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노용한

Http://mdl.skku.ac.kr

Betty Lise Anderson • Richard L. Anderson

Semiconductor Engineering 1

Invention of the first transistor : Disruptive Technology

J. Bardeen and W. Brattain

Semiconductor Engineering 2

Semiconductor Devices

Part I

40%(중간고사) + 40%(기말고사)

Semiconductor Engineering 3

Goal : We will discuss the operation principles of

semiconductor devices : e.g., pn junction diode, MOSFET,

and BJT (very briefly). I-V characteristics of semiconductor

devices.

semiconductor materials in quantum mechanical point of

view. The core concept is “energy band”.

concepts of (1) charged carriers (i.e., electron and hole), (2)

their distribution in semiconductor materials in view of

electron energy, and (3) their actions (i.e., drift, diffusion, and

ehp G-R processes) will be introduced.

continuity equations which could be used for I-V analysis.

Semiconductor Engineering 4

One of the most important semiconductor devices is MOSFET.

Process Starting High Volume

Manufacturing,” Intel Developer Forum,

September 16, 2003

Z µ nCox ⎡ Vd ⎤

2

∴ ID = ⎢(VG − Vt )Vd − ⎥ ; 0 ≤ Vd ≤ Vdsat , Vg ≥ Vt

L ⎣ 2 ⎦

Semiconductor Engineering 5

MOSFET Applications in LOGIC and MEMORY:

VDD WL WL

FG

pMOS Capacitor

BL BL

Vin VO

Q I

nMOS

∆V =

∫ I inj dt

Q = ∫ C( v )dv Cox

V V

VSS

Destructive readout Nondestructive readout

Refresh No-refresh

Volatile Nonvolatile

Semiconductor Engineering 6

CMOS: Complementary MOS

Semiconductor Engineering 7

CMOS Inverter Circuit

the +VDD to ground !!!

and Vin = 0 (right)

Semiconductor Engineering 8

Mechanisms of Current Conduction and Continuity Equation

Ionized Impurity

Lattice Vibration

Drift due to the applied

electric field !

concentration

difference !

recombination !

Semiconductor Engineering 9

Continuity Equation

∂ n 1 ∂ n ∂ n

= ∇ ⋅ J + +

∂ t ∂ t ∂ t

N

q thermal

R − G

other

processes

∂ p 1 ∂ p ∂ p

= − ∇ ⋅ J + +

∂ t ∂ t ∂ t

P

q thermal

R − G

other

processes

∂∆ n p ∂ 2∆n p ∆n p

= DN − + GL

∂t ∂x 2

τn

∂∆ pn ∂ 2∆pn ∆pn

= DP − + GL

∂t ∂x 2

τp

Semiconductor Engineering 10

We need to understand the concepts of electron, hole, and their

densities via energy band in semiconductor materials !

Semiconductor Engineering 11

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Energy Band ψ

ψ A CONDUCTION BAND

hyb

ψ

A

3p

Energy gap, Eg

3s

ψ

B

Si ATOM

VALENCE BAND

ψ ψ

hyb B

Si CRYSTAL

Fig. 4.17: (a) Formation of energy bands in the Si crystal first involves hybridization

of 3s and 3p orbitals to four identical ψhyb orbitals which make 109.5° with each

other as shown in (b). (c) ψhyb orbitals on two neighboring Si atoms can overlap to

form ψB or ψA. The first is a bonding orbital (full) and the second is an antibondiong

orbital (empty). In the crystal ψB overlap to give the valence band (full) and ψA

overlap to give the conduction band (empty).

From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, S.O. Kasap (© McGraw-Hill, 2002)

http://Materials.Usask.Ca

Semiconductor Engineering 12

PART 1 Materials

: A brief review for both quantum mechanical concepts and

crystallography including crystal structure, plane and direction

: A review for energy band concept, semiconductor classification

(intrinsic vs. extrinsic), hole concept, and electron/hole distribution

in semiconductor by introducing density-of-states functions and

Fermi functions

: Introduction of both carrier actions (drift, diffusion, and ehp G-R)

which has been known to cause device current and continuity

equations that could be used for device analysis

: Introduction of the consequence of nonuniform doping

Semiconductor Engineering 13

Chapter 1 Electron Energy and States in Semiconductors

The point of this chapter is to understand some fundamental physics of

how electrons behave in matter.

