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Nanovertenergie
A Proposal on Nanotechnology Based Green Energy Solutions

Objective: To provide Nanotechnology based solutions for Solar cells & Fuel Cells and to study reliability
implications and intricate modeling analysis of such devices for rapid commercialization.

Brief Synopsis: This project studies the current problems in Energy from Solar & Fuel cells and proposes
nanotechnology based solutions. In this proposal we have described about the current progress in this area and
our past works. MEMS enabled fuel cells are poised to be far for beneficial than the current counterparts, and
likewise Quantum dots based Solar cells holds the future. We have not only made a technical but also studies
market and implications of introducing Nano enabled green cells. In our work we have published on modeling,
reliability, MEMS etc aspects of solutions for various technologies and also we presented our business idea
regarding this plan in various international business events in IITs so we have the experience to deliver in this
regard.

INTRODUCTION
The world has seen immense research and developments in areas of nanotechnology and use the results in green
energy is an areas which has not been implanted fruitfully due to many told an untold reasons. The funding in Nanotechnology
has been increased to manifolds in the last 5 years but use of the research in a pragmatic way to solve problems across the
domains related to the study still lacks. Solar cells and fuel cells have benefited from these research but the implications are not
reflected in today’s products. Thin film nanotechnology, research in MEMS and NEMS are areas that hold the key for green cell
based technologies. Governments across the Globe are becoming serious about Green renewable sources of energy. There are
many challenges on incorporating these HI-Tech things in a global scenario because in the age of globalization there exists some
advantages and disadvantages. Also there is a monopoly of many giants in some areas which needs to counter with some smart
strategy. The idea that makes our project exclusive is that Nanotechnology needs to be linked with current computation as well
as characterization techniques. And the different structure of research culture in India which makes a gap between research
and business will be tackled by some novel ways.
In India, development of fuel cells is primarily supported by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES).
Several universities and research organizations are involved in the areas of fuel cells, reformers, and hydrogen storage. Work on
developing a DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) is underway at IISc (Indian Institute of Science). In addition, research on SOFC is
being done at IISc and CGCRI (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute). Research and development on metal hydride
storage is ongoing at BHU (Banaras Hindu University) [14]. Vehicular fuel technology can be derived from greener sources such
as fuel cells. The power requirement of bikes and scooters is relatively small and could easily be met by Direct Methanol Fuel
Cells (DMFCs) or hydrogen-powered Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. There is currently some discussion as to
whether DMFC should be the initial route for India, followed by hydrogen-fuelled PEM units for transport in the longer term.
Organizations intensively involved in fuel cells are mainly in the New Delhi which is a home to various fuel cell companies and
R&D organizations and India’s most industrialized state Maharashtra which includes manufacturing centers such as Mumbai
where major fuel cell activities take place. Thus seeing the prospects in purview of these developments in the contemporary
Indian scenario we have developed models of Green Cells and plan to expand them and get patents from the results. Our
papers have been published in international conferences regarding this matter and are being communicated in peer reviewed
international journals.

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Cite as : Satydhar Joshi, "Research Proposal Report " [Online document], 2009 June09, Available HTTP: http://www.nanotechbiz.org
Commercial
Distributor/marketer
8% Government/Association
41% 15%
Infrastructure
8%
Manufacturer
12%
Integrator
8%
4% 4% Material supplier
Research and Development

ORGANIZATION, BY TYPE FOR FUEL CELLS INNOVATIONS

As shown in the above figures we can see the developments and distributions of areas in fuel cell. The statistics though are
from June 2007 it provides some overview of the direction fuel cell industry is going. In [16] the present companies and states
leading in fuel cell research are given.

Karnataka

8% Tamil Nadu
13% 13%
13% Maharashtra

21% 32% New Delhi

Uttar Pradesh

West Bengal

ORGANIZATIONS, BY REGION (FUEL CELL RESEARCH [16])
Automotive

21% Hatorage

51% 14% Large atationary

7%
Portable
7%
Small atationary

APPLICATION SPECIFIC AREAS OF FUEL CELLS [16]

