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Taufik Hery Purwanto, S.Si., M.Si. Taufik Hery Purwanto, S.Si., M.Si.

Laboratorium SIG Prodi Kartografi dan Penginderaan Jauh Laboratorium SIG Prodi Kartografi dan Penginderaan Jauh
Jurusan Sains Informasi Geografis dan Pengembangan Wilayah Jurusan Sains Informasi Geografis dan Pengembangan Wilayah
Fakultas Geografi Fakultas Geografi Universitas Gadjah Mada Universitas Gadjah Mada
Information has always been the cornerstone of effective decisions.
Spatial information is particularly complex as it requires two descriptors
Where is What
Longley, 2005
Non-Spasial
Spasial
Sistem Informasi
Non-Geografi Sistem Informasi
CAD/CAM
Liputan Lahan Penduduk
Non-Geografi Sistem Informasi
Geografis
Sosioekonomi ..
GIS is fundamentally about solving
real-world problems. real-world problems.
Where has GIS come from?
Relative Dominance of the
Disciplines of
Spatial Information Technology
Professionals
1960s
mainframe computers
automated cartography beginning; remote automated cartography beginning; remote
sensing & GIS are mostly just concepts
CGIS - Roger Tomlinson
Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics And
Spatial Analysis
1970s
Landsat program establishes remote
sensing
GIS still being developed but
overshadowed by remote sensing
MAP analysis program - Dana Tomlin &
Joseph Berry
from Piwowar, 1999. "A Brief History of Time", Cartouche, No. 34:
Where has GIS come from?
1980s
GIS comes of age: ARC/INFO, GRASS,
SPANS
IBM PC begins the desktop computing
revolution
Automated Cartography practitioners
evolve into GIS practitioners
from Piwowar, 1999. "A Brief History of Time", Cartouche, No. 34:
evolve into GIS practitioners
remote sensing seen by increasing
numbers as just another GIS data source
Where has GIS come from?
1990s
GIS dominates spatial information
technologies
GISs are now being used by people who
have no formal training in geography,
cartography or remote sensing
o on one hand, this can be seen as a
measure of the success of GIS
o it should also be viewed as a
warning flag that some of this warning flag that some of this
development may be happening
too quickly: sound principles of
map design are frequently abused
in GIS output
"Geomatics" term adopted by the
Canadian government to encompass all
the spatial information technology
disciplines
GPS becomes an important tool (see
Piwowar, 1988. "A GPS
Primer",Cartouche, No. 27).
first-generation spatial data archives are
becoming obsolete (see Piwowar, 1988.
"Putting Your Data Out to Pasture",
Cartouche, No. 29).
Where has GIS come from?
2000s
renewed interest in remote sensing as a
suite of new generation of high-
resolution and hyperspectral sensors are
launched (see Piwowar, 1998. "Remote
Sensing: The Next Generation",
Cartouche, No. 28).
the emergence of seamlessly integrated
"spatial information systems" which
embrace the traditional sub-disciplines of
cartography, remote sensing and GIS in a cartography, remote sensing and GIS in a
unified package
these new GISs will also become more
integrated into our everyday lives so that,
in many cases, we may not even be aware
that we are using a GIS (see Piwowar,
1998. "2001: A Societal GIS Odyssey",
Cartouche, No. 31 and Homes Online)
the internet (or its successors) will
become the medium for spatial data
distribution and communication (see
Piwowar, 1998. "Interactive Web Map
Publishing", Cartouche, No. 30 and The
National Atlas of Canada Online).
there will be a paradigm change in the
map itself - virtual maps will become a
reality (see Virtual Cities Resource
Centre:
www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/vc/cities.htm)
Geographic Information
information about places on the earth's surface
knowledge about "what is where
Geographic Information Technologies
Automated Cartography Automated Cartography
Remote Sensing (RS)
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
GIS--what's in the S?
Systems : teknologinya
Science : konsep dan teori
Studies : aplikasi (untuk membantu kehidupan manusia)
(Briggs, 1999)
System:
Technology for the acquisition and management of spatial
information
Science:
Comprehending the under-laying conceptual issues of
representing data and process in space-time. representing data and process in space-time.
The science (or theory and concepts) behind the technology
Studies:
Understanding the social, legal and ethical issues associated with
the application of GISy and GISc.
(Briggs, 1999)
GIS is an acronym for:
Geographic Information Systems (US)
Geographical Information Systems (UK, Aust.,
Canada)
Geographic Information Science (Academia)
Definitions of GIS
A GIS is an information system that is designed to work with
data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. It is
both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially
referenced data as well as a set of operations for working with
the data."
