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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum

1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

Section A

n
1. (a) (i) (1  x)n   Ckn x k for all x  R
k 0
n
 n(1  x)n  1   kCkn x k 1 (Diff. both sides w.r.t. x)
k 1

 C1n  2C2n x  3C3n x 2    nCnn x n 1

1. (a) (ii) Method 1  Using indefinite integral
n
(1  x)n   Ckn x k
k 0
n
  (1  x) dx   C  x dx
n n k
k (Integrate both sides w.r.t. x)
k 0

(1  x) n 1 n
C n x k 1
  k C where C is a constant
n 1 k 0 k  1

Put x  0, we have
(1  0) n 1 n
C n  0 k 1
 k C
n 1 k 0 k 1
1
 C
n 1
(1  x) n 1 n
C n x k 1 1
  k 
n 1 k 0 k  1 n 1
1 Cn Cn Cn
  C0n x  1 x 2  x x3    n x n 1
n 1 2 3 n 1

Method 2  Using definite integral
n
(1  y)n   Ckn y k for all y  R
k 0
n
(1  y ) n dy   Ckn  x k dx
x
  0
k 0
(Integrate both sides w.r.t. y on (0, x))

[(1  y ) n 1 ] 0x n
C n [ y k 1 ] 0x
  k
n 1 k 0 k 1
n 1 n k 1
(1  x)  1 n
C x
  k
n 1 k 0 k  1

(1  x) n 1 1 C1n 2 Cxn 3 Cnn n 1
   C0 x 
n
x  x   x
n 1 n 1 2 3 n 1

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

1. (b) n(1  x)n  1  C1n  2C2n x  3C3n x 2    nCnn x n 1 (From (a)(i))
1
 (1  x)n  1  (C1n  2C2n x  3C3n x 2    nCnn x n 1 ) (*1)
n
(1  x) n 1 1 Cn Cn Cn
  C0n x  1 x 2  x x3    n x n 1 (From (a)(ii))
n 1 n 1 2 3 n 1
 Cn Cn Cn 
 (1  x)n  1  1  (n  1)  C0n x  1 x 2  x x3    n x n 1  (*2)
 2 3 n 1 
(*1)  (*2), we have
1 n
(1  x)n  1(1  x)n  1  (C1  2C2n x  3C3n x 2    nCnn x n 1 )
n
  Cn Cn Cn 
 1  (n  1)  C0n x  1 x 2  x x3    n x n 1  
  2 3 n 1 
The coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1  x)n  1(1  x)n  1
n  1  n Cnn1 n
n Cn  2
n
n Cn 3 
  1
C   2C   3C     nCnn  C0n 
n 1 n2
2 3
n  n 
n  1  n C1n Cn Cn 
  C1   2C2n  2  3C3n  3    nCnn  Cnn  ( Cnn k  C kn )
n  n n 1 n2 
n  1  (C1n )2 2(C2n )2 3(C3n )2 n(Cnn ) 2 
       
n  n n 1 n2 1 

The coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1  x)2n
 C n2 n
(2n)!

n !(2n  n)!
(2 n)!

( n !) 2
Since (1  x)n  1(1  x)n  1  (1  x)2n, the coefficients of xn on both sides are equal.

n  1  (C1n )2 2(C2n )2 3(C3n )2 n(Cnn ) 2  (2 n)!
     
n  n n 1 n2 1  ( n !) 2
(C1n ) 2 2(C2n ) 2 3(C3n ) 2 n(Cnn ) 2 n(2n)!
     
n n 1 n2 1 (n  1)(n !) 2

2. (a) By the division algorithm, we have
f (x)  (x  1)(x  3)Q1(x)  (2x  5) where Q1 is a polynomial
Put x  1, we have
f (1)  (1  1)(1  3)Q1(1)  (2  1  5)
3

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

2. (b) (i) By the division algorithm, we have
f (x)  (x  1)(x  2)Q2(x)  (kx  8) where Q2 is a polynomial
Put x  1, we have
f (1)  (1  1)(1  2)Q2(1)  (k  1  8)
 3k8 (From (a))
 k  5

2. (b) (ii) By the remainder theorem, we have
The remainder when [f (x)]2007 is divided by x  2
 [f (2)]2007
 [(2  1)(2  2)Q2(2)  (5  2  8)]2007 (From (b)(i))
 (2) 2007