NANOTECHNOLOGY IN GREEN ENERGY (WHAT’S EXCLUSIVE ABOUT THIS IDEA)
Implications of development of Nanotechnology based green cells have been discussed in [1-12]. Where we have
proposed modeling and reliability aspects of MEMS based Green Cells and multi scale modeling of Solar. Specific perspective on
the challenges in Fuel Cell Technology has been illustrated in [13]. Multi Scale and Super Computing has its application in Green
Energy using Nanotechnology. Also the application of quantum dots in solar cells has been practically realized thereby making
this area feasible and applicable. There are many challenges on incorporating these hi tech things in a global scenario because
in the age of globalization there exist some advantages and disadvantages. Also there is a monopoly of many giants in some
areas which needs to counter with some smart strategy. The idea that makes our plan exclusive is that Nanotechnology needs
to be linked with current computation as well as characterization techniques. And the different structure of research culture in
India which makes a gap between research and business will be tackled by some novel ways.
For starting the work in this area we need to understand the importance of simulation and computational technologies in
emerging areas. Also the current status of research needs to be studied. The current research in place like IITs has been
observed during the lab visits in the last 3 years [16-21]. With regards to these requirements we have visited the labs of IITs and
have hands on experience with MATLAB, Coventerware Multi-physics etc. Similar startups on software simulation for
Nanotechnology exist from a long time, but a comprehensive approach lacks in this area. Our research publications are an asset
to us where we have worked on virtually all software available in this area so we have all the experience to give results in true
time on this project.

SURVEY
A part of survey has been done in the last few years, which includes lab visits in IITs. Survey on current facilities
showed that the gap between research and product exists which can be filled by managing the things well. This startup was also
present in Showcases in world level forums and had gone in mentoring sessions. Thus the basic starting has been given. Thus
this area has been a strengthened over a period of time.

MARKET SEGMENTATION (PREDICTIVE AND ESTIMATION)
Market Analysis
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Potential Customers Growth CAGR
Fuel Cell Customers 30% 50 65 85 111 144 30.27%
Solar Cells Customers 30% 100 130 169 220 286 30.04%
Research Academia 10% 200 220 242 266 293 10.02%
Total 19.89% 350 415 496 597 723 19.89%

Fuel Cell Customers
Solar Cells Customers
Research Academia

Market explanation of fuel and solar cells has been explained in this section. Currently we have made a data base of the list of
companies which are working in these areas. The database comes under our IP which has been developed over time. We have
listed the companies which are working in this area and India that may act as not only as customers but also good for
collaboration. Beside this we have also worked out the market that comprises of common people who are purchasing solar
cells. The above statistics are based on Clean Edge research [24] represents the market analysis. The statistics are for world
though but it gives a rough idea of the technology that is expected to come. Our study of Indian markets is based on the earlier
reports. With the talks with many people including emails and telephonic surveys we can project the market of fuel cells and
solar cells are as follows.
Rural India if powered from solar energy can contribute a major to GDP and be independent of government based
power structure rural India is one or the untapped markets, energy converts into running water pumps , running automobiles
(fuel cells) , running electronics which are the major needs of rural and urban India. Reducing oil imports and creating jobs using
alternative energy is the key advantage of our plan because the money saved from non renewable energy will create jobs as
well as clean energy. Our market includes companies that plan to use nano enabled fuel cells and also our software solutions
for companies working fuel cells and solar cells. We have listed all the Indian companies which can be our potential
customers/partners. There are few fuel cell companies in India and fuel cell apps can be divide in top portable and non portable
requirements in a product or company. We have targeted 25 solar cell companies and 5 fuel cell companies initially to target for
the first phase of our plan; our income would be from a spectrum of areas. Automobile industry would be shifting to fuel cells
but they need to make the right choice for their case specific applications, also cost reduction and reliability can be solved only
by nanotech enabled solutions which open s a new market and adds another dimension in this area. We have also focused on
developing nations to be our market. Electronics industry would be using portable NANO-enabled fuel cells. We have studied
and compile d the areas which can possibly be outsourced to us. We will Hyderabad as our market base.
Projected Growth

15.6
Fuel Cells
1.4

34.6
Solar Power
15.6

60.8
Wind Power
17.9
2016
80.9 2006
BioFuels
20.5

226.5
Total
55.4

0 50 100 150 200 250
$US Billions
MARKET REPORT OF CLEAN TECH REVOLUTION [24]

SALES STRATEGY
Sales forecast being done if the product comes out in this area are based on some research that been done in this area. There is
a unique way about how we plan to distribute our work in the project for attaining the targets. Sales have been given assuming
we implement a business plan for the idea. The things that make our group more interesting than other groups are that we
have got an irreversible and strong policy on IP which is our strength. Also the research in technology and our understanding of
technology is unique. The complex aspects have been covered in the calculation that includes increase in team members,
implementing the three phases at right months at periods for the project, etc. The strategy for sales remains simple, get rich IP
and collaborations and develop the most sophisticated technology which can be easily converted into products.

