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MECHANICAL VENTILATION
Dr. Faizal Baharum
School of Housing Building & Planning
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INTRODUCTION
Definition
the process of changing air in an
enclosed space
Indoor air is withdrawn and replaced by
fresh air continuously
From clean external source

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The importance of ventilation to maintain air purity, i.e.:
preservation of O
2
content this should be maintained at
approximately 21% of air volume
removal of CO
2
control of humidity between 30 & 70% RH is acceptable for
human comfort
prevention of heat concentrations from machinery, lighting
and people
prevention of condensation
dispersal of concentrations of bacteria
dilution and disposal of contaminants such as smoke, dust
gases and body odours
provisions of freshness an optimum air velocity lies
between 0.15 and 0.5 ms-
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VENTILATION
REQUIREMENTS
Control of ventilation rates - normally
based on recommendations by
authorities or code of practice.
e.g. BS 5720
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Table 2.0 - Air changes rates (BS 5720)
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Conversion from m
3
/hour per person to air
changes per hour (unit ac/h)

Air supply rate x nos. occupants
Room volume

Example 1
A private office of 30 m
3
volume designed for 2
people

air changes per hour 86 . 2 2
30
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x
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MECHANICAL
VENTILATION
An alternative to the unreliable natural
systems
Components involved:
Fan
Filters
Ductwork
Fire dampers
Diffusers

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Table 1.0 - Fresh air supply rates (BS 5720)
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Fans
Provide the motive for air movement
(imparting static energy or pressure and
kinetic energy or velocity)
Its capacity for air movement depends on
Type
Size
Shape
Number of blades
Speed


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Basic law of fan capabilities (at a
constant air density):
1. Volume of air varies in direct proportion to
the fan speed, i.e.



where,
Q = volume of air (m
3
/s)
N = fan impeller (rpm)

1
2
1
2
N
N
Q
Q

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2. Pressure of, or resistance to, air
movement is proportional to fan speed
squared, i.e.


where,
P = pressure (Pa)


2
1
2
2
1
2
) (
) (
N
N
P
P

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3. Air and impeller power is proportional to
fan speed cubed, i.e.



where,
W = power (W or kW)


3
1
3
2
1
2
) (
) (
N
N
W
W

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Example 2
A fan of 2kW power discharges 4 m
3
/s
with impellers rotating at 1000 rpm to
produce a pressure of 250 Pa. If the fan
impeller speed increases to 1250 rpm,
calculate Q, P and W.


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1
2
1
2
N
N
Q
Q

1.
1000
1250
4
2

Q
therefore, Q
2
= 5 m
3
/s
2
1
2
2
1
2
) (
) (
N
N
P
P

2.
2
2
2
) 1000 (
) 1250 (
250

P
therefore, P
2
= 390 Pa
3
1
3
2
1
2
) (
) (
N
N
W
W

3.
3
3
2
) 1000 (
) 1250 (
2

W
therefore, W
2
= 3.9 kW
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As fans are not totally efficient, the following formula
may be applied to determine the percentage


1
100
x
(W) power Absorbed
volume air x pressure fan Total
Efficiency
So, for the previous example,
% 50
1
100
x
3900
5 x 90 3
Efficiency
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Types of fan
1. Cross-flow or tangential
2. Propeller
3. Axial flow
4. Centrifugal
Fans
two types of fans used for the
transmission of air.
When the air enters the impellers
axially and is discharged radially from
the impeller, it is called a centrifugal or
radial flow fan.
When the air flows parallel to the axis
of impeller, it is called an axial flow
fan.
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Cross-flow or tangential fan

Tangential or cross-flow fan
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Cross-flow or tangential fan

provide wide, uniform air delivery
for high capacity, low profile
applications
Frequently used in Kick Heaters,
other electric heat applications,
fireplace inserts, and numerous
other applications

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How tangential flow fans work
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Propeller fan
Designed for general ventilation, smoke and fume removal, cooling, air
supply or exhaust applications



Wall mounted propeller fan Free standing propeller fan
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Propeller fan
Propeller Fan: A propeller fan consist of a propeller in a
mounting ring. They are used when the resistance to air
movement is small as in the ventilation of bathrooms, and attic
spaces.



