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Fundamentals of Semiconductor Devices


Betty Lise Anderson • Richard L. Anderson

Semiconductor Engineering 1
Invention of the first transistor : Disruptive Technology

The discovery of the point contact transistor in 1947: W. Shockley,


J. Bardeen and W. Brattain

Semiconductor Engineering 2
Semiconductor Devices

1. Fundamentals of Semiconductor Materials :


Part I

2. pn Junction Diode : Part II

3. MOSFET : Part III

Evaluation : 10%(출석) + 10%(과제) +


40%(중간고사) + 40%(기말고사)

Semiconductor Engineering 3
Goal : We will discuss the operation principles of
semiconductor devices : e.g., pn junction diode, MOSFET,
and BJT (very briefly). I-V characteristics of semiconductor
devices.

Then, we need to understand the physical properties of


semiconductor materials in quantum mechanical point of
view. The core concept is “energy band”.

Once we understand the concept of energy band, the


concepts of (1) charged carriers (i.e., electron and hole), (2)
their distribution in semiconductor materials in view of
electron energy, and (3) their actions (i.e., drift, diffusion, and
ehp G-R processes) will be introduced.

Finally, based on the carrier actions, we will derive the


continuity equations which could be used for I-V analysis.

Semiconductor Engineering 4
One of the most important semiconductor devices is MOSFET.

Mark Bohr, “Intel’s 90 nm


Process Starting High Volume
Manufacturing,” Intel Developer Forum,
September 16, 2003

Z µ nCox ⎡ Vd ⎤
2
∴ ID = ⎢(VG − Vt )Vd − ⎥ ; 0 ≤ Vd ≤ Vdsat , Vg ≥ Vt
L ⎣ 2 ⎦
Semiconductor Engineering 5
MOSFET Applications in LOGIC and MEMORY:

INVERTER DRAM FLASH


VDD WL WL

FG

pMOS Capacitor

BL BL
Vin VO
Q I
nMOS
∆V =
∫ I inj dt
Q = ∫ C( v )dv Cox

V V
VSS
Destructive readout Nondestructive readout
Refresh No-refresh
Volatile Nonvolatile

Semiconductor Engineering 6
CMOS: Complementary MOS

From Burns and Bond, “Principles of Electronic Circuits”, PWS

Semiconductor Engineering 7
CMOS Inverter Circuit

There is no dc path for current from


the +VDD to ground !!!

Equivalent Circuit Vin = VDD (left)


and Vin = 0 (right)

Semiconductor Engineering 8
Mechanisms of Current Conduction and Continuity Equation

Ionized Impurity
Lattice Vibration
Drift due to the applied
electric field !

Diffusion due to the


concentration
difference !

Electron-Hole generation and


recombination !

Semiconductor Engineering 9
Continuity Equation

∂ n 1 ∂ n ∂ n
= ∇ ⋅ J + +
∂ t ∂ t ∂ t
N
q thermal
R − G
other
processes

∂ p 1 ∂ p ∂ p
= − ∇ ⋅ J + +
∂ t ∂ t ∂ t
P
q thermal
R − G
other
processes

Minority Carrier Diffusion Equations


∂∆ n p ∂ 2∆n p ∆n p
= DN − + GL
∂t ∂x 2
τn
∂∆ pn ∂ 2∆pn ∆pn
= DP − + GL
∂t ∂x 2
τp

Semiconductor Engineering 10
We need to understand the concepts of electron, hole, and their
densities via energy band in semiconductor materials !

Semiconductor Engineering 11
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Energy Band ψ
ψ A CONDUCTION BAND
hyb

ψ
A
3p
Energy gap, Eg
3s
ψ
B
Si ATOM

VALENCE BAND
ψ ψ
hyb B

Si CRYSTAL

Fig. 4.17: (a) Formation of energy bands in the Si crystal first involves hybridization
of 3s and 3p orbitals to four identical ψhyb orbitals which make 109.5° with each
other as shown in (b). (c) ψhyb orbitals on two neighboring Si atoms can overlap to
form ψB or ψA. The first is a bonding orbital (full) and the second is an antibondiong
orbital (empty). In the crystal ψB overlap to give the valence band (full) and ψA
overlap to give the conduction band (empty).
From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, S.O. Kasap (© McGraw-Hill, 2002)
http://Materials.Usask.Ca