PROPOSED SOLUTIONS FOR N ANOTECHNOLOGY BASED GREEN ENERGY SOLUTIONS
Implications of development of Nanotechnology based green cells have been discussed in [6]. Where we have proposed
modeling and reliability aspects of MEMS based Green Cells and multi scale modeling of Solar cells which is being
communicated for publication. India-specific perspective on the challenges in Fuel Cell Technology has been illustrated in [13].
Multi Scale and HPC in Green Energy solutions using Nanotechnology is important as the application of quantum dots in solar
cells has been practically realized thereby making this area feasible.
 Multi Scale Modeling of Nano enabled Cells: In our last work we have sown how important it is to predict the
properties of Nano Solar cells by the use of multi scale modeling (1-12)

 Application of MEMS and CNT for Fuel cells and Solar cells: In our previous work we have shown the application of
MEMS technologies for membrane and anode modeling of Fuel cells (IEEE Xplore 1-12)

 Reliability and Packaging analysis of MEMS devices integrated in Fuel Cell: We have been working on reliability of
MEMS devices and their application to Fuel cells (ACM DL 1-12)

We want to get into Green Nano Cell manufacturing unit in India for our specific needs and also will setup or collaborate with
characterization and modeling lab for Nano enabled Green cells. Currently research in fuel cells is facing many challenges in
commercialization and Nanotechnology can provide some very realistic solutions that may enable rapid commercialization of
Green Nano cells. We will initiate with modeling area specific green cells for case to case scenarios. We have shown modeling of
Green Nano Cells in [1-12]. Modeling can help us to facilitate integration of nano-enabled green cells in various areas. We have
analyzed the market of fuel and solar cells in India in a comprehensive manner. Potential customers and growth includes not
only mechanical but portable applications too. The solar cell with Nanotech enabled modeling and simulation is proving more
efficient and will see application in wide domains. We have surveyed the present companies to whom we can provide the
services. We have discerned and analyzed the integration of fuel cells for present times. We have surveyed the present
companies working in developing green products. Our software prototype includes

Modeling Library- This is the main library for modeling of CNT, MEMS and other Nano-scale device based Fuel Cell and
materials. A model in nano-technology is a physical, mathematical, or logical representation of a system of entities,
phenomena, or processes occurring at nano level. Basically a model is a simplified abstract view of the complex reality. It
consists of modules and functions which will allow easy designing of many complex Nano-scale devices and parts used in Fuel
Cell. It allows making of formalized interpretations dealing with empirical entities, phenomenon, and physical processes
occurring at nano level in a mathematical or logical way. It is based on "divide and conquer" principle to handle complex
problems. XNA framework is used for graphical programming required in this library. This library allows to view models in a 3-
Dimensional view and to change parameters of the device or material with an interactive Graphical User Interface (GUI). It
allows the visualization of 3D models of devices and their structure according to the specified parameter of the device or
material, which further helps in understanding of the device.
Simulation Library-This is the main library for simulation of CNT, MEMS and other nano-scale device based Fuel Cell and
materials. It attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular nano level system. An external math library is used for
complex computations involved in simulation and computations of nano-scale phenomenon. This library is used along with
modeling library to simulate the devices and materials made using the modeling library.