 22007

1 A B C
3. (a) (i) Let    where A, B and C are constants.
x( x  1)( x  1) x x  1 x  1
1 A B C
  
x( x  1)( x  1) x x  1 x 1
 1  A(x  1)(x  1)  Bx(x  1)  Cx(x  1) (*1)

Method 1  Find A, B and C by substitution
Put x  0, 1 and 1 respectively in (*1), we have
1  A 1  2B 1  2C
1 1
 A  1  B  C
2 2

Method 2  Find A, B and C by comparing coefficients
1  A(x  1)(x  1)  Bx(x  1)  Cx(x  1)
 1  (A  B  C)x2  (B  C)x  A
A  B  C  0

  B  C  0
 A 1

1 1
On solving, we have A   1, B  and C  .
2 2

1 1 1 1
   
x( x  1)( x  1) x 2( x  1) 2( x  1)

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

1 1 1 1
3. (a) (ii)    (From (a)(i))
x( x  1)( x  1) x 2( x  1) 2( x  1)
d
[x( x  1)( x  1)]
1 1 1
  dx  2  (Diff. both sides w.r.t. x)
[ x( x  1)( x  1)]2
x 2( x  1) 2( x  1) 2
2

d 3
( x  x)
d x 1 1 1
  2 
x ( x  1) ( x  1)
2 2 2
x 2( x  1) 2( x  1) 2
2

3x 2  1 1 1 1
  2 
x ( x  1) ( x  1)
2 2 2
x 2( x  1) 2( x  1) 2
2


3k 2  1 
 1 1 1 
3. (b) 
k  2 k ( k  1) ( k  1)
2 2 2
    2 
2(k  1) 2(k  1) 
2 2
(From (a)(ii))
k 2  k

1 1  1 1  1
  2    
k 2 k 2 k  2 (k  1) 2 k  2 (k  1) 2
2


1 1  1 1  1
  2   2   2
k 2 k 2 k 3 k 2 k 1 k

1 1  1 1  1  1 1 
  2
  2  2   2  2 
k 2 k 2  k 2 k 2  2  k 2 k 1 
3

8

4. (a) Method 1  Using relation of slopes of perpendicular lines y
P1(5, 12)
Note that
12  0 5  0
Slope of OP1  Slope of OP2  
5  0 12  0

 1 O x
 
 P1OP2  , i.e.  
2 2 P2(12, 5)

Method 2  Using matrix transformation
 12 cos   sin    5
 5    sin  cos   12 
    
 5cos   12sin  
 
 12cos   5sin  
5cos   12sin   12
 
 12cos   5sin   5

On solving, we have cos   0 and sin   1, i.e.  
2

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

cos   sin  
4. (b) A 
 sin  cos  
0 1 
  (From (a),   )
1 0  2
0 1
2007

 A 2007
 
1 0 
501
 0 1 4  0 1
3

  
 1 0   1 0 
 
 
501
1 0  0 1

0 1   1 0 
0 1

 1 0 

4. (c) For all n  N,
 (12, 5) when n  4k
 (5, 12) when n  4k  1

The coordinates of Pn   where k  0, 1, 2, …
(12,  5) when n  4k  2
 (5,  12) when n  4k  3

Explanation
For all n  N, let (xn, yn) be the coordinates of Pn, n  4k  q, where k  0, 1, 2, … and
q  1, 2, 3 or 4.
 xn  n 1  1 
x
y   A y 
 n  1
4 k  q 1
0 1  5 0 1
  12  (From (a), A   )
1 0    1 0 
k
 0 1 4  0 1 q1  5
  
 1 0   1 0  12 
 
1 0 0 1  5
k q1

    12 
 0 1  1 0   
0 1  5
q1

   
1 0  12 
 12 5T when q  1, i.e. n  4k

  5 12 when q  2, i.e. n  4k  1
T


 12 5 when q  3, i.e. n  4k  2
T


 5 12 when q  4, i.e. n  4k  3
T

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

5. (a) M 2  M   I
 (P 1QP)2  P 1QP   I
 P 1Q2P  P 1QP   I
 P(P 1Q2P)P 1  P(P 1QP   I )P 1
 Q2  Q  
 2 0     0 
  2

0    0    

 2      0 (*1)
  2
       0 (*2)

Method 1  Find  and  using the relation or roots
From (*1) and (*2),  and  are the roots of the quadratic equation x2  x    0.
      and   