Semiconductor Engineering 12
PART 1 Materials

Chapter 1 Electron Energy and States in Semiconductors


: A brief review for both quantum mechanical concepts and
crystallography including crystal structure, plane and direction

Chapter 2 Homogeneous Semiconductors


: A review for energy band concept, semiconductor classification
(intrinsic vs. extrinsic), hole concept, and electron/hole distribution
in semiconductor by introducing density-of-states functions and
Fermi functions

Chapter 3 Current Flow in Homogeneous Semiconductors


: Introduction of both carrier actions (drift, diffusion, and ehp G-R)
which has been known to cause device current and continuity
equations that could be used for device analysis

Chapter 4 Nonhomogeneous Semiconductors


: Introduction of the consequence of nonuniform doping
Semiconductor Engineering 13
Chapter 1 Electron Energy and States in Semiconductors
The point of this chapter is to understand some fundamental physics of
how electrons behave in matter.
Figure 1.1 :
Models of an Atom : (a) The Thompson model of an atom, in which the
positive charge is uniformly distributed in a sphere
[1] Thompson Model and the electrons are considered to be negative point
[2] Rutherford Model charges embedded in it;
(b) the Bohr model, in which the positive charge is
[3] Bohr Model concentrated in a small nucleus and the electrons
[4] Wilson-Sommerfeld Model orbit in circles;
(c) the Wilson-Sommerfeld model, which allows for
elliptical orbits.

Semiconductor Engineering 14
1.3.1 The Bohr Model for the Hydrogen Atom (p.5)

Hydrogen atom based on the Bohr model :


[1] Potential energy

q2
E p = Evac − (1.6)
4πεo r 2

The vacuum level Evac is defined


as the potential energy at r = ∝
Figure 1.2 Potential energy diagram for an electron in the
vicinity of a single positive point charge. The electron is
considered to be a point charge.
[2] The Bohr radius of the nth state is
4πε o n 2 η2
rn = (1.12)
mq 2
mq 4
[3] The total energy En is En = E Kn + E Pn = Evac − (1.16)
2(4πε o ) 2 n 2 η2

Semiconductor Engineering 15
EXAMPLE 1.1 (p.8)

Find the energies and radii for the first four orbits in the hydrogen atom.

Figure 1.3
Allowed energies in the hydrogen atom. Higher
energies occur increasingly close to each other,
approaching the vacuum level.

Figure 1.4
Radii of the first four atomic orbits of the
hydrogen atom, according to the Bohr model.

Semiconductor Engineering 16
1.3.2 Application to Molecules: Covalent Bonding (p.11)

From isolated atoms to molecules

“Isolated” means nuclei are


sufficiently far apart so that they
do not influence each other.

Figure 1.6a Energy band diagram for two


noninteracting hydrogen nuclei.

When the nuclei are allowed to


approach each other, an electron
would be influenced by both
nuclei according to Coulomb’s
law.

Figure 1.6b As the nuclei are brought together,


the upper energy levels merge and electrons in
those levels are shared between the atoms.
Semiconductor Engineering 17
H-atom H-atom
Electron shell

1s 1s

Covalent bond
H-H Molecule Figure 1.6c The nuclei are sufficiently close
2 1 together that all energy levels are shared.
Since the lowest level is usually the only
2 1 occupied level for hydrogen, if it is occupied
by two electrons H2 molecule is stable.

1 2
Fig. 1.4: Formation of a covalent bond between two H atoms leads Read the paragraph in your textbook
to the H2 molecule. Electrons spend majority of their time between
page 12: Ek = E1 - Ep so that the
the two nuclei which results in a net attraction between the electrons
and the two nuclei which is the origin of the covalent bond . velocity of electrons is smallest in
From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, S.O. Kasap (© McGraw-Hill, 2002)
between the nuclei.
http://Materials.Usask.Ca

Semiconductor Engineering 18
1.3.4 Covalent Bonding in Crystalline Solids (p.14)

Consider Si crystal
The electrons occupying the outer subshells are called valence
electrons, which determine the valency of the atoms.