IMPLEMENTATION
For starting the work in this area we need to understand the importance of simulation and computational technologies in
emerging areas. Also the current status of research needs to be studied. The current research in place like IITs has been
observed during the lab visits in the last 3 years [16-21]. With regards to these requirements we have visited the labs of IITs and
have hands on experience with MATLAB, Coventerware Multi-physics etc.
Thus we plan to provide some realistic solution that may enable realization of Green Nano cells and help us to commercialize
this technology by working on packaging and reliability. We plan to fill this vacuum because it is poised to see rapid growth.
Preliminary work in prototype has been shown above in this work. Also the strong technical team is one of the assets of this
project.
Rural India if powered from solar energy can contribute a major to GDP and be independent of government based power
structure rural India is one or the untapped markets, energy converts into running water pumps , running automobiles (fuel
cells) , running electronics which are the major needs of rural and urban India. Reducing oil imports and creating jobs using
alternative energy is the key advantage of our plan because the money saved from non renewable energy will create jobs as
well as clean energy. Our market includes companies that plan to use nano enabled fuel cells and also our software solutions
for companies working fuel cells and solar cells. We have listed all the Indian companies which can be our potential
customers/partners. There are few fuel cell companies in India and fuel cell apps can be divide in top portable and non portable
requirements in a product or company. We have targeted 25 solar cell companies and 5 fuel cell companies initially to target for
the first phase of our plan; our income would be from a spectrum of areas. Automobile industry would be shifting to fuel cells
but they need to make the right choice for their case specific applications, also cost reduction and reliability can be solved only
by nanotech enabled solutions which open s a new market and adds another dimension in this area. Electronics industry would
be using portable NANO-enabled fuel cells. We have studied and compiled the areas which can possibly be outsourced to us
during the project.

IMPLICATION OF OUR PROJECT AND ITS PRACTICAL UTILITY
Energy will solve many needs of agriculture and renewable energy is the need of the country. With our plan we can get cheap
and high products for our rural as well as industrial usages. Our plan not only creates energy but job opportunities for all
sectors. As per our forecast there would be considerable job creation in the sector with 10,000 indirect in 3 years. The challenge
of nano enabled manufacturing will create immense jobs in this area. Saving the foreign revenues by reducing oil imports that
will be added benefit to the nation. India will need green energy in the upcoming years which is needed to reduce pollution and
sustain over 10% GDP. Our plan covers solutions to all these problems from rural to environmental to jobs creation. The
advantage we have is that green energy is slowly replacing oil based technologies because they are more reliable and make the
community independent of oil supplies.

REFERENCES (REPORTS)
PUBLICATIONS IN RELATED AREAS OF AUTHORS
[1] Satyadhar Joshi, Rohit Pathak, and Salman Ahmed, "Wireless Sensor Network: Simulink Modeling and Reliability of Nano-Nodes," 2nd
International Workshop on Electron Devices and Semiconductor Technology (IEDST 2009), June 1-2, 2009, Indian Institute of Technology
Bombay, Mumbai, India.
[2] Rohit Pathak, Satyadhar Joshi, “'Multi Scale Modeling of Nano Enable Solar cell With Implementation on an HPC Setup,” IEEE Symposium on
Industrial Electronics & Applications (ISIEA 2009), October 2009.
[3] Rohit Pathak, Satyadhar Joshi, “RFID : Recent Prospectus and commercial applications,” International Conference On Security and Identity
Management (SIM) – 2009, Sponsored by Research Council of UK (RCUK), May 11-12, 2009.
[4] Rohit Pathak, Satyadhar Joshi, “Modeling and Reliability Analysis of MEMS Based Fuel Cells,” IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics &
Applications (ISIEA 2009), October 2009.
[5] Satyadhar Joshi, Rohit Pathak and Salman Ahmed, , "MATLAB Modeling of HDD in light of the Advances in Nanotechnology and MEMS-based
Innovations," Conference on Innovative Technologies in Intelligent Systems & Industrial Applications, (CITISIA2009), July 2009.
[6] Rohit Pathak, Satyadhar Joshi, “Solar Cells and Fuel Cells modeling under light of current Innovations in Nanotechnology and HPC,” 2009
IEEE Conference on Sustainable Alternative Energy, September 2009.
[7+ Rohit Pathak, Satyadhar Joshi, “Optimizing Reliability Analysis of MEMS Devices on an HPC Setup using Multi-Scale Modeling” Internation
Conference on Software Technology & Engineering ICSTE2009 Organized by the International Association of Computer Science & Information
Technology (June 2009).
[8] Satyadhar Joshi, Rohit Pathak and Salman Ahmed, , "MPI and PVM based HPC Setup for Multi Scale Modeling," IEEE International Advance
Computing Conference (IACC’09) Indexed in IEEE Explore (Communicated ).
[9] Satyadhar Joshi, Rohit Pathak, "Distributive Computing for reliability analysis of MEMS devices using MATLAB," ACM International
Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication and Control, ICAC3, pp. 237, January 23-24 2009. Published and Indexed in ACM DL
[10 Rohit Pathak, Satyadhar Joshi, “Modeling Nano Enabled Elements of Solar Cells and Fuel Cells,” Conference on Innovative Technologies in
Intelligent Systems & Industrial Applications, (CITISIA2009), July 2009.
[11] Rohit Pathak, Satyadhar Joshi “Multi-Scale Modeling of Nano Enabled Solar Cell,” International Conference on Issues and Challenges in
Energy Conservation and Management (December 2009).
[12] Rohit Pathak, Satyadhar Joshi “Modeling MEMS Based Fuel Cell with Reliability & Multi-Scale Analysis,” International Conference on Issues
and Challenges in Energy Conservation and Management (December 2009).
EXTERNAL REFERENCES CITED
[13] Jonathan Butler, "Fuel Cells in India: A survey of current developments," Fuel Cell Today, June 2007.
[14] Economic Times Article on India green spending retrieved 28 Jan 2009
[15] www.nanotechbiz.org
WORKSHOPS PROCEEDINGS REFERRED
[16]Proceedings on Course on Conventorware (MEMS design) - Coventorware MEMS design. BITS Pilani, 2007. 3 day course on MEMS Design
on Coventorware
[17] Proceedings of Workshop on Nanotech Status and challenges - IIT Delhi. IIT Delhi, 2007.
[18] Proceedings of Workshop on MEMS - Mech Engg IITB. IIT Bombay, 2007.
[19] Proceedings of Workshop on CNT - IIT Madras, 2006 to 2006. Workshop on Nanotechnology and CNT, Fabrication of CNT and Physics of
CNT
[20] Theoretical Study on CNT - Centre for Advanced Technology Indore. CAT Indore, 2007. Worked and Studied CNT and MEMS (theoretical)
*21+ NSTC Noida “Nanotechnology sensitization program”. Project on Nanoelectronics submitted in 2006
[22] Microsoft Research Grant 2008
REPORTS CITED
*23+“Renewable energy in India” Indian Renewable Energy Development Ltd., Government of India, Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy
Sources
*24+Ron Pernick and Clint Wilder, “The Clean Tech,” RevolutionThe next Big Growth and Investment Opportunity, Harper Collins e-books
*25+“Commercializing solar photovoltaics: India” Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA), Vol. 8: Examples of successful
uses of renewable energy sources in the South
*26+Graham Weaver, “World Fuel Cells: An industry profile with Market Prospects to 2010,” Elsevier Advanced Technology, December 2002.
Appendix