Method 2  Find  and  by solving the system of equations
(*1)  (*2), we have
( 2   2 )   (    )  0
2 2
  (   )
 

Put      into (*1), we have
 2  (   )    0
   

5. (b) Method 1  Using the result of (a)
M 2  (   )M   I (From (a),      and    )
 M   I  (   )M
2

 det (M 2   I )  det [(   )M]
 (   )2  det M (M is a 2  2 matrix)
1
 (   )  det (P QP)
2

 (   )2  det (P 1)  det Q  det P
  0  
 (   )2  (det P) 1  det P  det   
0  
  (   )2

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

Method 2  Without using the result of (a)
det (M 2   I )  det [(P 1QP)2   I ]
 det (P 1Q2P   P 1IP)
 det [P 1(Q2   I )P]
 det (P 1)  det (Q2   I )  det P
  2   0 
 (det P) 1  det P  det   
  2    
 0
 ( 2   )( 2   )
  (   )2

6. (a) Method 1  Using the given factorization
If 0  r  1, we have If r  1, we have

r  1  0 (*1) r  1  0 (*3)
p p

  q  q
 r  1  0 (*2)  r  1  0 (*4)

(*1)  (*2), we have (*3)  (*4), we have
(r p  1)(r q  1)  0 (r p  1)(r q  1)  0
Combining the two cases, we have
(r p  1)(r q  1)  0
 rp  q  rp  rq  1  0

Method 2  Using differentiation
Let f (r)  r p  q  r p  r q  1 for r  0
f (r)  r p  q  r p  r q  1
 f (r)  (p  q)r p  q  1  pr p  1  qr q  1
 pr p  1(r q  1)  qr q  1(r p  1)
 0 when 0  r  1

 f (r)   0 when r  1
 0 when r  1

 f attains absolute minimum at r  1.
i.e. f (r)  f (1) for all r  0
pq
 r  r  r  1  1p  q  1p  1q  1
p q

0

6. (b) (i) Let r be the common ratio of {an}, i.e. an  a1r n  1. Note r  0 as {an} is positive.
For all k  1, 2, …, n, put p  k  1 and q  n  k in the result of (a), we have
rn  1  rk  1  rn  k  1  0
 a1  a1r n  1  a1r k  1  a1r n  k (a1  0)
 a1  an  ak  an  k  1

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

6. (b) (ii) a1  an  ak  an  k  1 for k  1, 2, …, n (From (b)(i))
n n
  (a  a )   (a
k 1
1 n
k 1
k  an k 1 ) (Sum from k  1 to n)
n n
 n(a1  an)   ak   an  k 1
k 1 k 1
n n
  ak   ak (Reverse the 2nd sum on RHS)
k 1 k 1

1 1 n
 (a1  an )   ak (*5)
2 n k 1

1 n
Method 1  Proving  ak  a1an
n k 1
By A.M.  G.M., we have
1n
1 n  n 
 a k    ak 
n k 1  k 1 
1n
 n 
   a1r k 1 
 k 1 
 ( k 1)
1 n
 a1r n k 1
1 n ( n 1)

 a1r n 2
(Sum of arithmetic sequence)
 a1  a1r n1
 a1an (*6)

1 n
Method 2  Proving  ak  a1an
n k 1
For all k  1, 2, …, n, by A.M.  G.M., we have
1
(ak  an  k 1 )  ak ank 1
2
 a1r k 1  an r1k
 a1an
n n
1
  2 (a
k 1
k  an  k 1 )   a1an
k 1
(Sum from k  1 to n)

1 n n

  
2  k 1
ak  
k 1
ank 1   n a1an

1 n n

  
2  k 1
ak  
k 1
ak   n a1an

(Reverse the 2nd sum on LHS)
n
1
  ak  a1an
n k 1
(*6)