Valence Electrons : “stronly


involve in chemical reactions:
Covalent Bonding”

Core electrons : “remain essentially unperturbed during the


chemical reactions on normal atom-atom interaction.”

Semiconductor Engineering 19
Si crystalline in 3-dimension and the bonding model in 2-dimension

valence electrons :
contribute to the formation of VB
http://jas2.eng.buffalo.edu/applets/ed
ucation/solid/unitCell/home.html
Figure 1.7a Two-dimensional bonding
representation of a crystalline solid.

Semiconductor Engineering 20
“The four vacant states in the third shell of atoms in Si form a
band in crystalline Si called the conduction band.”

Forbidden Band

Figure 1.7b Potential energy for an electron in that crystal along a row of atoms
(solid line) and between rows (dashed line). In this representation the electron is
considered a point charge.

Semiconductor Engineering 21
Electron Affinity, Ionization Potential, and Band Gap (p. 16)

Ionization energy : the minimum energy required to excite an electron from the
top of the valence band in the crystal to the vacuum level

Electron affinity : the energy difference between the vacuum level and the vacant
state of lowest energy (i.e., Ec)

Energy gap : the minimum energy required to excite an electron from the valence
band to the conduction band

See Table 1.2 in p. 17, and


discuss the properties of various
materials.

Figure 1.8 Definitions of


vacuum energy Evac, electron
affinity c, ionization energy g
and the energy gap Eg.

Semiconductor Engineering 22
Occupancy of energy band as a function of temperature (p. 18)

If Eapplied ≥ Eg, then a few electrons are able to excited into the conduction band. For
example, ni (electrons/cm3) = 1.08 x 1010 /cm3 for Si @ room temperature: For further
discussion, see the Table listed in the backside of textbook cover.

This value seems to be very high ! However, consider this: In Si, 5×1022 atoms/cm3
4 valence electrons/atom→ 2×1023 bonds(or equivalently valence electrons)/cm3.
Therefore, at room temperature, only 1 electrons out of 2 x 1013 electrons/cm3 can be
excited !

Even more, the average time an


electron spends in the CB is on the
order of 10-10 to 10-3 s, depending
on the quality of material.

Figure 1.9 At room temperature,


electrons are being excited up to the
conduction band and relaxing back to
the valence band. At any given
moment there is some number of
electrons in the conduction band. Hole

Semiconductor Engineering 23
BREAK: Matter vs. Antimatter

Hole theory proposed by Paul Dirac in 1928, and the discovery of


positron by Carl Anderson in 1932.
현상계
입자 (양의 에너지)

진공
(음의 에너지)

빈공간: 반입자

Semiconductor Engineering 24
Holes indeed contribute to the formation of current in the
semiconductor devices !

Figure 1.10 Movement of many electrons is treated as the movement of one


positively charged “hole.”

Semiconductor Engineering 25
Discussions on

[1] Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials (p. 19)


[2] Distinctive Features in Energy Band of Various Materials (p. 20)

Figure 1.11 Energy band diagrams for (a) an insulator, (b) a semiconductor, and (c) a
metal. The energies in the shaded regions are in general occupied.

Semiconductor Engineering 26
1.4 Wave-Particle Duality (p. 20) : Review of Physical Electronics

1. Classical waves have energies that are quantized. Each quantum of


energy can be considered a particle. For electromagnetic radiation (e.g.,
light), these particles are called photons. For acoustic waves (e.g.,
sound), the particles are called phonons.
The energy of these particles is
h
E = hν = 2πν = ηω (1.24)

2. Classical particles can be considered to be waves possessing energy
and wavelength.

3. The electric field of an electromagnetic wave traveling in the x direction


can be expressed by a simple sinusoidal function of amplitude A,
wavelength λ, and wave vector (wave number in 1-dimension problem):
ρ ⎡ ⎛x ⎞⎤ ⎛ E ⎞
E ( x , t ) = A cos⎢2π ⎜ − νt ⎟ ⎥ = A cos( Kx − ωt ) = A cos⎜ Kx − t ⎟ (1.25)
⎣ ⎝λ ⎠⎦ ⎝ η ⎠

K= (1.26)
λ

Semiconductor Engineering 27
4. Likewise, matter can also be described using waves using a wave
function: Matter Wave