Figure 1.1 :

Models of an Atom : (a) The Thompson model of an atom, in which the

positive charge is uniformly distributed in a sphere

[1] Thompson Model and the electrons are considered to be negative point

[2] Rutherford Model charges embedded in it;

(b) the Bohr model, in which the positive charge is

[3] Bohr Model concentrated in a small nucleus and the electrons

[4] Wilson-Sommerfeld Model orbit in circles;

(c) the Wilson-Sommerfeld model, which allows for

elliptical orbits.

Semiconductor Engineering 14

1.3.1 The Bohr Model for the Hydrogen Atom (p.5)

[1] Potential energy

q2

E p = Evac − (1.6)

4πεo r 2

as the potential energy at r = ∝

Figure 1.2 Potential energy diagram for an electron in the

vicinity of a single positive point charge. The electron is

considered to be a point charge.

[2] The Bohr radius of the nth state is

4πε o n 2 η2

rn = (1.12)

mq 2

mq 4

[3] The total energy En is En = E Kn + E Pn = Evac − (1.16)

2(4πε o ) 2 n 2 η2

Semiconductor Engineering 15

EXAMPLE 1.1 (p.8)

Find the energies and radii for the first four orbits in the hydrogen atom.

Figure 1.3

Allowed energies in the hydrogen atom. Higher

energies occur increasingly close to each other,

approaching the vacuum level.

Figure 1.4

Radii of the first four atomic orbits of the

hydrogen atom, according to the Bohr model.

Semiconductor Engineering 16

1.3.2 Application to Molecules: Covalent Bonding (p.11)

sufficiently far apart so that they

do not influence each other.

noninteracting hydrogen nuclei.

approach each other, an electron

would be influenced by both

nuclei according to Coulomb’s

law.

the upper energy levels merge and electrons in

those levels are shared between the atoms.

Semiconductor Engineering 17

H-atom H-atom

Electron shell

1s 1s

Covalent bond

H-H Molecule Figure 1.6c The nuclei are sufficiently close

2 1 together that all energy levels are shared.

Since the lowest level is usually the only

2 1 occupied level for hydrogen, if it is occupied

by two electrons H2 molecule is stable.

1 2

Fig. 1.4: Formation of a covalent bond between two H atoms leads Read the paragraph in your textbook

to the H2 molecule. Electrons spend majority of their time between

page 12: Ek = E1 - Ep so that the

the two nuclei which results in a net attraction between the electrons

and the two nuclei which is the origin of the covalent bond . velocity of electrons is smallest in

From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, S.O. Kasap (© McGraw-Hill, 2002)

between the nuclei.

http://Materials.Usask.Ca

Semiconductor Engineering 18

1.3.4 Covalent Bonding in Crystalline Solids (p.14)

Consider Si crystal

The electrons occupying the outer subshells are called valence

electrons, which determine the valency of the atoms.

involve in chemical reactions:

Covalent Bonding”

chemical reactions on normal atom-atom interaction.”

Semiconductor Engineering 19

Si crystalline in 3-dimension and the bonding model in 2-dimension

valence electrons :

contribute to the formation of VB

http://jas2.eng.buffalo.edu/applets/ed

ucation/solid/unitCell/home.html

Figure 1.7a Two-dimensional bonding

representation of a crystalline solid.

Semiconductor Engineering 20

“The four vacant states in the third shell of atoms in Si form a

band in crystalline Si called the conduction band.”

Forbidden Band

Figure 1.7b Potential energy for an electron in that crystal along a row of atoms

(solid line) and between rows (dashed line). In this representation the electron is

considered a point charge.

Semiconductor Engineering 21

Electron Affinity, Ionization Potential, and Band Gap (p. 16)

Ionization energy : the minimum energy required to excite an electron from the

top of the valence band in the crystal to the vacuum level

Electron affinity : the energy difference between the vacuum level and the vacant

state of lowest energy (i.e., Ec)

Energy gap : the minimum energy required to excite an electron from the valence

band to the conduction band

discuss the properties of various

materials.

vacuum energy Evac, electron

affinity c, ionization energy g

and the energy gap Eg.

Semiconductor Engineering 22

Occupancy of energy band as a function of temperature (p. 18)

If Eapplied ≥ Eg, then a few electrons are able to excited into the conduction band. For

example, ni (electrons/cm3) = 1.08 x 1010 /cm3 for Si @ room temperature: For further

discussion, see the Table listed in the backside of textbook cover.