~8~
Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

Combining (*5) and (*6), we have
1 1 n
(a1  an )   ak  a1an
2 n k 1

Section B

1 3 0
7. (a) (i)  1 5 a
2 a 1
1 0 0
 1 8 a
2 a  6 1
8 a

a  6 1
 8  a(a  6)
 a2  6a  8
 (a  2)(a  4)
(E) has a unique solution.
 0
 (a  2)(a  4)  0
 a  2 and a  4
For the case that (E) has a unique solution, i.e. a  2 and a  4, then we have
1 3 0 1 1 0 1 3 1
x  b 5 a y  1 b a z  1 5 b
2 a 1 2 2 1 2 a 2
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
 b 3b  5 a  1 b 1 a  1 8 b 1
2 a  6 1 2 0 1 2 a6 0
3b  5 a b 1 a 8 b 1
  
a  6 1 0 1 a6 0
 3b  5  a2  6a  (b  1)  (a  6)(b  1)
 a2  6a  3b  5
The unique solution of (E) is given by
 x  a 2  6a  3b  5 a 2  6a  3b  5
x  
 ( a  2)( a  4) ( a  2)( a  4)
y (b  1) b 1
y  
 (a  2)( a  4) (a  2)( a  4)
 (a  6)(b  1) (a  6)(b  1)
z z  
 (a  2)( a  4) (a  2)( a  4)

~9~
Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

7. (a) (ii) When a  2, we have
1 3 0 1
 
(E)  1 5 2 b 
2 2 1 2 

1 3 0 1 
 
 0 8 2 b  1 (R2  R1, R3  2R1)
0 1 0 
 4
1 3 0 1 
 
 0 4 1 0  (R2  R3)
0 2 b  1
 8
1 3 0 1 
 
 0 4 1 0  (R3  2R2)
0 0 b  1
 0

From R3, (E) is consistent
 b10
 b1
For the case that (E) is consistent, i.e. b  1, then we have
 1 3 0 1 
 
(E)   0 4 1 0 
0 0 0 0
 

 3 1 
 The solution of (E) is (x, y, z)   1  t , t , t  for all t  R.
 4 4 

7. (b) In the given system, the first 3 equations are equivalent to (E) with a  1 and b  16.
From (a)(i), the (unique) solution of the first 3 equations in the given system is given by
12  6 1  3 16  5
x 4
(1  2)(1  4)
16  1
y 1
(1  2)(1  4)
(1  6)(16  1)
z 7
(1  2)(1  4)
Put (x, y, z)  (4, 1, 7) into the 4th equation of the given system, we have
4173
 4  3
 Contradiction exists, i.e. the given system is inconsistent.

~ 10 ~
Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

7. (c) In the given system, the first 3 equations are equivalent to (E) with a  2 and b  1.
From (a)(ii), the (infinitely many) solution of the first 3 equations in the given system is
 3 1 
given by (x, y, z)   1  t , t , t  for all t  R.
 4 4 
 3 1 
Put (x, y, z)   1  t , t , t  into the 4th equation of the given system, we have
 4 4 
 3  1
1  t   t  t  3
 4  4
1
 1 t  3
2
 t  4
 The given system is consistent, with solution given by (x, y, z)  (2, 1, 4).

r2
8. (a) x 4  px 3  qx 2  rx  0
p2
r r2
 x  px  q   2 2  0
2
(x  0 is not a root)
x p x
 2 2r  r  2   r   2r 
 x       p  x  q    0
 p  px    px   p
2
 r   r   2r 
 x   p x  q    0
 px   px   p

(b) (i) Put y  x  h into (*), we have
(x  h)4  (x  h)2  4(x  h)  3  0 (*1)

Method 1  By direct expansion
Expanding LHS of (*1), we have
(x4  4hx3  6h2x2  4h3x  h4)  (x2  2hx  h2)  4(x  h)  3  0
 x4  4hx3  (6h2  1)x2  (4h3  2h  4)x  (h4  h2  4h  3)  0
Comparing the coefficients, we have
P  4h
Q  6h2  1
R  4h3  2h  4
S  h4  h2  4h  3

Method 2  By differentiation
Equating LHS of (*1) and x4  Px3  Qx2  Rx  S, we have
(x  h)4  (x  h)2  4(x  h)  3  x4  Px3  Qx2  Rx  S (*2)

~ 11 ~
Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

Differentiate both sides of (*2) with respect to x three times, we have
4(x  h)3  2(x  h)  4  4x3  3Px2  2Qx  R (*3)
12(x  h)2  2  12x2  6Px  2Q (*4)
24(x  h)  24x2  6P (*5)
Put x  0 in (*3), (*4) and (*5) respectively, we have
6P  24h 2Q  12h2  2 R  4h3  2h  4
 P  4h  Q  6h2  1
Put x  0 in (*2), we have
S  h4  h2  4h  3