⎛ E ⎞
Ψ ( x , t ) = A sin⎜ Kx − t ⎟ (1.27) : wave function
⎝ η ⎠

λ= (1.28) : wavelength of the matter wave
K

Ψ(x,t)=Ae j[ Kx − ( E / η) t ] (1.29) : general form of a wave function of the


matter wave in a vacuum (A=constant)

1.5 The Wave Function in 3-dimension with time variation (p. 22)

Ψ = Ψ ( x, y, z, t )

Semiconductor Engineering 28
Probability and the Wave Function

“A basic connection between the properties of the wave function and the
behavior of the associated particle is the probability density P(x, t).”

P( x , t ) = Ψ * ( x , t )Ψ( x , t )

where Ψ*(x, t) is the complex conjugate of Ψ*(x, t).

In summary,

• IΨ(x, y, z, t)I2 is the probability of finding the electron per unit volume at
x, y, z, at time t.
• IΨ(x, y, z, t)I2dxdydz is the probability of finding the electron in a small
elemental volume dxdydz at x, y, z at time t.
• If we are just considering one dimension, then the wave function is Ψ(x,
t), and IΨ(x, t)I2dx is the probability of finding the electron between x and
(x+dx) at time t.

Semiconductor Engineering 29
1.6 The Electron Wave Function

Remind the discussion we had in the course of “Physical Electronics”. Time-


dependent wave function can be derived by the multiplication of a space-
dependent part (i.e., time-independent wave function) by a time-dependent part.

Ψ(x,t)=ψ ( x )
− j ( E / η) t
(1.34) : time-dependent wave function

Now, ψ(x) can be derived by the time-independent Schrödinger’s equation.

− η2 d 2ψ ( x )
2
+ E P ( x )ψ ( x ) = Eψ ( x ) (1.35)
2m dx

Semiconductor Engineering 30
1.6.1 The Free Electron in One Dimension : constant potential
energy and no collision in a solid (p. 23)

The total energy of an electron in this case is E = Ep + Ek.


Now, the Schrodinger’s equation is

− η2 d 2ψ ( x )
2
+ Eoψ ( x ) = Eψ ( x ) (1.36)
2mo dx

Since both Eo and the total energy E are


constant, the eq. (1.36) becomes

d 2ψ ( x ) 2mo
+ 2 ( E − Eo )ψ ( x ) = 0
dx 2
η
(1.37)

Figure 1.12 The free electron model for an


electron; (a) the physical picture; (b) the
potential is assumed constant everywhere
inside the crystal.

Semiconductor Engineering 31
The solution to Equation (1.37) is

ψ ( x ) = Ae jKx + Be − jKx (1.38)


ψ ( x ) = C sin( Kx ) + D cos( Kx ) (1.39)

Here A, B, C, and D are constants to be determined from the boundary


conditions, and

2mo ( E − Eo ) 2mo E K
K= = (1.40) : Ek = kinetic energy
η2
η2

As discussed in eq. (1.34), the total wave function for the free electron is

Ψ( x , t ) = Ae j [ Kx − ( E / η) t ] + Be − j [ Kx + ( E / η) t ] (1.41)

Traveling wave in the +x direction Traveling wave in the -x direction

The electron could be going either way.

Semiconductor Engineering 32
The phase velocity is the velocity of a point of constant phase of the wave :

x E
νp = =
t ηK

The phase velocity is not unique because the total energy E is dependent on the
choice of potential energy reference.

The group velocity is the velocity associated with the center of mass of the
particle :

dx 1 dE
νg = = (1.43)
dt η dK

http://www.ee.mu.oz.au/staff/summer/applets/group_velocity.html

Semiconductor Engineering 33
The energy E of the electron is

η2 K 2
E = Eo + (1.44)
2mo

Kinetic Energy

∂ 2 E η2
= (1.47)
∂K 2
mo

The curvature (the second


derivative) of the E-K locus is
inversely proportional to the
mass.

Figure 1.13 The E-K diagram


for the free electron.