Wall mounted propeller fan
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Types of propeller fans
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Axial flow fan
Axial flow fans use a propeller to create a flow
of air in the direction of the axis of rotation.
Because they create a large airflow, axial flow
fans are optimal for a wide variety of cooling
and other airflow needs.
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Axial flow fan
Axial flow fan Bifurcated axial flow fan
To protect the fan-cooled
motor in greasy, hot &
corrosive gas situations
an axial fan the air flows in parallel to the shaft
create a large airflow
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Depending on application, a
fan is required to satisfy a
variety of requirements.
Selection criteria may include
the following:
Required flow rate
Overall external pressure
Power requirement
Degree of efficiency
Space required
Possible control techniques


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Types of axial flow fans
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Heavy duty Counter rotating
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Bifurcated axial-flow fan
are designed for handling toxic, noxious,
abrasive and hot gases
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Centrifugal fan

In a centrifugal fan the air
flows is in a radial direction
relative to the shaft
Centrifugal fans are very
popular in the duct air
conditioning system. The
centrifugal fan has an impeller
mounted in a volute casing.
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Air in
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Centrifugal fan impellers
Radial or straight blades: It is a simple impeller construction. The
blades run straight from a central point. These fans provide very high
pressure at high speeds of rotation.
Forward Curved Blades: These blades are shallow in depth. These
fans are efficient and have less noise.
Backward curved blades: They have to be operated at higher
speeds for same pressure. Due to their higher speeds they can be
directly coupled to the motors.
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Centrifugal fans
Wall type
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HVAC duty centrifugal fan
Industrial duty
centrifugal fan
Tubular
centrifugal fan
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Filters
Four categories of filters
1. Dry
2. Viscous
3. Electrostatic
4. Activated carbon
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Dry filters
Roll filter Disposable element filter
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Viscous filters

the air filter media is oiled with a
sticky adhesive and, therefore,
operates as a viscous filter

Viscous impingement filter media is
made up of synthetic fibres, glass
fibers, or expanded metal foil mesh
in a pad, or mat, in multi layers or
pleated forms
Viscous filter
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Auto viscous filter
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Electrostatic filters
Electrostatic filter
Electrostatic filtration is an
extremely effective method for
removing dust, smoke, and other
small particles from air over a
particle size range from about 10
to 0.01 microns.
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Activated carbon filters
Commercial cooker hood
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HEPA filters
High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)

-What type of area required HEPA?

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Ductwork
Circular, square or rectangular cross-sections

Circular & rectangular ductwork
More efficient, less
frictional resistance
to airflow
Convenience,
more easily
fitted into
building fabric
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Table 3.0 - Ductwork data
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Duct conversion
For equal velocity of flow



For equal volume of flow



where
d = diameter of circular duct (mm)
a = longest side of rectangular duct (mm)
b = shortest side of rectangular duct (mm)
0.2 = fifth root
b a
ab
d

2
2 . 0
3
) (
265 . 1

b a
ab
x d
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Example 3 (duct conversion)
A 450 mm diameter duct converted to rectangular
profile of aspect ratio 2 : 1 (a = 2b).
b a
ab
d

2
For equal velocity of flow:
3
4
3
4
2
2 2
450
2
b
b
b
b b
b x b x

4
450 3x
b
Therefore, b = 337.5 mm and a = 2b = 675 mm
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2 . 0
3
) (
265 . 1

b a
ab
x d
2 . 0
3
2
) 2 (
265 . 1 450

b b
b x b
x
For equal volume of flow:
2 . 0
3 2
3
) 2 (
265 . 1 450

b
b
x
From this, b = 292 mm and a = 2b = 584 mm
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Duct conversion using conversion chart (simpler
but less accurate)

Circular to rectangular ductwork conversion chart
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Noise control

