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What is a layered model?

‡ Models help us to
Network Layers visualize different
aspects of complex
abstract systems
The OSI and Internet Models

Layers represent
components that can be
examined separately or in relation to each other

What is a layered model? What is a layered model?
Almost all Communication theorist Yochai
Example (Benkler’s
communication can be Benkler's layers of communication. layers in action…)
broken down into
independent layers that
‡ My brother in Sweden
work interdependently.
wants the recipe for my
famous 7-layer dip
The ‘layers' (and protocols
between them)
conceptually represent ‡ What will we need to
negotiations between negotiate to communicate?
aspects of communication:
Content, logical (encoding)
and physical delivery of

What is a layered model? What is a layered model?
What are the ingredients?
What is the recipe?

How will we
‡ What language communicate?
will we use?
Swedish or Verbally,
English? writing,

How will we physically
transport the message?
E-mail, snail-mail, video,

What is a layered model? What is a layered model?
Terminology 2 models for network communications

‡ Service
„ Performance of a specific communication function ‡ OSI 7-Layer Model
‡ Layer „ International Standards
„ Self contained set of related services Organization’s Open
‡ Interface Systems Interconnection
„ Defines which operations and services are offered between model
layers, from lower to the next layer up
‡ Protocol
„ An agreement between communicating parties on how the ‡ TCP/IP Model
communication is to proceed (i.e., “handshake”) „ Developed by the
‡ Stack Department of Defense
„ List of protocols used by a particular system

The OSI Layered Model OSI Layers - What does each layer do?
‡ OSI – Open System The Physical Layer
Interconnection ‡ Defines all electrical and physical
‡ Layered Approach specifications for devices.
‡ Allows better interoperability ‡ Major Functions
between software and hardware „ Establishment & Termination of
‡ Allows design of elaborate but Connections
highly reliable protocol stacks „ Connection Resolution & Flow Control
of Communication Resources
„ Modulation & Conversion between
Digital Data
‡ Example – radio, SCSI (Small
Computer System Interface)

OSI Layers - What does each layer do? OSI Layers - What does each layer do?
The Data Link Layer The Network Layer
‡ Controls data transfer between ‡ Performs network routing, flow
network entities control, segmentation, and error
‡ Performs error detection & control functions
correction ‡ The router operates at this layer
‡ Uses physical/flat Addressing ‡ Uses local addressing scheme
Scheme ‡ Example – IP, token ring
‡ Example - Ethernet

OSI Layers - What does each layer do? OSI Layers - What does each layer do?
The Transport Layer The Session Layer
‡ Provide transparent transfer of ‡ Provides mechanism for managing
data between end users the dialogue between end-user
‡ Controls reliability of a given link application processes
‡ Some protocols are stateful and ‡ Provides for either duplex or half-
connection oriented (cookies) duplex operation
‡ Example – TCP / UDP ‡ Responsible for setting up and
tearing down TCP/IP sessions
‡ Example – NetBIOS

OSI Layers - What does each layer do? OSI Layers - What does each layer do?
The Presentation Layer The Application Layer
‡ Little to do with PowerPoint ‡ Provide semantic conversion
‡ Controls syntactical differences in between associated application
data representation within end- processes
user systems ‡ Interfaces directly to and performs
‡ MIME encoding is done at this common application services for
layer the application processes
‡ Example - XML ‡ Example – Telnet, Virtual Terminal

TCP/IP layered network model TCP/IP network model layers
‡ Transmission Control Protocol and
Internet Protocol

‡ TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, also
known as the Internet Protocol
Transport Suite

‡ It was originally developed for the
Internet US Department of Defense
Advanced Research Project Agency
(DARPA) network, but it is now the
Network basis for the Internet

TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do?
‡ As with the OSI model, the TCP/IP suite ‡ The combination of datalink and physical
uses a layered model. layers deals with pure hardware (wires,
Application Application satellite links, network interface cards, etc.)
‡ TCP/IP model has four or five - depending
‡ Access methods such as CSMA/CD (carrier
on who you talk to and which books you sensed multiple access with collision
read! detection)
Transport Transport
‡ Some people call it a four layer suite - ‡ Ethernet exists at the network access layer
Application, Transport, Internet and - its hardware operates at the physical
Network Access, others split the Network layer and its medium access control
Internet Access layer into its Physical and Internet method (CSMA/CD) operates at the
Datalink components. datalink layer.

Network Network
access access

TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do?
‡ This layer is responsible for the ‡ The transport layer is similar to the OSI
routing and delivery of data across transport model, but with elements of the
OSI session layer functionality.
Application networks. Application
‡ The two protocols found at the transport
‡ It allows communication across layer are:
Transport networks of the same and different Transport „ TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): reliable,
types and carries out translations to connection-oriented protocol that provides
error checking and flow control through a
deal with dissimilar data addressing virtual link that it establishes and finally
schemes. IP (Internet Protocol) and terminates. Examples include FTP and Email
Internet ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Internet „ UDP (User Datagram Protocol): unreliable,
connectionless protocol that not error check
are both to be found at the Internet or offer any flow control. Examples include
layer. SNMP

Network Network
access access

TCP/IP Layers - What does each layer do? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare?
This layer is broadly equivalent to the
application, presentation and session layers ‡ Similarities
Application of the OSI model. „ Based on a stack of independent protocols
‡ It gives an application access to the „ Layers have roughly same functionality
communication environment. ‡ Transport layer and below provide network-
Transport independent transport services
‡ Examples:
‡ Layers above transport are application-oriented
„ Telnet
„ HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) ‡ Why is this important?
„ SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
Internet „ Easier to blend, use what works best


OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare?
‡ OSI: General model before protocols ‡ Number of layers
„ Model was conceptual, designers didn’t know what „ OSI has 7, TCP/IP has 4
functionality to put in the layers ‡ Why does this matter?
„ Model is general, easier to replace protocols
„ Real world vs.
„ Model had to adjust when networks didn’t match the conceptual
service specifications (wireless networks, internetworking)
‡ TCP/IP: model describes existing protocols
„ Model only describes TCP/IP – not useful for describing
any other networks (such as telephone networks)
‡ Why does this matter?
„ Knowing which model to use for your context

OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare?
‡ Connectionless vs. connection-oriented ‡ OSI Flaws
„ OSI „ Bad Timing
‡ Network layer supports both ‡ TCP/IP already well-established in academia
‡ Transport layers supports only connection-oriented „ Bad Technology
„ TCP/IP ‡ Complicated, controversial model
‡ Network layer supports only connectionless ‡ Unbalanced layers
‡ Transport layers supports both ‡ Repeating functions
„ Why does this matter? ‡ Designed for communications, not computing
‡ What do you need for your situation?

OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare? OSI & TCP/IP: How do they compare?
‡ TCP/IP Flaws ‡ TCP/IP Flaws (cont’d)
„ Blurred lines „ No distinction between physical and data link
‡ Doesn’t clearly distinguish between layers
ƒ services (what a layer does), ‡ No description of transmission media, nor frame
ƒ interfaces (how the layer communicates) and delimiters
ƒ protocols (how the layer does what it does).
‡ Why does this matter?
„ Too specific
„ Model is too specific, not specific enough
‡ Model is only suited to describing TCP/IP, not other
‡ Protocols can be very specific, inflexible

Conclusion Questions?
‡ Layered models are useful in describing
complex communication systems
„ Allows developers to focus on layers
„ Applies to conceptualization as well as
‡ Models vs. protocols
„ OSI model is useful in describing networks, but
protocols are too general
„ TCP/IP model is weak, but protocols are
specific and widely used