This value seems to be very high ! However, consider this: In Si, 5×1022 atoms/cm3

4 valence electrons/atom→ 2×1023 bonds(or equivalently valence electrons)/cm3.

Therefore, at room temperature, only 1 electrons out of 2 x 1013 electrons/cm3 can be

excited !

electron spends in the CB is on the

order of 10-10 to 10-3 s, depending

on the quality of material.

electrons are being excited up to the

conduction band and relaxing back to

the valence band. At any given

moment there is some number of

electrons in the conduction band. Hole

Semiconductor Engineering 23

BREAK: Matter vs. Antimatter

positron by Carl Anderson in 1932.

현상계

입자 (양의 에너지)

진공

(음의 에너지)

빈공간: 반입자

Semiconductor Engineering 24

Holes indeed contribute to the formation of current in the

semiconductor devices !

positively charged “hole.”

Semiconductor Engineering 25

Discussions on

[2] Distinctive Features in Energy Band of Various Materials (p. 20)

Figure 1.11 Energy band diagrams for (a) an insulator, (b) a semiconductor, and (c) a

metal. The energies in the shaded regions are in general occupied.

Semiconductor Engineering 26

1.4 Wave-Particle Duality (p. 20) : Review of Physical Electronics

energy can be considered a particle. For electromagnetic radiation (e.g.,

light), these particles are called photons. For acoustic waves (e.g.,

sound), the particles are called phonons.

The energy of these particles is

h

E = hν = 2πν = ηω (1.24)

2π

2. Classical particles can be considered to be waves possessing energy

and wavelength.

can be expressed by a simple sinusoidal function of amplitude A,

wavelength λ, and wave vector (wave number in 1-dimension problem):

ρ ⎡ ⎛x ⎞⎤ ⎛ E ⎞

E ( x , t ) = A cos⎢2π ⎜ − νt ⎟ ⎥ = A cos( Kx − ωt ) = A cos⎜ Kx − t ⎟ (1.25)

⎣ ⎝λ ⎠⎦ ⎝ η ⎠

2π

K= (1.26)

λ

Semiconductor Engineering 27

4. Likewise, matter can also be described using waves using a wave

function: Matter Wave

⎛ E ⎞

Ψ ( x , t ) = A sin⎜ Kx − t ⎟ (1.27) : wave function

⎝ η ⎠

2π

λ= (1.28) : wavelength of the matter wave

K

matter wave in a vacuum (A=constant)

1.5 The Wave Function in 3-dimension with time variation (p. 22)

Ψ = Ψ ( x, y, z, t )

Semiconductor Engineering 28

Probability and the Wave Function

“A basic connection between the properties of the wave function and the

behavior of the associated particle is the probability density P(x, t).”

P( x , t ) = Ψ * ( x , t )Ψ( x , t )

In summary,

• IΨ(x, y, z, t)I2 is the probability of finding the electron per unit volume at

x, y, z, at time t.

• IΨ(x, y, z, t)I2dxdydz is the probability of finding the electron in a small

elemental volume dxdydz at x, y, z at time t.

• If we are just considering one dimension, then the wave function is Ψ(x,

t), and IΨ(x, t)I2dx is the probability of finding the electron between x and

(x+dx) at time t.

Semiconductor Engineering 29

1.6 The Electron Wave Function

dependent wave function can be derived by the multiplication of a space-

dependent part (i.e., time-independent wave function) by a time-dependent part.

Ψ(x,t)=ψ ( x )

− j ( E / η) t

(1.34) : time-dependent wave function

− η2 d 2ψ ( x )

2

+ E P ( x )ψ ( x ) = Eψ ( x ) (1.35)

2m dx

Semiconductor Engineering 30

1.6.1 The Free Electron in One Dimension : constant potential

energy and no collision in a solid (p. 23)

Now, the Schrodinger’s equation is

− η2 d 2ψ ( x )

2

+ Eoψ ( x ) = Eψ ( x ) (1.36)

2mo dx

constant, the eq. (1.36) becomes

d 2ψ ( x ) 2mo

+ 2 ( E − Eo )ψ ( x ) = 0

dx 2

η

(1.37)

electron; (a) the physical picture; (b) the

potential is assumed constant everywhere

inside the crystal.