Star and Estes, 1990
A GIS is a system that contains spatially referenced data that A GIS is a system that contains spatially referenced data that
can be analyzed and converted to information for a specific set
of purposes, or application ... The key feature of a GIS is the
analysis of data to produce new information."
Parent, 1988
"A system of computer hardware, software, and procedures
designed to support the capture, management, manipulation,
analysis, modelling, and display of spatially referenced data for
solving complex planning and management problems."
U.S. Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee, 1988
Definitions of GIS
A GIS is a computer-based system that provides the following
four sets of capabilities to handle georeferenced data:
input
data management (data storage and retrieval)
manipulation and analysis
output output
Aronoff, 1989
A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware,
software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and
displaying all forms of geographically referenced
information.
ESRI, 1997
A powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at
will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real
world for a particular set of purposes.
Burrough and McDonnell, 1998.
Definitions of GIS
Burrough and McDonnell, 1998.
tools that allow for the processing of spatial data into
informationand used to make decisions about, some portion
of the earth.
De Mers, 1997.
Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) atau Geographic Information
System (GIS) diartikan sebagai sistem informasi yang digunakan
untuk memasukkan, menyimpan, memanggil kembali, mengolah,
menganalisis dan menghasilkan data bereferensi geografis atau data
geospatial, untuk mendukung pengambilan keputusan dalam
perencanaan dan pengelolaan penggunaan lahan, sumber daya
alam, lingkungan, transportasi, fasilitas kota, dan pelayanan umum
Definitions of GIS
alam, lingkungan, transportasi, fasilitas kota, dan pelayanan umum
lainnya. (Murai S. dalam Prayitno, 2000)
SIG sebagai suatu kumpulan yang terorganisir dari perangkat
keras komputer, perangkat lunak, data geografi dan personil
yang dirancang secara efisien untuk memperoleh, menyimpan,
mengupdate, memanipulasi, menganalisis, dan menampilkan
semua bentuk informasi yang bereferensi geografi (ESRI, 1990)
The GI ScienceSystem cycle (after Fisher, 1998)
Teknologi Peranan teknologi dalam rangka peningkatan kemampuan teknologi GIS
Data Base Management System
(DBMS)
Menyimpan atribut untuk ditampilkan di GIS; Pelacakan data, penyortiran, penggabungan,
penambahan, memperbarui, restrukturisasi, terkait table dan field-field..
Computer Aided Design (CAD) Memperluas geometri data 2D menjadi data GIS 3D
Kemampuan dalam rendering.
Land Information System (LIS) Memperluas kemampuan GIS untuk survei tanah dan perekamannya dalam aspek
legal/hukum, administrasi dan untuk tujuan perencanaan dan pembangunan.
Automated Mapping/Facilities
Mapping (AM/FM)
Meningkatkan fungsi GIS dalam pemetaan automatis dan
peta pemeliharaan utilitas untuk umum seperti
air, drainase, gas dan listrik.
GPS Meningkatkan akurasi lokasi dan obyek
memverifikasi akurasi atribut dalam SIG; memverifikasi akurasi atribut dalam SIG;
Kemampuan dalam navigasi dan tracking/pelacakan.
Remote sensing and
Photogrammetry (RSP)
Integrasi fungsi-fungsi SIG dan analisis dan hasil pengolahan data dan analisis data
Sumber data Raster
Statistical Software (SS) Integrasi GIS dan prosedur statistik
Spatial Decision Support Systems
(SDSS)
Memperluas fungsi GIS untuk pengambilan keputusan
SES (Spatial Expert Systems) Mengintegrasikan kemampuan Expert Systems dan fungsi GIS
PSS (Planning Support Systems) Memperluas fungsi GIS untuk perencanaan
Multimedia Systems (MS) Meningkatkan visualisasi dari informasi geografi dengan penggunaan suara, video, gambar,
hypertext dan hotlink
Internet-based Systems (IS) Meningkatkan komunikasi, berbagi data (data sharing), joint task operation dan layanan
online GIS
Groupware Systems (GW) Mengaktifkan beberapa pengguna (multiple users) di lokasi yang berbeda
untuk melakukan tugas-tugas yang terkait dengan perencanaan dan pengambilan keputusan
35.000 tahun
yang lalu, di dinding gua
Lascaux, Perancis, para
pemburu Cro-Magnon
menggambar hewan
mangsa mereka, juga
garis yang dipercaya
sebagai rute migrasi
hewan-hewan tersebut. hewan-hewan tersebut.