8. (b) (ii) P2S  R2
 (4h)2(h4  h2  4h  3)  (4h3  2h  4)2 (From (b)(i))
 16h6  16h4  64h3  48h2  16h6  16h4  32h3  4h2  16h  16
 8h3  13h2  4h  4  0

8. (c) Put h  2 into 8h3  13h2  4h  4  0, we have
LHS  8(2)3  13(2)2  4(2)  4
0
 RHS
 When h  2, we have the relation P2S  R2.
When h  2, we also have
P  4(2)  8
Q  6(2)2  1  25
R  4(2)3  2(2)  4  40
S  (2)4  (2)2  4(2)  3  25
Note that the relation PR  0 is also satisfied when h  2.
From (b), by putting y  x  2, (*) can be written as
x4  8x3  25x2  40x  25  0 (*6)
From (a), the above equation can be written as

40  40   2  40 
2
 
x   8 x     25   0
 8 x   8 x   8 
2
 5  5
  x    8  x    15  0
 x  x
 5    5 
  x  x   3  x  x   5  0
     
5
x   3 or 5
x

~ 12 ~
Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

5 5
For the case that x   3, we have For the case that x   5, we have
x x
5 5
x 3 x 5
x x
 x2  3x  5  0  x2  5x  5  0
3  (3)  4(1)(5)
2
5  (5) 2  4(1)(5)
 x  x
2(1) 2(1)
3 11 5 5
  i 
2 2 2

3 11 3 11 5  5 5 5
 The root of (*6) are  i,  i, and .
2 2 2 2 2 2

1 11 1 11 1  5 1 5
Put y  x  2, the root of (*) are   i,   i, and .
2 2 2 2 2 2

(t  1) 1
9. (a) f (t) 
t
t   (  1)(t  1)  (t  1) 1   t  1
 f (t)  (Diff. both sides w.r.t. t)
t 2
(t  1) [(  1)t   (t  1)]

t  1
(t  1) (t   )

t  1
 0 when 0  t  

 f (t)  0 when t  
 0 when t  

 f attains absolute minimum at t  .
i.e. f (t)  f ( ) for all t  0
(t  1) 1 (  1) 1
 
t 

~ 13 ~
Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

1
9. (b) (i) Put   in the result in (a) (  0 as  1,  2  0), we have
2
1
1
1  1 2
1
  1 
(t  1) 2

1
  2 1 for all t  0
t 2  1   2
 
 2 
1  2
 1 
  1
(t  1)1  2 
   2 1 (Take power  2 on both sides)
t 1  1 
 
 2 
(   )1 2
 1  2 (Multiply  2 
1 2
to both the
1  2
1 2

numerator and the dominator on RHS)

1
9. (b) (ii) Put t  in the result in (b)(i) (t  0 as  1,  2  0), we have
2
1  2
 1 
  1
 2  
(1   2 )1 2
1
 1  11 22
 
 2 
( 1   2 )1 2 (1   2 )1 2
  
  
(Multiply  21  2 to both the
1  2 1 2
1  21 2

numerator and the dominator on LHS)
1  2 1 2
 1   2     
    1  2
 1   2   1    2 

x1  x2  xn x1 x2 xn
 y  y2    y n  y  y  y 
9. (c) Let P(n) be the statement “  1    1   2    n  for any
 x1  x2    xn   x1   x2   xn 
positive real numbers x1, x2, …, xn and y1, y2, …, yn”.
When n  1,
x1
y 
LHS   1 
 x1 
 RHS
 P(1) is true.

~ 14 ~
Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

Assume P(k) is true for some positive integers k, i.e.
x1  x2  xk x1 x2 xk
 y1  y2    yk  y  y  y 
    1   2   k 
 x1  x2    xk   x1   x2   xk 
for any positive real numbers x1, x2, …, xk and y1, y2, …, yk.
When n  k  1, put
1  x1  x2    xk
  x
 2 k 1

 1  y1  y2    y k
  2  yk 1

in the result of (b)(ii) ( 1,  2,  1,  2  0 as xi, yi  0 for i  1, 2, …, k 1), we have
( x1  x2  xk )  xk 1 x1  x2  xk xk 1
 ( y1  y2    yk )  yk 1   y  y2    yk   yk 1 
   1   
 ( x1  x2    xk )  xk 1   x1  x2    xk   xk 1 
x1  x2  xk  xk 1 x1 x2 xk xk 1
 y1  y2    yk  yk 1  y  y  y  y 
     1   2    k   k 1 
 x1  x2    xk  xk 1   x1   x2   xk   xk 1 
(By induction assumption)
 P(k  1) is true.
By the principle of mathematical induction,
x1  x2  xn x1 x2 xn
 y1  y2    yn  y  y  y 
    1   2   n 
 x1  x2    xn   x1   x2   xn 
for any positive real numbers x1, x2, …, xn and y1, y2, …, yn for all positive integers n.