Semiconductor Engineering 31

The solution to Equation (1.37) is

ψ ( x ) = C sin( Kx ) + D cos( Kx ) (1.39)

conditions, and

2mo ( E − Eo ) 2mo E K

K= = (1.40) : Ek = kinetic energy

η2

η2

As discussed in eq. (1.34), the total wave function for the free electron is

Ψ( x , t ) = Ae j [ Kx − ( E / η) t ] + Be − j [ Kx + ( E / η) t ] (1.41)

Semiconductor Engineering 32

The phase velocity is the velocity of a point of constant phase of the wave :

x E

νp = =

t ηK

The phase velocity is not unique because the total energy E is dependent on the

choice of potential energy reference.

The group velocity is the velocity associated with the center of mass of the

particle :

dx 1 dE

νg = = (1.43)

dt η dK

http://www.ee.mu.oz.au/staff/summer/applets/group_velocity.html

Semiconductor Engineering 33

The energy E of the electron is

η2 K 2

E = Eo + (1.44)

2mo

Kinetic Energy

∂ 2 E η2

= (1.47)

∂K 2

mo

derivative) of the E-K locus is

inversely proportional to the

mass.

for the free electron.

Semiconductor Engineering 34

1.6.2 The De Broglie Relationship (p. 25)

50kV

light wave associated with Two slits

it that governs its motion,

so a material particle (e.g.,

Filament

an electron) has an

associated matter wave (or Electrons

pilot wave) that governs

its motion.” ----- A Grand Vacuum

Electron diffraction fringes on the

Symmetry of Nature screen

λ= electron gun and two slits in a cathode ray tune (CRT) (hence in

p vacuum). Electrons from the filament are accelerated by a 50 kV

anode voltage to produce a beam which is made to pass through the

slits. The electrons then produce a visible pattern when they strike a

This equation holds only fluoresecent screen (e.g. a TV screen) and the resulting visual pattern

when the potential energy is is photographed (pattern from C. Jönsson, D. Brandt, S. Hirschi,

Am. J. Physics, 42, Fig. 8, p. 9, 1974.

constant over the path of the

From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, S.O. Kasap (© McGraw-Hill, 2002)

electron. http://Materials.Usask.Ca

Semiconductor Engineering 35

1.6.4 The Quasi-free Electron Model (p. 27)

Now, consider the more realistic model. For a periodic function of Ep(x),

Ep(x) = Ep(x ± na). Then the Schrodinger’s equation becomes

d 2ψ ( x ) 2mo

+ 2 [ E − E p ( x )]ψ ( x ) = 0 (1.55)

dx 2

η

Note that we do not know the exact form of the potential energy Ep(x), so that

we cannot derive the exact solution of Eq. (1.55). ⇒ Use the Bloch theorem.

L = na

Semiconductor Engineering 36

Bloch Theorem (p. 28)

For an electron in a periodic potential [i.e., EP(x) is periodic function], the time-

independent wave function is

where UK(x) is some function (or called as the unit cell wave function) that is

also periodic in x with the periodicity of the crystal.

Based on the discussion in p.23 and on Eq. (1.34), the time-dependent Bloch

wave function is

Ψ( x , t ) = U K ( x )e j[ Kx − ( E / η) t ] (1.57)

periodic function UK(x) with period a.

U K ( x ) = U K ( x + na) (1.58)

Semiconductor Engineering 37

E – K Relationship : Rough Interpretation

We know that the crystalline forces acting on the electron are independent of the

direction of propagation (sign of K): Therefore, energy in K-space is

E(K) = E(-K)

This suggest that E(K) has an extremum (either a relative maximum or minimum)

at K=0.

⎛ 2πn ⎞

E (K) = E⎜ K + ⎟ (1.66)

⎝ a ⎠

Semiconductor Engineering 38

Figure 1.15a One possible E versus K diagram for the periodic potential. E versus K.

Summary:

1. E(K) is periodic in K space, with period 2π/a.

2. Equivalent extrema in E exist at K = 0, ±2π/a, ±4π/a …..

3. Equivalent extrema exist at K = ±π/a, ±3π/a …..

4. The slope of the E-K curve is zero at K = 0, ±π/a, ±2π/a, ±3π/a, ±4π/a …..

5. The group velocity is periodic in K space with the same periodicity as the E-

K curve.

dx 1 dE

νg = = (1.43)

dt η dK

Semiconductor Engineering 39

Figure 1.15b One possible E versus

K diagram for the periodic potential.