Sound attenuation
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Table 4.0 - Recommended maximum ducted air velocities
and resistance for accepted levels of noise
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Volume &
direction control
Air movement control
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Fire dampers
Fire dampers
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Diffusers
Grills &
diffusers
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Diffusers
airflow
patterns
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Coanda effect created by restricted air and pressure at the adjacent
surface due to limited access for air to replace the entrained air above
the plume
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Suspended ceilings as plenum chambers
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SYSTEMS
Mechanical ventilation systems
Mechanical extract/natural supply
Mechanical supply/natural supply
Combined mechanical extract &
supply
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Mechanical extract/natural
supply
Extract ventilation to a commercial kitchen
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Extract ventilation to a lecture theatre
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Application of shunt ducts to a block of flats
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Mechanical supply/natural
supply
Plenum ventilation
system
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Combined mechanical
extract & supply
Combined mechanical extract and supply
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VENTILATION DESIGN
Three methods of designing ductwork and fan:
Equal velocity method
the designer selects the same air velocity for use
through out the system
Velocity reduction method
the designer selects variable velocities appropriate
to each section or branch of ductwork
Equal friction method
the air velocity in the main duct is selected and the
size and friction determined from a design chart. The
same frictional resistance is used for all other
sections of ductwork
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Duct design chart
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Example 4 (ventilation design calculation)


Q, air volume flow rate (m
3
/s) = Room volume x air changes per hour
Time in seconds
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Given
Room volume = 480 m
3
Air changes per hour = 6

Therefore

s m
x
Q / 8 . 0
3600
6 480
3

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Equal velocity method
Air velocity throughout the system (duct A &
duct B) = 5 m/s (selected based on Table
4.0)

Q, the quantity of air = 0.4 m
3
/s is equally
extracted through grille
Duct A will convey 0.8 m
3
/s; duct B will
convey 0.4 m
3
/s



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(0.8 m
3
/s)
0.4 m
3
/s
0.4 m
3
/s
(0.4 m
3
/s)
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320
450
A
B
From the design chart:
Duct A = 450 mm
Duct B = 320 mm
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From duct design
chart (equal
velocity method)
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The fan rating relates to the frictional resistance obtained
in N/m
2
or Pa per unit length of ductwork

From the design chart

Duct A = 0.65 Pa x 5 m effective duct length = 3.25 Pa
Duct B = 1.00 Pa x 10 m effective duct length = 10.00 Pa
Total = 13.25 Pa

Therefore, the fan rating or specification is 0.8 m
3
/s at
13.25 Pa
Effective duct length the actual length plus additional allowances for bends, offsets, dampers, etc.
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Velocity reduction method
Selected air velocity in duct A = 6 m/s
Selected air velocity in duct B = 3 m/s

Q, the quantity of air = 0.4 m
3
/s is equally extracted
through grille
Duct A will convey 0.8 m
3
/s; duct B will convey 0.4
m
3
/s


From the design chart
Duct A and B are both coincidentally 420 mm
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From duct design
chart (Velocity
reduction method)
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Friction in duct A = 1.00 Pa x 5 m = 5.0 Pa
Friction in duct B = 0.26 Pa x 10 m = 2.6 Pa
Total = 7.6 Pa

Therefore, the fan rating or specification is 0.8 m
3
/s at 7.6
Pa
Effective duct length the actual length plus additional allowances for bends, offsets, dampers, etc.
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Equal friction method
Selected air velocity through duct A = 5 m/s
Calculated airflow through duct A = 0.8 m
3
/s

Calculated airflow through duct B = 0.4 m
3
/s

From the chart:
Duct A at 0.8 m
3
/s = 450 with a frictional
resistance of 0.65 Pa/m
Duct B (using the same friction) at 0.4 m
3
/s = 350
with an air velocity of approximately 4.2 m/s
The fan rating is 0.8 m
3
/s at 0.65 Pa/m x 15 m =
9.75 Pa

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From duct design
chart (Equal friction
method)
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Determination of sufficient air changes
e.g.:
Library (max. velocity of 2.5 m/s with a max.
resistance of 0.4 Pa/m length) from Table 4.0

From the chart:
Maximum air discharged, Q = 0.1 m
3
/s
Duct size = 225 mm

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Duct design chart
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From

Q = Room volume x air changes per hour
Time in seconds
and,
Air changes per hour = Q x time seconds
Room volume

= 0.1 x 3600
180

Thus, 2 changes per hour would be provided
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REFERENCES
Greeno, R.(1997). Building Services,
Technology and Design. Essex:
Longman.
Hall, F. & Greeno, R. (2005). Building
Services Handbook. Oxford: Elsevier.