Catatan awal ini sejalan
dengan dua elemen
struktur pada sistem
informasi gegrafis
modern sekarang ini,
arsip grafis yang
terhubung ke database
atribut.
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistem_inform
asi_geografis
Today, biologists use
collar transmitters and
satellite receivers to
track the migration
routes of caribou and
polar bears to help
design programs to
protect the animals. In a
GIS, the migration routes
were indicated by were indicated by
different colors for each
month for 21 months (fig.
2). Researchers then
used the GIS to
superimpose the
migration routes on maps
of oil development plans
to determine the potential
for interference with the
animals.
adalah suatu data yang memiliki referensi spasial atau
posisi geografis (georeferenced)
Sistem
Suatu rangkaian kerja, komputerisasi dan
terintegrasi terintegrasi
Informasi
Data, informasi, keterangan
Geografi
Lokasi, koordinat, tempat, alamat
Spasial adalah aspek keruangan suatu objek atau kejadian yang mencakup
lokasi, letak, dan posisinya.
Geospasial atau ruang kebumian adalah aspek keruangan yang menunjukkan
lokasi, letak, dan posisi suatu objek atau kejadian yang berada di bawah,
pada, atau di atas permukaan bumi yang dinyatakan dalam sistem
koordinat tertentu.
Data Geospasial adalah data tentang lokasi geografis, dimensi atau ukuran, Data Geospasial adalah data tentang lokasi geografis, dimensi atau ukuran,
dan/atau karakteristik objek alam dan/atau buatan manusia yang berada
di bawah, pada, atau di atas permukaan bumi.
Informasi Geospasial adalah Data Geospasial yang sudah diolah sehingga dapat
digunakan sebagai alat bantu dalam perumusan kebijakan, pengambilan
keputusan, dan/atau pelaksanaan kegiatan yang berhubungan dengan
ruang kebumian
++
Information System Information System
=
A means of storing, retrieving,
sorting, and comparing spatial spatial
data data to support some analytic
process.
++
Geographic Position Geographic Position
=
to produce
new information
accurate
decision
making
explicit geographic reference, is absolutely tied to the earth
such as a latitude and longitude or national grid coordinate.
Data from GPS units.
implicit geographic reference such as an address, postal
Geographic referencing
implicit geographic reference such as an address, postal
code, census tract name, forest stand identifier, road name
or county, can be included by joining tables or using an
automated process called "geocoding."
Contoh
3426'41.00"N
11948'26"W
Contoh
629'30.00"S
10650'58.00E
80% of all information held in databases anywhere
in the world contains some kind of geographic
element, Ron Brigs, 1997.
an estimated 90% of all information used by an estimated 90% of all information used by
government has spatial characteristics or attributes
Joep Crompvoets, 2003.
Data from most sciences can be analyzed
spatially (ESRI)
DATA SIG
(Geographical
data)
Link
REAL WORLD
Data Attribut
Raster
DATA SPASIAL (SIG)
Qualitative
Data
Link
- Siapa/Apa .. ?
(What is at . ?)
- Dimana . ?
(Where is it ?)
Grafis
(Geometric Data)
Titik (Point)
Garis (Arc/Line)
Poligon (region/Polygon)
Permukaan (Surface)
Data Attribut
(Attribute Data)
mis.: *.dbf
Smart Map
(linking a database to the map)
Vektor
Data
Quantitative
Data
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Components of geographic data
Three general components to geographic information
Streets
Attributes
Geometry Behavior
Rules
Streets and
highways may
not intersect
continuous: elevasi, curah hujan, salinitas air laut
area:
- unbounded: penggunaan lahan, area pasar, jenis tanah, jenis batuan
- bounded: batas kota/negara, persil
- moving: massa udara, kumpulan binatang, kumpulan ikan
networks: jalan, pipa/kabel transmisi, sungai
DATA GRAFIS (GRAPHIC DATA)
networks: jalan, pipa/kabel transmisi, sungai
points:
- fixed: sumur, lampu jalan, alamat
- moving: mobil, ikan, rusa
* Categorical (name):
- nominal
classified, no order
0...255, whole values
contoh : tipe penggunaan lahan, kelas tanah, nama kota, daerah
administrasi
- ordinal
classified, no order
0...255, whole values
DATA ATTRIBUT (ATRIBUTE DATA)
0...255, whole values
contoh : succession stages, income groups
* Numerical :
- interval
tidak mempunyai nilai nol mutlak
tidak dapat dikatakan lebih dari 2x