Semiconductor Engineering 34
1.6.2 The De Broglie Relationship (p. 25)

Presented in 1924, and awarded Nobel prize in 1929

“Just as a photon has a Fluorescent screen


50kV
light wave associated with Two slits
it that governs its motion,
so a material particle (e.g.,
Filament
an electron) has an
associated matter wave (or Electrons
pilot wave) that governs
its motion.” ----- A Grand Vacuum
Electron diffraction fringes on the
Symmetry of Nature screen

h Fig 3.12: Young's double slit experiment with electrons involves an


λ= electron gun and two slits in a cathode ray tune (CRT) (hence in
p vacuum). Electrons from the filament are accelerated by a 50 kV
anode voltage to produce a beam which is made to pass through the
slits. The electrons then produce a visible pattern when they strike a
This equation holds only fluoresecent screen (e.g. a TV screen) and the resulting visual pattern
when the potential energy is is photographed (pattern from C. Jönsson, D. Brandt, S. Hirschi,
Am. J. Physics, 42, Fig. 8, p. 9, 1974.
constant over the path of the
From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, S.O. Kasap (© McGraw-Hill, 2002)
electron. http://Materials.Usask.Ca

Semiconductor Engineering 35
1.6.4 The Quasi-free Electron Model (p. 27)

Now, consider the more realistic model. For a periodic function of Ep(x),
Ep(x) = Ep(x ± na). Then the Schrodinger’s equation becomes

d 2ψ ( x ) 2mo
+ 2 [ E − E p ( x )]ψ ( x ) = 0 (1.55)
dx 2
η

Note that we do not know the exact form of the potential energy Ep(x), so that
we cannot derive the exact solution of Eq. (1.55). ⇒ Use the Bloch theorem.

L = na

Figure 1.14 The electron potential energy in a crystal is a periodic function.

Semiconductor Engineering 36
Bloch Theorem (p. 28)

For an electron in a periodic potential [i.e., EP(x) is periodic function], the time-
independent wave function is

ψ ( x ) = U K ( x )e jKx (1.56) or ψ ( x + a) = ψ ( x )e jKa


where UK(x) is some function (or called as the unit cell wave function) that is
also periodic in x with the periodicity of the crystal.

Based on the discussion in p.23 and on Eq. (1.34), the time-dependent Bloch
wave function is

Ψ( x , t ) = U K ( x )e j[ Kx − ( E / η) t ] (1.57)

A unit amplitude plane wave modulated by some


periodic function UK(x) with period a.

U K ( x ) = U K ( x + na) (1.58)

Semiconductor Engineering 37
E – K Relationship : Rough Interpretation

We know that the crystalline forces acting on the electron are independent of the
direction of propagation (sign of K): Therefore, energy in K-space is

E(K) = E(-K)

This suggest that E(K) has an extremum (either a relative maximum or minimum)
at K=0.

After some mathematical derivation shown in p. 29, we are able to show

⎛ 2πn ⎞
E (K) = E⎜ K + ⎟ (1.66)
⎝ a ⎠

That is, the E(K) relation is periodic in K, with period 2π/a.

Semiconductor Engineering 38
Figure 1.15a One possible E versus K diagram for the periodic potential. E versus K.

Summary:
1. E(K) is periodic in K space, with period 2π/a.
2. Equivalent extrema in E exist at K = 0, ±2π/a, ±4π/a …..
3. Equivalent extrema exist at K = ±π/a, ±3π/a …..
4. The slope of the E-K curve is zero at K = 0, ±π/a, ±2π/a, ±3π/a, ±4π/a …..
5. The group velocity is periodic in K space with the same periodicity as the E-
K curve.
dx 1 dE
νg = = (1.43)
dt η dK

Semiconductor Engineering 39
Figure 1.15b One possible E versus
K diagram for the periodic potential.
The group velocity vg versus K.

Reduced Zone (or First Brillouin Zone)

Figure 1.16 The reduced, or first Brillouin,


zone.

Semiconductor Engineering 40
Energy Band Diagram : E - K vs. E - x

Figure 1.17 (a) The E-K diagram; (b) the corresponding energy band (E-x) diagram.