The group velocity vg versus K.

zone.

Semiconductor Engineering 40

Energy Band Diagram : E - K vs. E - x

Figure 1.17 (a) The E-K diagram; (b) the corresponding energy band (E-x) diagram.

Semiconductor Engineering 41

More accurate calculation of E-K via Kronig-Penny model shows

No Bragg

Diffraction

-π/a +π/a

energy gap where no waves are allowed to be traveled.

http://www.mtmi.vu.lt/pfk/funkc_dariniai/quant_mech/bands.htm

Semiconductor Engineering 42

Reference : Band Gap of Si

Semiconductor Engineering 43

1.6.5 Reflection and Tunneling (p. 32)

extended in space. (a) When the

wave reflects from the potential

barrier, the electron wave function

extends a short distance into the

forbidden region. Thus some fraction

of the electron charge is found to the

right of the barrier. (b) If the barrier

is very thin, the electron wave

function Y may extend all the way

through it. Since the probability

density Y*Y is not zero on the far

side of the barrier, there is some

(small) chance that the electron will

cross through the barrier and

emerge on the other side.

Semiconductor Engineering 44

게르트 비니히 하인리히로러

(Gerd Binnig) (Heinrich Rohrer)

www.zurich.ibm.com/st/nanoscience/i

ndex.html

Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)

Semiconductor Engineering 45

Metal Vacuum Metal Vacuum

ψ(x)

Second Metal

ψ(x)

Vo Vo

V(x) V(x)

E < Vo

x x

(a) (b)

Itunnel

Itunnel

Probe Scan x

Material

surface

Image of surface (schematic sketch)

(c)

Fig. 3.17: (a) The wavefunction decays exponentially as we move away from the

surface because the PE outside the metal is Vo and the energy of the electron, E < Vo..

(b) If we bring a second metal close to the first metal, then the wavefunction can

penetrate into the second metal. The electron can tunnel from the first metal to the

second. (c) The principle of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. The tunneling current

depends on exp(-αa) where a is the distance of the probe from the surface of the

material and α is a constant.

From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, Second Edition, S.O. Kasap (© McGraw-Hill, 2002)

http://Materials.Usask.Ca

www.iap.tuwien.ac.at/www/Surface/STM_Gallery/stm_animated.gif

Semiconductor Engineering 46

[Thermomechanical storage

and AFM] Source: www.zurich.ibm.com/st/nanoscience/thermomech.html

Semiconductor Engineering 47

1.7 Optical Emission and Absorption

E = hν = ηω pht (1.70)

eV is incident on a material of energy gap

2.5 eV. The photon cannot be absorbed.

(b) The band gap is small enough that

allowed states separated by 2.06 eV exist,

thus the photon can be absorbed. The

photon’s energy is given to the electron.

(c) In emission, the electron goes to a

lower energy state, releasing the extra

energy in the form of a photon.

Semiconductor Engineering 48

Example 1.5 Optical Communication

Figure 1.20 (a) A communication fiber optic link contains a light source, a fiber,

and a photodetector. (b) Typical absorption spectrum for optical fiber.

Semiconductor Engineering 49

1.8 Crystal Structures, Planes, and Directions

devices: This knowledge is especially important in MOSFET technology.

Crystals are regular structures in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that

repeats throughout the material.

the material.

Semiconductor Engineering 50

Figure 1.21 Cubic crystals: (a) simple cubic; (b) face-centered cubic, an atom in the

center of every face, and (c) body-centered cubic.

Figure 1.22 (a) The diamond

structure consists of two

interpenetrating FCC lattices. The

second FCC cube is offset by one-

quarter of the longest diagonal. The

dashed lines indicate the part of the

second FCC lattice that is outside

the unit diamond cell. (b) A zinc

blende material has the same

structure, but two types of atoms.

The black atoms are one type (for

example, gallium) and the colored

http://jas2.eng.buffalo.edu/applets/educa atoms are the other (arsenic).

tion/solid/unitCell/home.html

Semiconductor Engineering 51

Figure 1.23 The three most important crystallographic planes (in parentheses) and

the corresponding crystallographic directions (square brackets).

including the mobility is

dependent upon the plane

and direction discussed

here !

Semiconductor Engineering 52

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