You are on page 1of 6

What is a layered model?

‡ Models help us to
Network Layers visualize different
aspects of complex
abstract systems
The OSI and Internet Models

Layers represent
independent
components that can be
examined separately or
http://www.lsa.umich.edu/lsait/TrainingDoc/Documents/training/n in relation to each other
etwork-devices-presentation/sld005.htm

What is a layered model? What is a layered model?
Almost all Communication theorist Yochai
Example (Benkler’s
communication can be Benkler's layers of communication. layers in action…)
broken down into
independent layers that
‡ My brother in Sweden
work interdependently.
wants the recipe for my
famous 7-layer dip
The ‘layers' (and protocols
between them)
conceptually represent ‡ What will we need to
negotiations between negotiate to communicate?
aspects of communication:
Content, logical (encoding)
and physical delivery of
messages. http://exonous.typepad.com/nkda/2004/week5/

What is a layered model? What is a layered model?
What are the ingredients?
What is the recipe?

How will we
‡ What language communicate?
will we use?
Swedish or Verbally,
English? writing,
pictures?

How will we physically
transport the message?
E-mail, snail-mail, video,
telephone?

1
What is a layered model? What is a layered model?
Terminology 2 models for network communications

‡ Service
„ Performance of a specific communication function ‡ OSI 7-Layer Model
‡ Layer „ International Standards
„ Self contained set of related services Organization’s Open
‡ Interface Systems Interconnection
„ Defines which operations and services are offered between model
layers, from lower to the next layer up
‡ Protocol
„ An agreement between communicating parties on how the ‡ TCP/IP Model
communication is to proceed (i.e., “handshake”) „ Developed by the
‡ Stack Department of Defense
„ List of protocols used by a particular system

http://compm067.paisley.ac.uk/notes/unit01.html

The OSI Layered Model OSI Layers - What does each layer do?
‡ OSI – Open System The Physical Layer
Interconnection ‡ Defines all electrical and physical
‡ Layered Approach specifications for devices.
‡ Allows better interoperability ‡ Major Functions
between software and hardware „ Establishment & Termination of
‡ Allows design of elaborate but Connections
highly reliable protocol stacks „ Connection Resolution & Flow Control
of Communication Resources
„ Modulation & Conversion between
Digital Data
‡ Example – radio, SCSI (Small
Computer System Interface)

OSI Layers - What does each layer do? OSI Layers - What does each layer do?
The Data Link Layer The Network Layer
‡ Controls data transfer between ‡ Performs network routing, flow
network entities control, segmentation, and error
‡ Performs error detection & control functions
correction ‡ The router operates at this layer
‡ Uses physical/flat Addressing ‡ Uses local addressing scheme
Scheme ‡ Example – IP, token ring
‡ Example - Ethernet

2
OSI Layers - What does each layer do? OSI Layers - What does each layer do?
The Transport Layer The Session Layer
‡ Provide transparent transfer of ‡ Provides mechanism for managing
data between end users the dialogue between end-user
‡ Controls reliability of a given link application processes
‡ Some protocols are stateful and ‡ Provides for either duplex or half-
connection oriented (cookies) duplex operation
‡ Example – TCP / UDP ‡ Responsible for setting up and
tearing down TCP/IP sessions
‡ Example – NetBIOS

OSI Layers - What does each layer do? OSI Layers - What does each layer do?
The Presentation Layer The Application Layer
‡ Little to do with PowerPoint ‡ Provide semantic conversion
‡ Controls syntactical differences in between associated application
data representation within end- processes
user systems ‡ Interfaces directly to and performs
‡ MIME encoding is done at this common application services for
layer the application processes
‡ Example - XML ‡ Example – Telnet, Virtual Terminal

TCP/IP layered network model TCP/IP network model layers
‡ Transmission Control Protocol and
Internet Protocol
Application

‡ TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, also
known as the Internet Protocol
Transport Suite

‡ It was originally developed for the
Internet US Department of Defense
Advanced Research Project Agency
(DARPA) network, but it is now the
Network basis for the Internet
access