Semiconductor Engineering 41
More accurate calculation of E-K via Kronig-Penny model shows

No Bragg
Diffraction

-π/a +π/a

Bragg diffraction occurs at the BZ boundary, resulting in standing wave and


energy gap where no waves are allowed to be traveled.

http://www.mtmi.vu.lt/pfk/funkc_dariniai/quant_mech/bands.htm

Semiconductor Engineering 42
Reference : Band Gap of Si

Semiconductor Engineering 43
1.6.5 Reflection and Tunneling (p. 32)

Figure 1.18 An electron wave is


extended in space. (a) When the
wave reflects from the potential
barrier, the electron wave function
extends a short distance into the
forbidden region. Thus some fraction
of the electron charge is found to the
right of the barrier. (b) If the barrier
is very thin, the electron wave
function Y may extend all the way
through it. Since the probability
density Y*Y is not zero on the far
side of the barrier, there is some
(small) chance that the electron will
cross through the barrier and
emerge on the other side.

Semiconductor Engineering 44
게르트 비니히 하인리히로러
(Gerd Binnig) (Heinrich Rohrer)

www.zurich.ibm.com/st/nanoscience/i
ndex.html
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)

Semiconductor Engineering 45
Metal Vacuum Metal Vacuum
ψ(x)
Second Metal
ψ(x)

Vo Vo
V(x) V(x)
E < Vo
x x
(a) (b)
Itunnel

Itunnel
Probe Scan x

Material
surface
Image of surface (schematic sketch)
(c)
Fig. 3.17: (a) The wavefunction decays exponentially as we move away from the
surface because the PE outside the metal is Vo and the energy of the electron, E < Vo..
(b) If we bring a second metal close to the first metal, then the wavefunction can
penetrate into the second metal. The electron can tunnel from the first metal to the
second. (c) The principle of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. The tunneling current
depends on exp(-αa) where a is the distance of the probe from the surface of the
material and α is a constant.
From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, S.O. Kasap (© McGraw-Hill, 2002)
http://Materials.Usask.Ca
www.iap.tuwien.ac.at/www/Surface/STM_Gallery/stm_animated.gif
Semiconductor Engineering 46
[Thermomechanical storage
and AFM] Source: www.zurich.ibm.com/st/nanoscience/thermomech.html
Semiconductor Engineering 47
1.7 Optical Emission and Absorption

Light energy must be absorbed or emitted in integer multiples of hν.

E = hν = ηω pht (1.70)

Figure 1.19 (a) A photon of energy 2.06


eV is incident on a material of energy gap
2.5 eV. The photon cannot be absorbed.
(b) The band gap is small enough that
allowed states separated by 2.06 eV exist,
thus the photon can be absorbed. The
photon’s energy is given to the electron.
(c) In emission, the electron goes to a
lower energy state, releasing the extra
energy in the form of a photon.

Semiconductor Engineering 48
Example 1.5 Optical Communication

Solve this example by yourself.

Figure 1.20 (a) A communication fiber optic link contains a light source, a fiber,
and a photodetector. (b) Typical absorption spectrum for optical fiber.

Semiconductor Engineering 49
1.8 Crystal Structures, Planes, and Directions

Crystallography is of great interest to people who fabricate semiconductor


devices: This knowledge is especially important in MOSFET technology.

Crystalline Amorphous Poly-crystalline

Crystals are regular structures in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that
repeats throughout the material.

Electrical and physical properties strongly depend on the atomic arrangement in


the material.

Semiconductor Engineering 50
Figure 1.21 Cubic crystals: (a) simple cubic; (b) face-centered cubic, an atom in the
center of every face, and (c) body-centered cubic.
Figure 1.22 (a) The diamond
structure consists of two
interpenetrating FCC lattices. The
second FCC cube is offset by one-
quarter of the longest diagonal. The
dashed lines indicate the part of the
second FCC lattice that is outside
the unit diamond cell. (b) A zinc
blende material has the same
structure, but two types of atoms.
The black atoms are one type (for
example, gallium) and the colored
http://jas2.eng.buffalo.edu/applets/educa atoms are the other (arsenic).
tion/solid/unitCell/home.html
Semiconductor Engineering 51
Figure 1.23 The three most important crystallographic planes (in parentheses) and
the corresponding crystallographic directions (square brackets).

The device performance


including the mobility is
dependent upon the plane
and direction discussed
here !

Semiconductor Engineering 52