5 2 
10. (a) an  4  an  2   an 3  an  2   an  2
7 7 
55 2  5
  an  2  an 1   an  2
77 7  7
55  2 5
   1 an  2   an 1
77  7 7
2 5 2 2 
   an  2   an  2  an 
7 7 7 7 
2 5  2 2
    1 an  2   an
7 7  7 7
4
 (an  2  an )
49

~ 15 ~
Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

10. (b) (i) (1) For all n  N, we have
4
a2n  1  a2n  1  (a2 n 1  a2 n 3 ) (From (a))
49
4 4
  (a2 n3  a2 n5 ) (From (a))
49 49

n 1
 4 
   (a3  a1 ) (From (a))
 49 
n 1
 4   5 2  
   7 a2  7 a1   a1 
 49    
n 1
 4  5
   (a2  a1 )
 49  7
0 (a2  a1)
 a2n  1  a2n  1

10. (b) (i) (2) For all n  N, we have
4
a2n  2  a2n  (a2 n  a2 n 2 ) (From (a))
49
4 4
  (a2 n2  a2 n4 ) (From (a))
49 49

n 1
 4 
   (a4  a2 ) (From (a))
 49 
n 1
 4   5 2  
   7 a3  7 a2   a2 
 49    
n 1
 4  5
   (a3  a2 )
 49  7
n 1
 4  5  5 2  
    a2  a1   a2 
 49  7  7 7  
n 1
 4  5 2
    (a1  a2 )
 49  7 7
0 (a2  a1)
 a2n  2  a2n

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

10. (b) (i) (3) Method 1 Method 2
For all n  N, we have For all n  N, we have
5 2 5 2
a2n  1  a2 n  a2 n 1 a2n  a2 n 1  a2 n 2
7 7 7 7
5 2 5 2
 a2n  1  a2 n  a2 n 1  a2 n 1  a2 n
7 7 7 7
(From (b)(i)(1)) (From (b)(i)(2))
5 5 5 5
 a2 n 1  a2 n  a2 n  a2 n 1
7 7 7 7
 a2n  a2n  1  a2n  a2n  1

10. (b) (ii) Combine the results in (b)(i)(1), (b)(i)(2) and (b)(i)(3), we have
a1  a3  …  a2n  1  …  a2n  …  a4  a2
 {a2n  1} is monotonic increasing and bounded from above by a2.
{a2n} is monotonic decreasing and bounded from below by a1.
 Both lim a2n1 and lim a2n exist.
n n

10. (c) Define bn  an for all n  N. Then {bn} is a sequence with the following properties:
5 2
an  2  an 1  an a2  a1
7 7
5 2
 an  2  (an 1 )  (an )  a2  a1
7 7
5 2
 bn  2  bn 1  bn  b2  b1
7 7
 b2  b1
From (b)(ii), we have
Both lim b2n1 and lim b2n exist.
n n

 Both lim(a2n1 ) and lim(a2n ) exist.
n n

 Both lim a2n1 and lim a2n exist.
n n

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

(1  i tan  ) 7  (1  i tan  ) 7 (cos   i sin  ) 7  (cos   i sin  ) 7
11. (a) (i) 
(1  i tan  ) 7  (1  i tan  ) 7 (cos   i sin  ) 7  (cos   i sin  ) 7
(Multiply cos7  to both the numerator
and the dominator on RHS)
(cos   i sin  ) 7  [cos(  )  i sin(  )]7

(cos   i sin  ) 7  [cos(  )  i sin(  )]7
(cos 7  i sin 7 )  [cos(7 )  i sin(7 )]

(cos 7  i sin 7 )  [cos(7 )  i sin(7 )]
(By de Moivre’s Theorem)
(cos 7  i sin 7 )  (cos 7  i sin 7 )