EXPECTED SALES FORECAST FOR A COMPANY STARTING BUSINESS IN GREEN ENERGY NANO ARE GIVEN BELOW
Sales Forecast
FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012
Sales
Consultancies $120,000 $140,000 $180,000
Software $0 $100,000 $200,000
Hardware $0 $0 $180,000
Total Sales $120,000 $240,000 $560,000

Direct Cost of Sales FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012
Salary $40,000 $50,000 $60,000
Rent $8,000 $10,000 $12,000
Lab $8,000 $10,000 $12,000
Travel $8,001 $10,000 $12,000
Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales $64,001 $80,000 $96,000

FORECAST OF OUR COMPANY ( ESTIMATION )

Fuel Cell Sales (2005 - 2010)
1200

1000

800

$US Millions 600 2005
2010
400

200

0

Product Category

SALES FORECAST BY WORLD FUEL CELLS AN INDUSTRY PROFILE WITH MARKET PROSPECTS TO 2010 [26]
In the above figure, the forecasted sales are given from World Fuel Cells an Industry Profile with Market Prospects to 2010 thus
the sales aspects are covered in this work.

Table 1

Photovoltaic power use in India – March 2002
Particulars Portable Home Street Water Power Telecom Others Exports
Lighting Lighting Lighting Pumps Plants

Power in 4.4 7.0 3.2 5.9 3.0 16.0 16.0 40.0
Megawatts
REPORT ON INDIAN USAGE [23]
Table 2

Systems procured under the Solar PV Market Development Program
Type of Unit Number
Solar lanterns 39,000

Solar home lighting systems 3,602

Solar street lighting systems 1,016

Grid interactive solar power plants 344

Garden lighting systems 349

Solar water pumping systems 86

Stand-alone solar power plants 8

Others 33

Total 44,438

COMMERCIALIZING SOLAR PHOTO VOLTAICS INDIA [25]

In commercializing solar photo voltaic [25] a comprehensive report is given about this area. The figure shown above describes
Photovoltaic power use in India – March 2002. Renewable energy in India at a glance is given in [23], which has been given in
figure above.