3
TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do?
‡ As with the OSI model, the TCP/IP suite ‡ The combination of datalink and physical
uses a layered model. layers deals with pure hardware (wires,
Application Application satellite links, network interface cards, etc.)
‡ TCP/IP model has four or five - depending
‡ Access methods such as CSMA/CD (carrier
on who you talk to and which books you sensed multiple access with collision
read! detection)
Transport Transport
‡ Some people call it a four layer suite - ‡ Ethernet exists at the network access layer
Application, Transport, Internet and - its hardware operates at the physical
Network Access, others split the Network layer and its medium access control
Internet Access layer into its Physical and Internet method (CSMA/CD) operates at the
Datalink components. datalink layer.

Network Network
access access

TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do?
‡ This layer is responsible for the ‡ The transport layer is similar to the OSI
routing and delivery of data across transport model, but with elements of the
OSI session layer functionality.
Application networks. Application
‡ The two protocols found at the transport
‡ It allows communication across layer are:
Transport networks of the same and different Transport „ TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): reliable,
types and carries out translations to connection-oriented protocol that provides
error checking and flow control through a
deal with dissimilar data addressing virtual link that it establishes and finally
schemes. IP (Internet Protocol) and terminates. Examples include FTP and Email
Internet ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Internet „ UDP (User Datagram Protocol): unreliable,
connectionless protocol that not error check
are both to be found at the Internet or offer any flow control. Examples include
layer. SNMP

Network Network
access access

TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare?
This layer is broadly equivalent to the
‡
application, presentation and session layers ‡ Similarities
Application of the OSI model. „ Based on a stack of independent protocols
‡ It gives an application access to the „ Layers have roughly same functionality
communication environment. ‡ Transport layer and below provide network-
Transport independent transport services
‡ Examples:
‡ Layers above transport are application-oriented
„ Telnet
„ HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) ‡ Why is this important?
„ SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
Internet „ Easier to blend, use what works best

Network
access

4
OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare?
‡ OSI: General model before protocols ‡ Number of layers
„ Model was conceptual, designers didn’t know what „ OSI has 7, TCP/IP has 4
functionality to put in the layers ‡ Why does this matter?
„ Model is general, easier to replace protocols
„ Real world vs.
„ Model had to adjust when networks didn’t match the conceptual
service specifications (wireless networks, internetworking)
‡ TCP/IP: model describes existing protocols
„ Model only describes TCP/IP – not useful for describing
any other networks (such as telephone networks)
‡ Why does this matter?
„ Knowing which model to use for your context

http://compm067.paisley.ac.uk/notes/unit01.html

OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare?
‡ Connectionless vs. connection-oriented ‡ OSI Flaws
„ OSI „ Bad Timing
‡ Network layer supports both ‡ TCP/IP already well-established in academia
‡ Transport layers supports only connection-oriented „ Bad Technology
„ TCP/IP ‡ Complicated, controversial model
‡ Network layer supports only connectionless ‡ Unbalanced layers
‡ Transport layers supports both ‡ Repeating functions
„ Why does this matter? ‡ Designed for communications, not computing
‡ What do you need for your situation?

OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare?
‡ TCP/IP Flaws ‡ TCP/IP Flaws (cont’d)
„ Blurred lines „ No distinction between physical and data link
‡ Doesn’t clearly distinguish between layers
ƒ services (what a layer does), ‡ No description of transmission media, nor frame
ƒ interfaces (how the layer communicates) and delimiters
ƒ protocols (how the layer does what it does).
‡ Why does this matter?
„ Too specific
„ Model is too specific, not specific enough
‡ Model is only suited to describing TCP/IP, not other
networks
‡ Protocols can be very specific, inflexible

5
Conclusion Questions?
‡ Layered models are useful in describing
complex communication systems
„ Allows developers to focus on layers
independently
„ Applies to conceptualization as well as
implementation
‡ Models vs. protocols
„ OSI model is useful in describing networks, but
protocols are too general
„ TCP/IP model is weak, but protocols are
specific and widely used

6