(cos 7  i sin 7 )  (cos 7  i sin 7 )
2i sin 7

2 cos 7
 i tan 7

11. (a) (ii) Expand (1  i tan  )7, we have
(1  i tan  )7  C07  C17 (i tan  )  C27 (i tan  ) 2  C37 (i tan  )3  C47 (i tan  ) 4
C57 (i tan  )5  C67 (i tan  ) 6  C77 (i tan  ) 7
 1  7i tan   21tan2   35i tan3   35tan4 
 21i tan5   7tan6   i tan7 
 (1  21tan2   35tan4   7tan6  )
i (7tan   35tan3   21tan5   tan7  ) (*1)
(1  i tan  ) 7  (1  i tan  ) 7
i tan 7  (From (a)(i))
(1  i tan  ) 7  (1  i tan  ) 7
(1  i tan  ) 7  (1  i tan  ) 7

(1  i tan  ) 7  (1  i tan  ) 7
i Im[(1  i tan  )7 ]

Re[(1  i tan  )7 ]
i (7 tan   35 tan 3   21tan 5   tan 7  )
 (From (*1))
1  21tan 2   35 tan 4   7 tan 6 
tan 7   21tan 5   35 tan 3   7 tan 
 tan 7 
7 tan 6   35 tan 4   21tan 2   1

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

k
11. (b) Put   where k  1, 2, …, 6 into the result of (a)(ii), we have
7
k k k k
tan 7  21tan 5  35 tan 3  7 tan
7 7 7 7  tan  7  k 
k k k  
7 tan 6  35 tan 4  21tan 2 1  7 
7 7 7
 tan k
0
k k  k k
 tan 7  21tan 5  35 tan 3  7 tan 0
7 7 7 7
k k k k
 tan 6  21tan 4  35 tan 2 7  0 ( tan  0)
7 7 7 7
 2 6
Furthermore, tan , tan , …, tan are distinct.
7 7 7
 2 6
 The roots of the equation x6  21x4  35x4  7  0 are tan , tan , …, tan .
7 7 7

11. (c) (i) From (b) and the relation of roots, we have
2  3 4 5 6 7
tantan tan
tan tan tan 
7 7 7 7 7 7 1
 2 3 3 2 
 tan tan tan   tan   tan   tan  7
7 7 7 7 7 7
(tan (   )  tan  )
 2 3
 tan 2 tan 2 tan 2 7
7 7 7

11. (c) (ii) Method 1  By transforming the equation
k k k
Note that tan 6  21tan 4  35 tan 2  7  0 for k  1, 2, 3. (From (b))
7 7 7
 2 3
i.e. tan 2 , tan 2 , tan 2 satisfies the equation y3  21y2  35y  1  0.
7 7 7
 2 3
Furthermore, tan 2 , tan 2 , tan 2 are distinct.
7 7 7
 2 3
 tan 2 , tan 2 , tan 2 are the roots of the equation y3  21y2  35y  1  0.
7 7 7
From the relation of roots, we have
 2 3 21
tan 2  tan 2  tan 2 
7 7 7 1
 21

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Suggested solution for 2007 Pure Mathematics Paper 1 By Hinyu & Other Minians@miniforum
1st Edition, last updated on 21 April, 2007

Method 2  By using the original equation
From (b) and the relation of roots, we have
  6 2 5 3 4 
 tan 7 tan 7  tan 7 tan 7  tan 7 tan 7 
 
  tan  tan 5  tan 2 tan 4  tan 3 tan 6 
 7 7 7 7 7 7 
 
  tan  tan 4  tan 2 tan 6  tan 3 tan 5   21
 7 7 7 7 7 7  1
  2 2 3 3  
 tan tan  tan tan  tan tan 
 7 7 7 7 7 7 
 4 5 5 6 6 4 
  tan tan  tan tan  tan tan 
 7 7 7 7 7 7 

   2 2 3 3 
 tan 7   tan 7  tan 7   tan 7  tan 7   tan 7 
 
  tan    tan 2  tan 2   tan 3  tan 3   tan  
 7 7 7 7 7 7
 
   tan    tan 3  tan 2   tan   tan 3   tan 2   21
 7 7 7 7 7 7  1
  2 2 3 3  
  tan tan  tan tan  tan tan 
 7 7 7 7 7 7 
 3 2 2   3 
  tan   tan  tan   tan  tan   tan 
 7 7 7 7 7 7 
(tan (   )  tan  )
 2 3 21
  tan 2  tan 2
 tan 2 
7 7 7 1
 2 3
 tan 2  tan 2  tan 2  21
7 7 7

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