contoh : temperatur (Celsius atau Fahrenheit)
- ratio
mempunyai nilai nol mutlak
dapat dikatakan lebih dari 2x
disajikan dalam tipe integer atau floating point [decimal fraction] sehingga
dapat dipergunakan untuk perhitungan aritmatika
contoh : pendapatan, umur, curah hujan
data type
description
attributes
domain example
boolean boolean 0 (false), 1 (true)
suitable/unsuitable
, visible/non visible
nominal classified, no order
0...255, whole
values
soil classes,
administrative
regions
ordinal classified, order
0...255, whole
values
succession stages,
income groups
-
scalar continuous, lineair
-
10exp(37)...10exp(
37), real values
elevation,
temperature
directional
continuous,
directional
0 to 2 pi (radians),
or to 360 (degrees),
and -1 (no
direction), real
values
aspect
ldd
local drain direction
to neighbour cell
1...9 (codes of
drain directions)
drainage networks,
wind directions
Vector points, lines and
polygons
Raster gridded, classified
space
Representations of Geographic Data
Conceptual and logical abstraction levels
STRUKTUR DATA VEKTOR
* Titik (node/point): 0-dimension
koordinat tunggal (x,y)
area/luasan nol
contoh : pohon, sumur minyak, penempatan
label
* Garis (arc/line): 1-dimension
2
1
2
7
8
x=7
Point: 7,2
y=2
1
2
7
8
STRUKTUR DATA VEKTOR
* Garis (arc/line): 1-dimension
dua ( atau lebih ] koordinat x,y yang
dihubungkan
contoh : jalan, sungai
* Poligon (polygon/region) : 2-dimensions
empat atau lebih koordinat x,y yang
dihubungkan
koordinat awal dan akhir sama
area yang tertutup
Contoh : daerah/propinsi, danau
Line: 7,2 8,1
1
2
7
8
Polygon: 7,2 8,1 7,1 7,2
1
2
7
8
STRUKTUR DATA RASTER
STRUKTUR DATA RASTER
Header : berisi informasi penting mengenai kode file, jumlah band
data yang dikandung, baris, kolom, tipe data, dan sebagainya.
Data : blok data layer raster.
Ancillary : berisi informasi tambahan yang biasanya meliputi data
statistik citra yang bersangkutan.
Layer raster disimpan dalam format standar BIP (band-interleaved
by pixel), BIL (band-interleaved by line), dan BSQ (Band
Sequential), serta fomat kompresi RLE (run-length encoding)
STRUKTUR DATA RASTER
Contoh penyimpanan Layer(s) Raster: Contoh penyimpanan Layer(s) Raster:
Raster Vector
Advantages
Good for complex analysis
Efficient for overlays
Data structure common for
imagery
Compact data structure
Efficient for encoding
topology
True representation of
imagery
True representation of
shape
Disadvantages
Large datasets
Topology hard to represent
Maps less "realistic"
Complex structure
Overlay operations difficult
Might imply false sense of
accuracy
KONSEP LAYER PADA DATA SIG
Source: GAO (2004), p. 5.
7 (tujuh) fenomena geografis
1. Perangkat keras (hardware)
Komputer (komputer tunggal, komputer sistem jaringan dengan server,
komputer dengan jaringan global internet) dan periperalnya. Perangkaat keras
untuk SIG mepliputi perangkat keras : pemasukan data, pemrosesan data,
dan penyajian hasil, serta peyimpanan (storage).
2. Perangkat Lunak (software)
Perangkat lunak yang mempunyai fungsi di atas dan fasilitas untuk
penyimpanan, analisis, dan penayangan informasi geografi. Persyaratan yang
penting harus dipenuhi software SIG, adalah :merupakan Database
Management System (DBMS), fasilitas untuk pemasukan dan manipulasi data
geografis, fasilitas untuk query, analisis , dan visualisasi,Graphical User
Interface (GUI) yang baik untuk mempermudah akses fasilitas yang ada.
3. Data (Data) 3. Data (Data)
Data merupakan komponen yang penting dalam SIG. Keakurasian data
dituntut dalam SIG. Dikenal konsep GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out)
sebaliknya Gold In Gold Out.
4. Sumberdaya Manusia (people)
Teknologi SIG menjadi sangat terbatas kemampuannya jika tidak ada
sumberdaya yang mengelola sistem dan mengembangkan untuk aplikasi yang
sesuai. Pengguna dan pembuat sistem harus saling bekerjasama untuk
mengembangkan teknologi SIG.
5. Metode (methods)
Model dan teknik pemrosesan perlu dibuat untuk berbagai aplikasi SIG.
6. Network
With rapid development of IT, today the most fundamental of these is probably
the network, without which no rapid communication or sharing of digital
information could occur. GIS today relies heavily on the Internet, acquiring and
sharing large geographic data sets.
