from
accumulation and modification in a particular setting.
Facies associations: collection of multiple facies (often
in a vertical cycle) resulting from genetically related
accumulation and modification.
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accumulation and modification.
EX: lenticular bedded stratified pebble conglomerate with
subordinate planar cross-stratified sandstone
OR: fluvial channel lithofacies assemblage
Slide 24
Sokari Braide
Facies: the total textural, compositional and structural
characteristics of a sedimentary deposit resulting from
accumulation and modification in a particular setting.
Facies associations: collection of multiple facies (often
in a vertical cycle) resulting from genetically related
Sedimentary Facies Sedimentary Facies
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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in a vertical cycle) resulting from genetically related
accumulation and modification.
Facies successions: collection of multiple stacked
vertically facies associations resulting from genetically
related accumulation and modification.
Slide 25
Sokari Braide Facies Successions Facies Successions
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 26
Sokari Braide
Relationship between: Relationship between:
Facies Facies
Sedimentary Sedimentary
Geology Geology
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Facies Facies
Architectural elements Architectural elements
Depositional settings Depositional settings
Systems Systems
Systems tracts Systems tracts
Scheme used to characterize Scheme used to characterize
each depositional each depositional system. system.
Slide 27
Sokari Braide
marine ocean, sea
terrestrial land
Types of Depositional Systems Types of Depositional Systems
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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terrestrial land
transitional part land, part ocean
Slide 28
Sokari Braide
Shallow/nearshore
Tide-dominated
Wave-dominated
Reef
Marine Depositional Systems Marine Depositional Systems
Shelf/platform Shelf/platform
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Reef
Shelf/platform
Carbonate
Clastic
Deep marine
Deep sea fans
Pelagic
Slide 29
Sokari Braide
Terrestrial Depositional Systems Terrestrial Depositional Systems
Fluvial-alluvial fan
Glacial
Fluvial Fluvial- -Alluvial Fan Alluvial Fan
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Glacial
Aeolian
Lacustrine
Playa
Aeolian Aeolian
Slide 30
Sokari Braide
Transitional Depositional Systems Transitional Depositional Systems
Deltas
Estuaries
Delta Delta
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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Estuaries
Slide 31
Sokari Braide
Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Slide 32
Sokari Braide
Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 33
Sokari Braide
Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 34
Sokari Braide
Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems Clastic Depositional Systems
Depositional Systems Depositional Systems
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 35
Clastic Depositional Simulation
by
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
by
Professor Christopher G. St. C. Kendal
University of South Carolina
Slide 36
Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
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Clastic Depositional Simulation Clastic Depositional Simulation
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Slide 66
Geometric Effects of Sea Level Change Geometric Effects of Sea Level Change
On-lap with rising sea level.
Off-lap with falling sea level.
By-pass at low stands of sea level.
Erosion at low stands of sea level.
Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
Erosion at low stands of sea level.
Ravinement with sea level transgressions.
Landward continental clastics at high stands.
Seaward carbonates at high stands.
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Slide 67
Chronostratigraphic Chart Chronostratigraphic Chart
Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
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Chronostratigraphic Chart Chronostratigraphic Chart
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Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
And how it all can be viewed in outcrop:
Karoo Basin, South Africa
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University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
http://www.liv.ac.uk/-rwild/index.htm
From Karoo Basin Slope Project (University of Liverpool, UK)
Slide 99
Sokari Braide Petroleum Geology 1 Petroleum Geology 1
University University of the of the of the of the of the of the of the of the Western Cape Western Cape
Department of Earth Sciences
Sokari Braide
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