Paul A. Longley University College London, UK, 2005
?
Information
Management
1970 1980 1990 2000
Internet
Era
Komputer/
GIS
EVOLUSI PEMANFAATAN DATA SPASIAL EVOLUSI PEMANFAATAN DATA SPASIAL
SDI 2
1970 1980
SIG SDI 1
Sistem
menggunakan
Peta Cetak
Spatial Information
Management
1970 1980 1990 2000
Era ICT
Pemetaan Digital
Seamless/Scalable/
Multi-dimensional
1970 1980
Pemetaan
Konvensional
1:25K
1:100K
1:250K
"The Model-driven Approach to Geographic Information System Standardisation- Lessons Learned - "
Dr. Arne J. Berre SINTEF, Oslo, Norway, SINTEF
Scientific visualization and computer
graphics will be increasingly integrated with
GIS capabilities
Animated maps
Interactive maps
Augmented reality
MANAJEMEN INFORMASI (GEO)SPASIAL
Tahapan SIG Pekerjaan Manual
Penyimpanan Database digital dan terpadu Skala dan standart berbeda
Perbandingan dalam manajemen Informasi Geospasial
Penyimpanan Database digital dan terpadu Skala dan standart berbeda
Pemanggilan kembali Pencarian dengan komputer Cek manual
Pemuktahiran Sistematis Mahal dan memakan waktu
Analisis data Attribut Sangat cepat Memakan waktu dan tenaga
Analisis data spasial Mudah Rumit
Penyangan Murah dan cepat Mahal
The following matrix is a comparison of digital and
manual mapping with respect to key activities:
ACTIVITIES: DIGITAL MAPPING PAPER MAPPING
PREPARATION Initial version tedious to prepare but
quick and efficient to monitor
Start from scratch every time
STORAGE Digital Database Standardized and
integrated, compact memory
capacity
Different scales on different
standards, voluminous and bulky
RETRIEVAL Quick retrieval Paper maps and tables RETRIEVAL Quick retrieval Paper maps and tables
UPDATING Automatic search and replace by
computer
Manual check and revision
OVERLAY Systematically done
Faster integration of complex,
multiple spatial and non spatial data
sets
Expensive and time consuming
SPATIAL ANALYSIS Faster Time and energy consuming,
slow
DISPLAY Easier and faster to prepare
Better quality Slow
Tedious and time-consuming
1. Analysis of spatial data in a complex environment
2. Ability to integrate different databases into one
environment
3. Ability to display and manage spatial data in a
spatial context spatial context
4. Rapid production of specialized maps and graphic
products
5. Performs complex spatial analysis
1. better work flow;
2. higher quality information for decision-making;
3. better integration among different offices /
departments;
4. quicker access to information;
5. more efficient information dissemination.
All these lead to possible cost reduction and cost effectiveness.
Geographic
phenomena
Computer
representations
Visualitations
Real world
Aplication
computing
Simulation world
In order to bring the real world into GIS, one has to make
use of simplified models of the real world (Bernhardsen)
DATA MODEL
Modelling process. The transformation of the real world into GIS
products is achieved by means of simplification and models
(Bernhardsen)
DATA MODEL
DATA BASE
MAP WITH SYMBOLS
1. Data Retrieval
2. Map Generalization
3. Map Abstractions
4. Map Sheet Manipulation
5. Buffer Generation
6. Polgygon Overlay And Dissolve
7. Grid Cell Analysis - Network Analysis
8. Measurement
9. Digital Terrain Analysis, And
10. Output Techniques
Peta (Map Layout)
Tabel (Tables)
Grafik (Chart)
Laporan (Report)
Kombinasinya
Hardcopy/Softcopy
Kombinasinya
1. Pengukuran (Measurement)
2. Pemetaan (Mapping)
3. Pemantauan (Monitoring)
4. Pembuatan Model (Modelling)
Data PJ
Survey
Lapangan
Pengolahan Citra
Manual/Digital
Peta/Data Sekunder:
Topografi, Geologi, Tanah, dll.
Informasi
Mutakhir
Editing, Transformasi,
Tagging
Informasi
Sekunder
4. Pembuatan Model (Modelling)
(Estes, 1990)
Integrasi
Pemetaan,
Inventarisasi
Pemantauan,
Monitoring
Evaluasi
Pembuatan
Model
Perubahan
Peng. Lahan
Kebakaran
hutan
Kemampuan
Lahan
Prediksi
Site Selection Kekeringan
Pemetaan
T E R I MA K A S I H T E R I MA K A S I H